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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 44
MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES:
THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
The ASEAN University Network (AUN) was founded in November 1995 by ASEAN member countries
including 13 universities. After the enlargement of ASEAN by the ASEAN Charter in 1997 and 1999, the
AUN membership increased to 20 member universities (with the extension of 2 universities from Myanmar,
one from Laos , and Malaysia and one from Cambodia also two from Indonesia.)
The ASEAN University Network is an arrangement between 20 universities in the ten ASEAN countries. The
AUN is composed of a Board of Trustees (BOT), the participating universities, and the AUN Secretariat. The
Board of Trustees consists of one representative from each of the ASEAN Member Countries, the Secretary-
General of ASEAN, the Chairman of the ASEAN subcommittee on Education (ASCOE) and the Executive
Director of the AUN. The BOT has the task of formulating policies, approving project proposals, the
allocation of budgets and coordinating implementation activities. The board makes decisions on these activities
on the basis of consensus. The participating universities have the task of implementing the AUN programmes
and activities. When AUN was founded in 1995, it consisted of thirteen universities from seven countries. Due
to the inclusion of Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia in ASEAN, the network grew to 20 members (for a list of
the members, see appendix I). Although numerous applications for membership have been received, it was
decided to only admit universities from the new member countries. Non members from the region however,
are invited as observers on a regular basis. The AUN Secretariat is involved in the planning, organisation,
monitoring and evaluation of AUN activities and also in the development of new ideas and the acquisition of
funding. The permanent office of the Secretariat has been established in 2000 and is located on the campus of
Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok. The operating costs of the secretariat are (at least until 2005) allocated
by the Thai Government.
The financing of AUN activities comes from either cost sharing between the participating universities or from
the external `dialogue partners' of ASEAN. The dialogue partners are the EU, China, South Korea, Japan, India
and Russia. The meetings within the AUN Framework are financed by the hosts and travel expenses by the
(universities of the) participants, or by universities from the richer countries for the poorer countries.
Objectives & Activities
The main objective of the AUN is to strengthen the existing network of cooperation among universities in
ASEAN by promoting collaborative studies and research programmes. Furthermore, the AUN attempts to
promote cooperation and solidarity among scientists and scholars in the region and to develop academic and
professional human resources as well as to produce and disseminate scientific knowledge and information
among the universities in the region.
In order to realise these objectives, a wide range of activities have been organized within the AUN framework.
The initiative for AUN activities can be located with different actors. Member universities can request to put a
particular activity on the agenda. Also initiatives can be proposed by the AUN Secretariat or by the ASEAN
Secretariat. Finally, the Dialogue Partners can initiate activities. The Board of Trustees decides on the actual
initiation of the proposed activities. In the course of its existence, the BOT has agreed upon a variety of
activities which are both very diverse in content as well as in ambition and feasibility. In the early stages of
AUN's existence, activities were largely focused on four priority areas: student and faculty exchanges, ASEAN
Studies, collaborative research and information networking. After the establishment of the permanent AUN
secretariat, various other activities emerged, both within the region as well as with the dialogue partners.
The ASEAN Studies Programme has been one of the instruments to realise a regional awareness and identity.
The objective is to realise an ASEAN Studies curriculum for all member universities in order to provide
students with knowledge about societies, economies and politics in the ASEAN countries. As a start, in 1998
an ASEAN Source Book was compiled with a bibliography on a wide range of ASEAN subjects. On the basis
of the source book and after several joint workshops, six core courses were identified and course syllabi for the
postgraduate level were compiled. At a later stage, all course information was placed on the `ASEAN Virtual
University' web-site (http://aunvirtualu.dlsu.edu.ph/). This virtual university should ultimately evolve into a
joint degree granting programme for ASEAN Studies.
The student and faculty exchange programme contains three separate activities: the AUN Educational Forum,
the Distinguished Professors Programme and the Student Exchange Programme. The annual educational
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forum covers a two week gathering of both students and staff of member universities. In this period, lectures
and presentations are given on a particular theme and also several cultural activities are organised. The first
educational forum has been held in 1998 with around 25 participants. Participation has gradually increased and
for the 2003 forum, 50 participants are expected. Financially, the educational forum is based on the principle of
cost sharing where the host arranges the activities and accommodation and the students or their universities
pay for transport expenses. In addition to the educational forum there is also a student exchange programme.
In fact, structural student exchange was the option preferred at a meeting of Vice Rectors for Student Affairs in
1997. However, the rather rigid curricula of the member universities, with limited space for optional courses,
and very diverse academic calendars, only left a two week period per year for joint activities. This was why the
option of the educational forum was proposed.
Student exchange now takes place on a more ad hoc basis and is only offered by limited number of universities.
In 2003, scholarships for students (and staff) of member universities are offered by the member universities
from Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand and the Philippines. The obstacles observed above, inflexible
curricula and differences in academic calendars; pose problems for exchange, but also the differences in
educational systems and the medium of instruction, which is often the native language of the university
concerned. Another problem is that, due to the uneven level of development in the ASEAN countries,
exchange is frequently a one-way activity, with more advanced educational systems like Malaysia and Singapore
functioning as a recipient of students and staff from other countries. Also, structural exchange programmes or
scholarship programmes have not yet materialised because of financial reasons due to the financial crisis of
1997/1998.
