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Database Management Systems

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Database Management System (CS403)
Lecture No. 38
Reading Material
"Database Systems Principles, Design and Implementation" written by Catherine Ricardo,
Maxwell Macmillan.
"Database Management System" by Jeffery A Hoffer
Overview of Lecture
Clustered Versus Un-clustered Indexes
Dense Verses Sparse Indexes
Primary and Secondary Indexes
Indexes Using Composite Search Keys
In the previous lecture we studied about what the indexes are and what is the need for
creating an index. There exist a number of index types which are important and are
helpful for the file organization in database environments for the storage of files on
Ordered Indices
In order to allow fast random access, an index structure may be used.
A file may have several indices on different search keys.
If the file containing the records is sequentially ordered, the index whose search key
specifies the sequential order of the file is the primary index, or clustering index.
Note: The search key of a primary index is usually the primary key, but it is not
necessarily so.
Indices whose search key specifies an order different from the sequential order of the
file are called the secondary indices, or nonclustering indices.
Clustered Indexes
A clustered index determines the storage order of data in a table. A clustered index is
analogous to a telephone directory, which arranges data by last name. Because the
clustered index dictates the physical storage order of the data in the table, a table can
contain only one clustered index. However, the index can comprise multiple columns
(a composite index), like the way a telephone directory is organized by last name and
first name.
A clustered index is particularly efficient on columns often searched for ranges of
values. Once the row with the first value is found using the clustered index, rows with
subsequent indexed values are guaranteed to be physically adjacent. For example, if
an application frequently executes a query to retrieve records between a range of dates,
a clustered index can quickly locate the row containing the beginning date, and then
retrieve all adjacent rows in the table until the last date is reached. This can help
increase the performance of this type of query. Also, if there is a column(s) which is
used frequently to sort the data retrieved from a table, it can be advantageous to
Database Management System (CS403)
cluster (physically sort) the table on that column(s) to save the cost of a sort each time
the column(s) is queried.
Clustered indexes are also efficient for finding a specific row when the indexed value
is unique. For example, the fastest way to find a particular employee using the unique
employee ID column emp_id would be to create a clustered index or PRIMARY
KEY constraint on the emp_id column.
Note PRIMARY KEY constraints create clustered indexes automatically if no
clustered index already exists on the table and a nonclustered index is not specified
when you create the PRIMARY KEY constraint.
Alternatively, a clustered index could be created on lname, fname (last name, first
name), because employee records are often grouped and queried that way rather than
by employee ID.
Non-clustered Indexes
Nonclustered indexes have the same B-tree structure as clustered indexes, with two
significant differences:
The data rows are not sorted and stored in order based on their nonclustered keys.
The leaf layer of a nonclustered index does not consist of the data pages.
Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows. Each index row contains the nonclustered
key value and one or more row locators that point to the data row (or rows if the index
is not unique) having the key value.
Nonclustered indexes can be defined on either a table with a clustered index or a heap.
In Microsoft® SQL ServerTM version 7.0, the row locators in nonclustered index rows
have two forms:
If the table is a heap (does not have a clustered index), the row locator is a pointer to
the row. The pointer is built from the file ID, page number, and number of the row on
the page. The entire pointer is known as a Row ID.
If the table does have a clustered index, the row locator is the clustered index key for
the row. If the clustered index is not a unique index, SQL Server 7.0 adds an internal
value to duplicate keys to make them unique. This value is not visible to users; it is
used to make the key unique for use in nonclustered indexes. SQL Server retrieves the
data row by searching the clustered index using the clustered index key stored in the
leaf row of the nonclustered index.
Because nonclustered indexes store clustered index keys as their row locators, it is
important to keep clustered index keys as small as possible. Do not choose large
columns as the keys to clustered indexes if a table also has nonclustered indexes.
Dense and Sparse Indices
There are Two types of ordered indices:
Dense Index:
An index record appears for every search key value in file.
This record contains search key value and a pointer to the actual record.
Sparse Index:
Index records are created only for some of the records.
To locate a record, we find the index record with the largest search key value less than
or equal to the search key value we are looking for.
We start at that record pointed to by the index record, and proceed along the pointers
in the file (that is, sequentially) until we find the desired record.
Dense indices are faster in general, but sparse indices require less space and impose
less maintenance for insertions and deletions.
We can have a good compromise by having a sparse index with one entry per block. It
has several advantages.
Database Management System (CS403)
Biggest cost is in bringing a block into main memory.
We are guaranteed to have the correct block with this method, unless record is on an
overflow block (actually could be several blocks).
Index size still small.
Multi-Level Indices
Even with a sparse index, index size may still grow too large. For 100,000 records, 10
per block, at one index record per block, that's 10,000 index records! Even if we can
fit 100 index records per block, this is 100 blocks.
If index is too large to be kept in main memory, a search results in several disk reads.
If there are no overflow blocks in the index, we can use binary search.
This will read as many as
blocks (as many as 7 for our 100 blocks).
If index has overflow blocks, then sequential search typically used, reading all b
index blocks.
Use binary search on outer index. Scan index block found until correct index record
found. Use index record as before - scan block pointed to for desired record.
For very large files, additional levels of indexing may be required.
Indices must be updated at all levels when insertions or deletions require it.
Frequently, each level of index corresponds to a unit of physical storage (e.g. indices
at the level of track, cylinder and disk).
Two-level sparse index.
Index Update
Regardless of what form of index is used, every index must be updated whenever a
record is either inserted into or deleted from the file.
