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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 32
OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Elements of Workplace Safety and Health
LESSON OVERVIEW
We begin this chapter by describing the nature and role of safety and health and provide an overview of the
Occupational Safety and Health Act. Organizations realize the importance of social responsibility and that
safe organizations are more effective organizations. Moreover, the law requires that the workplace be safe
and free of health hazards. Thus, many firms seek to provide a workplace environment that is safe and
healthy. This chapter presents workplace safety and health in detail. First, it deals with the legal issues of
workplace safety and health. Second, it presents a variety of contemporary safety and health issues. Finally,
the chapter evaluates programs designed to maintain employee safety and health.
A. Elements of Workplace Safety and Health
Safety: Involves protecting employees from injuries due to work-related accidents.
Health: Refers to the employees' freedom from physical or emotional illness.
Safety programs may be designed to accomplish their purposes in two primary ways. The first approach is
to create a psychological environment and attitudes that promote safety. A strong company policy
emphasizing safety and health is crucial. The second approach to safety program design is to develop and
maintain a safe physical working environment.
 Physical Conditions: Conditions resulting from the workplace environment that include
occupational diseases and accidents, such as:
 Repetitive motion injuries
 Back pain
 Cancer Etc.
 Psychological Conditions: Conditions resulting from the workplace environment that result from
organizational stress and low quality of working life. These include:
 Dissatisfaction, withdrawal
 Mistrust in others, irritability
I. Safety Programs
Today, it has become clear that optimal health can generally be achieved through environmental safety,
organizational changes, and different lifestyles.
a.
Developing Safety Programs--Organizational safety programs require planning for
prevention of workplace accidents. Plans may be relatively simple or more complex and
highly sophisticated in order to fit the organization's size. Top management's support is
essential if safety programs are to be effective. Tremendous economic losses can result
from accidents.
1.
Job hazard analysis: The main goal of safety and health professionals is to
prevent job-related injuries and illnesses.
2.
The Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act, Title III (SARA): SARA
requires businesses to communicate more openly about the hazards associated with the materials they use
and produce and the wastes they generate.
3.
Employee involvement: One way to strengthen a safety program is to include
employee input, which provides workers with a sense of accomplishment.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
b. Accident Investigation--Accidents can happen even in the most safety-conscious firms.
Each accident, whether or not it results in an injury, should be carefully evaluated to
determine its cause and to ensure that it doesn't recur. The safety engineer and the line
manager jointly investigate accidents--why, how, and where they occur and who is
involved. Main causes that can create accidents at workplace are:
 Chance occurrences
 Unsafe working conditions
 Unsafe acts by employees
 Unsafe conditions
Physical conditions
 Defective Equipment
 Inadequate Machine Guards
 Lack of Protective Equipment
Environmental conditions
 Noise
 Dust, Fumes
 Stress
 Unsafe behaviors
c.
Evaluation of Safety Programs--Perhaps the best indicator that a safety program is
succeeding is a reduction in the frequency and severity of injuries and illnesses.
d. Rationale for Safety and Health Trends--Firms are spending an increasing amount of
money on safety. Reasons include; (1) profitability--employees can produce only while
they are on the job, (2) employee relations--firms with good safety records can attract and
retain good employees, (3) reduced liability--an effective safety program can reduce
corporate and executive liability, (4) marketing--a good safety record may well provide
companies with a competitive edge, and productivity--(5) an effective safety program may
boost morale and productivity while simultaneously reducing rising costs.
II. Ways to manage Safe and Healthy environment in organization
To cope with physical hazards and other hazards such as stress, unsafe behavior, and poor health habits,
employers often design comprehensive safety and health programs. Among these are safety programs,
employee assistance programs, and wellness programs.
a. Safety Programs
A safe working environment does not just happen; it has to be created. The organizations with the best
reputations for safety have developed well-planned and thorough safety programs.
b. Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)
EAPs are programs designed to help employees whose job performance is suffering because of physical,
mental, or emotional problems.
c. Wellness Programs
As health care costs have skyrocketed over the last two decades, organizations have become more interested
in preventative programs. A complete wellness program has three components:
 It helps employees identify potential health risks through screening and testing.
 It educates employees about health risks such as high blood pressure, smoking,
poor diet, and stress.
 It encourages employees to change their lifestyles through exercise, good
nutrition, and health monitoring.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
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d. Smoking in The work place
Numerous studies have concluded that workplace smoking not only is hazardous to employees' health, but
also is detrimental to the firm's financial health. Increased costs of insurance premiums, higher absenteeism,
and lost productivity cost huge amount a year. These factors, along with rising opposition from nonsmokers
and widespread local and state laws, have spurred many firms into action, and the trend continues.
The rewards of good health habits
Effective safety programs share the following features:
They include the formation of safety committee and participation by all departments
within the company. Employees participate in safety decision and management carefully
considers employee suggestions for improving safety.
They communicate safety with a multimedia approach that includes safety lectures, films,
poster, pamphlets, and computer presentations.
They use incentives, rewards, and positive reinforcement to encourage safe behavior.
They communicate safety rules and enforce them.
They use safety directors and/or the safety committee to engage in regular self-inspection
and accident research to identify potentially dangerous situations, and to understand why
accidents occur and how to correct them.
III. Policies to prevent workplace violence
Every organization should have a two-pronged policy in place to (a) prevent workplace violence and (b) to
deal with violent incidents when they occur. An HR manager's major responsibility is to be certain that
selection policies include careful screening and reference checking. Furthermore, the HR manager should
take the lead to enforce policies pertaining to the fair treatment of employees. This may require training
managers to recognize performance problems, refer troubled employees for counseling, and apply
disciplinary procedures consistently.
IV. Cumulative Trauma Disorders
CTDs are also called repetitive stress (or motion or strain) injuries (or illnesses or syndromes). CTDs do
not refer to only one disorder but to a wide array of maladies ranging from carpal tunnel syndrome to tennis
elbow. The number of workers with CTDs has risen dramatically in recent years.
V. Benefits of a Safe and Healthy Workforce
More productivity
Increased efficiency and quality
Reduced medical and insurance costs
Lower workers' compensation rates and payments
Greater workforce flexibility
VI. The HRM Department and Employee Safety and Health
HRM department can help organizations and employers by performing tasks like:
 Develop safety and health programs.
 Select safety and health programs.
 Evaluate safety and health programs.
 Ensure legal compliance.
 Incorporate safety and health concerns in HRM practices.
Key Terms
Safety Involves protecting employees from injuries due to work-related accidents.
Health Refers to the employees' freedom from physical or emotional illness.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System