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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
After the lecture students should be able to examine:
Remaining theories of motivation;
Relation of motivation to leadership;
Defining leader and leadership and
Importance of leadership;
Expectancy Theory
Another important theory of motivation is expectancy theory that helps us understand human
behaviour and people in organization can be motivated.
According to expectancy theory, people choose how to behave from among alternative courses of
action, based on their expectations of what there is to gain from each action. There are four assumptions
about behaviour in organizations on which the expectancy approach is based. These assumptions are:
Behavior is determined by a combination of factors in the individual and factors in the
environment. Individual's behaviour is not simple. It is complex as many factors are affecting
Individuals make conscious decisions about their behavior in the organization. Individuals
know how they have to behave in organization because they can judge their actions and
Individuals have different needs, desires, and goals.
Individuals decide between alternative behaviors on the basis of their expectations that a
given behavior will lead to a desired outcome. For example individuals know that if they
disobey or do not comply they will be fired from the job.
These assumptions become the basis for the
expectancy model, which has three major
1. Performance-0utcome expectancy: Individuals expect certain consequences of their
behavior. These expectations, in turn, affect their decisions on how to behave. For
example, a student who is thinking about getting good marks may expect praise if he gets
good marks or an employee who has achieved the desired results expects that he/she will
be rewarded.
2. Valence: The outcome of a particular behavior has a specific valence, or power to
motivate, which varies from individual to individual. For example, to a manager who values
money and achievement, a transfer to a higher paying position in another city may have
high valence. Valence can be expressed in mathematical term from the example given to
you. If transfer (T) has high value or valence and where transfer brings "money". The
individual will give high value or preference or valence to transfer.
3. Effort-performance expectancy: People's expectations of how difficult it will be to
perform successfully, affect their decisions about behavior. If the task is difficult and
complex, employee will assess the effort involved in doing or completing the job.
Accordingly he will put his effort commensurate with reward. The employee will ask what
I will get in return in doing such a difficult job.
These three components of Expectancy Theory can be summarized in three questions. These
questions are:
If I do this, what will be the outcome?
Is the outcome worth the effort to me?
What are my chances of achieving an outcome that will be worthwhile for me?
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Thus, according to expectancy theory, individuals are motivated when they see a favourable
combination of what is important to them and what they expect as a reward for their efforts, and they
behave accordingly.
Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement theory is associated with the psychologist B.F. Skinner and other contemporary. He
has shown through the experiment that how the consequences of past behavior affect future actions in a
cyclical learning process. He conducted an experiment on a dog. What he did was that he brought food in
front of a dog. When the food came in front of dog his mouth started to salivate. Every time the food
came the mouth salivated. Now, in his experiment he introduced another element. The food was presented
and as soon as food was presented the dog was given electric shock. The sequence of event was:
Food salivationshock.
This experiment was repeated number of times. After sometime it was observed that the dog
stopped salivating whenever the food was presented.
The results of the experiment were that behaviour can be modified. This process may be expressed
as follows:
Response  Consequences Future Response.
(Electric Shock)
(no salivation).
We see that behind the Reinforcement Theory is the concept of punishment and reward. The
application of this theory is seen when animals are trained to perform certain actions. You might have seen
monkeys being asked to dance by monkey-man and when monkey performs an act he is given something to
eat. Reinforcement Theory is useful in understanding human behaviour as well. Human behaviour can also
be modified through reward and punishment.
If in organizations we want to encourage people to come on time, then those who come on time
have to be encouraged. Now encouragement is a kind of reward. We have to remember that rewards have
many forms and dimensions. Rewards are not only in money form. Even a nice word can be reward. In
organization sometimes certificates, badges, mugs etc can be used as rewards for good behaviour.
Similarly punishment has many dimensions in organization. The severe being thrown out of job
and a mild punishment could be to use word of censure for behaviour that is not desirable.
Figure 1
Team Building/Work
Coping Change
Feel Good about Yourself
(Non-complaining, non-cynical)
Personal Charisma
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Figure 1 presents the importance and relationship of motivation to other dimensions of life in
general and organizational life as well. A motivated person in general is a good person because he/she has
positive and pleasant affect on environment. A motivated employee or manager or superior can lead and
makes other feel good about themselves. Motivation is required also to build team and make teams work.
Motivation also helps that environment are non complaining environment. All of this is manifestation of
positive behaviour; which is essential for a good manger.
Leader and leadership are two different concepts. A leader is a person who leads a group of
individuals. Leadership on the other hand defines the characteristics of the person who leads. Thus
Leadership is the software that makes a leader.
Managerial Leadership
Leader and leadership are often thought of in the larger context like, political leader, reformers,
prophets, thinkers, philosophers etc. But in the discussion of leadership that will follow the emphasis is on
Managerial leadership. Managerial leadership is the leadership that managers exercise in organizational
situation to achieve its goals.
Defining Leadership
There are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who have
attempted to define the concept. We will define managerial leadership as the process of directing and
influencing the task-related activities of group members. There are four important implications of our
definition of managerial leadership. This is discussed below:
First, leadership involves other people-employees or followers. By their willingness to accept
directions from the leader, group members help define the leader's status and make the
leadership process possible; without people to lead, all the leadership qualities of a manager
would be irrelevant.
Second, leadership involves an Unequal distribution of power between leaders and group
members. Group members are not powerless; they can and do shape group activities in a
number of ways. Still the leader will usually have more power. Where does a manager's power
come from? The five bases of a manager's power are:
Reward power;
Coercive power;
Legitimate power;
Referent power and
Expert power.
The Trait Approach
There is a believe that leaders are born and that people are born with certain traits or characteristics
that are peculiar to leaders. Others who are not born with those traits cannot be leaders
The third aspect of leadership is the ability to use the different forms of power to influence
followers' behaviours in a number of ways.
The fourth aspect combines the first three and acknowledges that leadership is about values.
Moral leadership concerns values and requires that followers be given enough knowledge of
alternatives to make intelligent choices.
The first systematic effort by psychologists and other researchers to understand leadership was the
attempt to identify the personal characteristics of leaders. This approach assumed that leaders share certain
inborn personality traits. This view that leaders are born and not made is still popular among laypersons,
though not among professional researchers.
What are the traits? Following are some of the traits that leaders possess:
Sense of direction (clear goals)
Human insight
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
clarity of tasks
Hard work
Good communication skills
In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers have taken two approaches:
Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leadership with the traits of those who
have not; and
Comparing the traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders.
Leaders and Non-leaders
It is true that leaders as a group have been found to be brighter, more extroverted, and more self-
confident than non leaders. So some of the traits identified may be the results of leadership experience
rather than of leadership ability i.e., people who get more opportunity to interact may acquire some of the
traits of leaders.
Effective & Ineffective Leaders
Comparing the characteristics of effective and ineffective leaders are more recent studies. One
study did find that intelligence, initiative, and self-assurance was associated with high managerial
performance. The study also found that manager's supervisory ability for better performance was most
Expectancy theory:
The theory explains that people try to assess the response of their
actions and expect something in return.
A person who leads.
It is a quality or a trait that leaders possess that makes them unique.
Managerial leadership:
It is the leadership that managers exercise in organization to achieve
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management