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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lectures students should be able to
-  Understand the concept of motivation
-  Understand what motivates employees
-  Theories of motivation
In organizations as we know, material, machines and people work to achieve given goals. Machines
are used by people and unless people in organization do not use machines, equipment etc the goals cannot
be achieved.
People matter a lot in organization situation; and for management it is essential to keep them
happy, satisfied and motivated. What is motivation. In very simple terms, motivation means to `move', in a
direction. Motivation is goal directed behaviour.
Figure 1
Model of Motivation
(Tensions of drivers to
fulfill a need)
(Reduction of the drive and
(Goal ­ Directed
Satisfaction of the Original
The above figure is a simple diagram that illustrates that motivation originates from need. When
human beings are deprived of something a need emerges. This need drives person to fulfill need. The drive
leads to action and when a person meets his/her need a person is satisfied. For example a person is thirsty.
So there is need to satisfy thirst, which drive or moves person to act i.e. reach out to water. Once a person
drinks water (goal oriented behaviour) he/she is satisfied. Then another need may emerge. This is a simple
example. Motivation can be of variety of kinds, People want to work in organization to have authority, and
people may want to serve other people. People work for money etc.
Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person's degree of
commitment. It includes factors that: cause, channel, and sustain human behavior in a particular committed
Motivation and motivating both deal with the range of conscious human behavior somewhere
between two extremes, which are;
Reflex actions, such as a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids; and
Learned habits, such as brushing one's teeth or handwriting style. This range of behavior is
shown in Figure 2.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Figure 2
Focus of
Psychologist has studied human behaviour and has tried to experiment that how people should be
motivated. They divide human behaviour in 3 broad areas i.e. (1) reflex action like heart beat, (2) habits that
are acquired and are difficult to change. There is third area of human behaviour that is influenceable and it
is this area on which psychologist worked to modify human action. Motivation is one of the aspects of
human behaviour on which psychologist have worked and found that people can be motivated to achieve
organizational goals. How that can be done we will examine it
Understanding human behaviour in general and in organizations is important because it helps in
handling variety of situations. It helps in dealing with people according to their personality. Every individual
is different and therefore, should be motivated differently. Once we know the personality and also know the
strengths and weakness it becomes easier to control the behaviour in organization. For mangers it is
important to know how to motivate people and what motivates people.
Assumptions about Motivation
There are certain assumptions about motivation and these assumptions help managers to devise
good motivation plan. These are:
Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing.
Motivation is one of several factors that go into a person's performance. Important, too,
are such factors as ability, resources, and conditions under which one performs. There are
number of other things required for motivation to work. For example a student who wants
`A' grade in his examination has to be a motivated student. But his motivation alone will
not work. He has to get books to read, he needs a place where he can study, food to keep
him/her nourished etc.
Managers and researchers alike assume that motivation is in short supply and in need of
periodic replenishment. Sometimes we feel motivated, other times we are not motivated.
So in that situation we need to motivate people.
Motivation is a tool with which managers can arrange job relationships in organizations.
They can tailor job assignments and rewards to what makes these people "tick." Or
motivate. Because people have different personalities and aptitude for work, the managers
should assign job according to aptitude.
Early Views
As you may recall, motivation was one of the earliest concepts which managers and researchers
studied. A classical model is often associated with Frederick Taylor and scientific management. According
to this model, the most efficient way to perform repetitive tasks was determined and workers were
motivated with a system of wage incentives i.e., output of work was linked to wage.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Human relations model is associated with Elton Mayo and his contemporaries. Mayo and other
human relations researchers found that the boredom and repetitiveness of many tasks actually reduced
motivation, while social contacts helped create and sustain motivation. So according to them in order to
motivate people's relationship with supervisions should be good. Bosses or supervisors should encourage
subordinates to perform and give desired results.
Under the traditional model, workers had been expected to accept management's authority in
return for high wages. Under the human relations model, workers were expected to accept management's
authority because supervisors treated them with consideration and allowed them to influence the work
Human resources model is often associated with Douglas McGregor. McGregor and other theorists
criticized the human relations model as approach to manipulate employees. They also charged that, like the
traditional model, the human relations model oversimplified motivation by focusing on just one factor, such
as money or social relations.
Views on Motivation
There are other theories on motivation of which "Need Theory" is most common.
Need Theory
Hierarchy of needs, developed by Abraham Maslow, has probably received more attention from
managers than any other theory of motivation and we have examined this theory at length in previous
ERG Theory
Another need theory is ERG theory it is an acronym for:
Clayton Alderfer agreed with Maslow that worker motivation could be gauged according to a
hierarchy of needs. However, his ERG theory differs from Maslow's theory in the following ways.
Alderfer broke needs down into three categories: Existence needs (Maslow's basic needs), are
basic need like food, clothing shelter relatedness needs (needs for interpersonal relations). People
want to relate themselves to other people. Since human beings are social beings they want to live
in society and belong. It is important need. The growth needs (needs for personal creativity or
productive influence) are the needs of people to grow, develop and improve. To be able to
produce better to be creative etc. Thus, like Masbw Alderfer also broke down human needs at 3
levels. The first letters of each category form the acronym ERG.
Alderfer stressed that when higher needs are frustrated, lower needs will return, even though they
were already satisfied. Maslow, in contrast, felt that a need, once met, lost its power to motivate
Three Needs.
John W. Atkinson also proposed three basic drives in motivated persons:
Need for achievement; it is need in some persons who always want to excel. They are high
performers and are looking for perfection. Examples are sport stars etc.
Need for power and : Some individual have need for power and want authority. They may
be paid less but if the position gives power. They will prefer that. Example: People want to
join police because police yields power/authority or
Need for affiliation, or close association with others: Some people prefer to stay close to
their friends. For example somebody may get higher salary if the person is transferred to
other station but he/she may refuse the transfer because of preference to family and
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
The balance between the above drives varies from person to person. David C. McClelland's
research (McCLelland was a Psychologist) has shown that a strong need for achievement-the drive to
succeed or excel-is related to how well individuals are motivated to perform their work tasks. There is
considerable evidence of the correlation between high achievement needs and high performance.
McClelland found, for example, that people who succeeded in competitive occupations were well above
average in achievement motivation.
The Need for affiliation-, in McClelland's scheme-has been a concern of managers since Elton May
and his colleagues were involved in the famous Hawthorne experiment.
The Need for power-, in McClelland's scheme-deals with the degree of control a person desires
over his or her situation. This need can be related to how people deal with failure and success.
The work by McClelland and others highlights the importance of matching the individual and the
job. Employees with high achievement needs like challenging jobs more satisfying and stimulating work.
They welcome autonomy, variety, and frequent feedback from supervisor. Employees with low achievement
needs prefer situations of stability, security and predictability.
a drive that moves individual to meet need and attain satisfaction.
Goal oriented behaviour:
goal oriented behaviour is a behaviour in which a person is clear
about goals and acts to achieve those goals.
Need for affiliation:
it is the need to associate and stay close to family, friends and
social circle.
Need for achievement:
the need to excel and out perform.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management