Find (look up) the record
If the last record with a particular search key value, delete that search key value from
Database Management System (CS403)
For dense indices, this is like deleting a record in a file.
For sparse indices, delete a key value by replacing key value's entry in index by next
search key value. If that value already has an index entry, delete the entry.
Find place to insert.
Dense index: insert search key value if not present.
Sparse index: no change unless new block is created. (In this case, the first search key
value appearing in the new block is inserted into the index).
Secondary Indices
If the search key of a secondary index is not a candidate key, it is not enough to point
to just the first record with each search-key value because the remaining records with
the same search-key value could be anywhere in the file. Therefore, a secondary index
must contain pointers to all the records.
Sparse secondary index on sname.
We can use an extra-level of indirection to implement secondary indices on search
keys that are not candidate keys. A pointer does not point directly to the file but to a
bucket that contains pointers to the file.
See Figure above on secondary key sname.
To perform a lookup on Peterson, we must read all three records pointed to by entries
in bucket 2.
Only one entry points to a Peterson record, but three records need to be read.
As file is not ordered physically by cname, this may take 3 block accesses.
Secondary indices must be dense, with an index entry for every search-key value, and
a pointer to every record in the file.
Secondary indices improve the performance of queries on non-primary keys.
They also impose serious overhead on database modification: whenever a file is
updated, every index must be updated.
Designer must decide whether to use secondary indices or not.
Indexes Using Composite Search Keys
The search key for an index can contain several fields; such keys are called composite
search keys or concatenated keys. As an example, consider a collection of employee
records, with fields name, age, and sal, stored in sorted order by name. Figure below
illustrates the difference between a composite index with key (age, sal) and a
Database Management System (CS403)
composite index with key (sal, age), an index with key age, and an index with key sal.
All indexes which are shown in the figure use Alternative (2) for data entries.
If the search key is composite, an equality query is one in which each field in the
search key is bound to a constant. For example, we can ask to retrieve all data entries
with age = 20 and sal = 10. The hashed file organization supports only equality
queries, since a hash function identifies the bucket containing desired records only if a
value is specified for each field in the search key. A range query is one in which not
all fields in the search key are bound to constants. For example, we can ask to retrieve
all data entries with age = 20; this query implies that any value is acceptable for the
sal field. As another example of a range query, we can ask to retrieve all data entries
with age < 30 and sal > 40.
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction to Databases and Traditional File Processing Systems
  2. Advantages, Cost, Importance, Levels, Users of Database Systems
  3. Database Architecture: Level, Schema, Model, Conceptual or Logical View:
  4. Internal or Physical View of Schema, Data Independence, Funct ions of DBMS
  5. Database Development Process, Tools, Data Flow Diagrams, Types of DFD
  6. Data Flow Diagram, Data Dictionary, Database Design, Data Model
  7. Entity-Relationship Data Model, Classification of entity types, Attributes
  8. Attributes, The Keys
  9. Relationships:Types of Relationships in databases
  10. Dependencies, Enhancements in E-R Data Model. Super-type and Subtypes
  11. Inheritance Is, Super types and Subtypes, Constraints, Completeness Constraint, Disjointness Constraint, Subtype Discriminator
  12. Steps in the Study of system
  13. Conceptual, Logical Database Design, Relationships and Cardinalities in between Entities
  14. Relational Data Model, Mathematical Relations, Database Relations
  15. Database and Math Relations, Degree of a Relation
  16. Mapping Relationships, Binary, Unary Relationship, Data Manipulation Languages, Relational Algebra
  17. The Project Operator
  18. Types of Joins: Theta Join, Equi–Join, Natural Join, Outer Join, Semi Join
  19. Functional Dependency, Inference Rules, Normal Forms
  20. Second, Third Normal Form, Boyce - Codd Normal Form, Higher Normal Forms
  21. Normalization Summary, Example, Physical Database Design
  23. Physical Record and De-normalization, Partitioning
  24. Vertical Partitioning, Replication, MS SQL Server
  25. Rules of SQL Format, Data Types in SQL Server
  26. Categories of SQL Commands,
  27. Alter Table Statement
  28. Select Statement, Attribute Allias
  29. Data Manipulation Language
  30. ORDER BY Clause, Functions in SQL, GROUP BY Clause, HAVING Clause, Cartesian Product
  31. Inner Join, Outer Join, Semi Join, Self Join, Subquery,
  32. Application Programs, User Interface, Forms, Tips for User Friendly Interface
  33. Designing Input Form, Arranging Form, Adding Command Buttons
  34. Data Storage Concepts, Physical Storage Media, Memory Hierarchy
  35. File Organizations: Hashing Algorithm, Collision Handling
  36. Hashing, Hash Functions, Hashed Access Characteristics, Mapping functions, Open addressing
  37. Index Classification
  38. Ordered, Dense, Sparse, Multi-Level Indices, Clustered, Non-clustered Indexes
  39. Views, Data Independence, Security, Vertical and Horizontal Subset of a Table
  40. Materialized View, Simple Views, Complex View, Dynamic Views
  41. Updating Multiple Tables, Transaction Management
  42. Transactions and Schedules, Concurrent Execution, Serializability, Lock-Based Concurrency Control, Deadlocks
  43. Incremental Log with Deferred, Immediate Updates, Concurrency Control
  44. Serial Execution, Serializability, Locking, Inconsistent Analysis
  45. Locking Idea, DeadLock Handling, Deadlock Resolution, Timestamping rules