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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:
1. The concept of organization roles;
2. The concept of organizing;
3. What are the types of organization?
4. The concept of organization
Organizational Roles
Organizational roles are the part or position that a person is assigned in the organization, for
example the role of manager sales or your role as a student. People will cooperate effectively in
organizations if they know the part they have to play in the organizations i.e. if they know their roles in the
Following are the requirement of organizational goals:
1. Clear objectives; People must know the objectives that they have to achieve clearly, student must
know their objectives.
2. Clear idea of duties or activities: People must know their duties and activities that they must
perform. E.g., student duties are to study, be disciplined
3. Clear area of authority: In organization people must know the extent of authority that they have.
What is Organizing
Organizing means that there should be clear line of authority and all should know who reports to
whom. Following are the main steps in organizing:
1) Classification of activities: First all activities in organization must be classified i.e. activities similar
in nature should be identified separately.
2) Grouping of activities to achieve objectives: Similar activities should be grouped.
3) Assigning a manager to each group of activities: A manager should be assigned
4) Coordination of group of activities both horizontally and vertically:
Coordination means the interrelationship among activities.
Now we have talked about concepts of `roles' and `organizing', we will connect these two concepts
with the concept of organization. Organization means a formalized intentional structure of roles and
positions. Here we refer to organization as a structure in which people work. E.g., school is organization.
Types of Organization
Organizations can be categorized into following types:
1. Formal Organizations
2. Informal Organizations
Formal Organizations
Formal organizations mean the intentional structure of roles in a formally organized enterprise. The
structures are created by people to achieve certain defined goals. The formal organizations could be
hospitals, schools, Water and Power Development authority (WAPDA).
Informal Organizations
A network of personal and social relations not established or required by the formal organization
but arising spontaneously as people associate with each other is called informal organization. The example
of informal organization is friendship within the organization amongst people working at various levels.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
The figure below illustrates the concept of formal and informal organization. While the formal organization
is the people working who are assigned roles and given a position in a box. There are four levels in an
organization and the straight lines show formal structure. However the irregular lines show informal
relationship or informal structure.
Formal Org.
Informal Org.
Organizational Levels and Span of Management
Organizational levels exist because there is a limit to the number of persons a manager can
supervise effectively, even though this limit varies depending on situations. Organizational span, therefore,
means the number of people a manager can supervise. It is generally believed that a number of people that a
manager can effectively supervise are between 7 and 10. But this is a not a principle.
While span refers to number of people a person can supervise organizational level refers to "ties"
or level. In the figure-2 horizontal arrow indicate span and vertical arrow shows the organizational level. In
figure-1 the organizational level are shown by numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Organizational Span
Principle of Span of Control
There is a limit to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise, but the exact
number will depend on the impact of the following:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Factors Determining an Effective Span
Training of subordinates: The more trained and experience the employees, the less supervision they
require, and therefore, the manager can supervise more employees.
Clear delegation of authority: Delegation of authority means to give part of authority to
subordinate. Thus, if managers can delegate authority clear to each subordinate being supervised;
more employees can be brought under supervision.
Clarity of plans: When the plans are clearly understood by the employees, the manager can
supervise more people.
Use of objective standards to determine whether employees are following plans
Rate of change
Communication techniques
Amount of personal contact Needed
Variation by organization level
Personal abilities of managers
Need for balance
One way of grouping activities is establishing `department'. A department is a distinct area, division,
or branch of organization over which manager has authority for performance of specified activities.
Grouping activities and people into departments makes it possible to expand organizations to an
indefinite degree.
Types of Departmentalization
By Number
By Time
By Function
By Geography
By Production
By Customer
a  formalized  institutional  structure  that  shows
relationship amongst "organization role"
Organizational roles:
the position that each person is assigned in the
organization, for example a peon, manager sales, deputy
secretary training etc. Each role has specific task to
Formal organization:
the structure of the organization as is indicated in figure
1. But the formal structure is the relationship between
straight lines.
Informal organization:
it can be organization of informal relationship that
people in organization have beyond the formal
relationship. This is shown in figure1 in irregular line.
Span of organization:
is the number of people a manager can supervise.
Organizational level:
it refers to levels in the organization and relates to
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management