The third activity related to exchange is the Distinguished Professors Programme. This programme provides
opportunities for faculty members to visit other member universities. The participating professors give lectures,
advise students and get involved in collaborative development of courses or teaching materials at their host
university. The exchange is financially supported by the ASEAN Secretariat or the ASEAN Foundation and in
some cases it is based on cost sharing between the host university and the visiting professors' university. Until
the end of 2002, some forty visits had taken place. In the field of collaborative research, initiatives emerged
already in a workshop in 1997, but have not yet materialised sufficiently. At present, the main progress in this
field has been through the collection of research data of the participating universities and compiling
institutional profiles in the field of research. These activities have not yet led to concrete matching of research
areas for possible cooperation within AUN.
The AUN has also started to target other groups than traditional students. In the ASEAN executive
development programme, the AUN aims to train professionals from business and management. Due to the
1997 financial crisis, this programme was postponed but at a later stage, the Asian crisis was used as an
opportunity by AUN. In 1999, the network planned a two-week executive programme that focused both on
the provision of tools to handle the consequences of the crisis and to prepare the business community for the
further economic integration in the region and the ASEAN Free Trade Area. Even though the deans of the
Business Schools concerned met twice, the programme has not yet materialised. Pre-occupation with the
repercussions of the financial crisis is seen as the main reason for the fact that the programme has not yet been
realised. Another activity in the field of Business Administration is the AGBEP Programme (ASEAN Graduate
Business/Economics Programme), which aims at student and staff exchange and research cooperation on
business and economic issues in the region. Cooperation within AGBEP, based at Gajah Mada University has
led to student exchanges on a small scale and to symposia and joint publications since its establishment in 2000.
Many of the activities above are of a disciplinary nature and mainly aimed at exchange and joint curriculum
development. A more recent and profound initiative is the AUN Quality Assurance, which has the aim of
promoting the development of a common quality assurance system. On the long term this should function as
an instrument for the improvement of teaching, research institutional academic standards of AUN member
universities while recognising and respecting the differences among member universities. The ultimate goal of
this initiative is the harmonisation of educational systems and standards of universities in ASEAN. The first
step of this initiative was a workshop held in 2000 at Chulalongkorn University and which has led to the
Bangkok Accord. In the framework of this document, a Chief Quality Officer (CQO) has been appointed by
each member university to coordinate the implementation. The CQO's meet twice a year at one of the member
universities. Currently this priority AUN activity is primarily based on the sharing of information and the
creation of `minimal standards' (which still can be considered high standards for some of the member
universities).
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Another activity that crosses disciplinary boundaries is the cooperation on new technologies. The programme
focuses on the establishment and development of systems for information exchange between the member
universities. The first phase of this programme was mainly the development of an AUN homepage through
which all member universities were linked. The second phase comprises the further development of the
concept of an ASEAN virtual university and is led by De La Salle University (Philippines). The programme is
being gradually developed and the first recommendations of AUN experts in the field have been integrated in
the ASEAN Studies Programme (see above). In the future, further technological cooperation in library services
and standardisation of formats for information dissemination are planned to be developed.
In addition to the activities that have been developed and carried out by the member universities, the AUN also
developed activities in cooperation with its `dialogue partners', namely the European Union, South Korea,
Japan, India, China and Russia. With the European Union, two joint activities have been set up. The most
recent is the ASEAN-European Engineering Exchange. This programme aims to promote the exchange of
students and staff between the European Union and ASEAN through study, research and internships. At
present however, this programme is very modest in numbers. A more comprehensive project is the ASEAN-
EU University Network Programme (AUNP). AUNP both promotes cooperation between higher education in
the two regions and a further regional integration in the ASEAN region. The AUNP consists of two major
projects: partnership projects and network initiatives. Under the partnership projects, two calls for proposals
were launched by the European Commission in 2002 and in 2003 in order to improve cooperation between
higher education institutions in EU Member States and ASEAN, as well as to stimulate collaboration in higher
education within ASEAN. The types of projects that are eligible for funding in this framework are cooperation
in applied research, in human resource development and in curriculum development. Activities that fall under
the so-called network initiatives are the organisation of two rector conferences and four annual round tables for
representatives of ASEAN and EU higher education institutions and relevant public authorities, which will
focus on the further development of EU­ASEAN higher education cooperation. Another activity eligible is the
sharing of knowledge between the two regions on issues like credit transfer systems, initiatives for student and
lecturer mobility, initiatives promoting joint research, and convergence of curricula. The AUNP programme is
managed by the Programme Management Office, with a European and an ASEAN co-director, which is based
in Bangkok. The total budget for the programme is almost eight million Euros, of which around 90 % comes
from the EU and 10 % from AUN. At the time of writing, the proposals are under evaluation.
Links with South Korea emerged from the interest that the Korean Association of Southeast Asia Studies
(KASEAS) expressed to work together with the AUN. The cooperation between AUN and KASEAS led to a
conference in 1999, which again resulted in two publications jointly produced by South Korean and ASEAN
scholars. In 2001 a second programme was proposed by KASEAS, which was approved in early 2002 by the
ASEAN Secretariat and resulted in a workshop and a conference in that same year. The second part of the
2001 Academic Exchange Programme is in progress and entails a joint research project, and a fellowship
exchange scheme. Another South Korea-ASEAN activity was initiated by the Korean Science and Engineering
Foundation (KOSEF) and focuses on the post-doctoral level. The ASEAN Post-Doctoral Fellowship
Programme promotes cooperation in science and technology within the ASEAN region by providing ASEAN
scientists opportunities for research exchanges with South Korea. The programme provides research
scholarships for 11 ASEAN scientists or researchers for a period of 6-24 months in Korea. The preparation for
scholarships for a two-year stay in Korea for a new batch of 10 Ph.D. holders is in preparation. Recently, also a
scheme has started for regular students. This scheme funds ten ASEAN students to study for one or two
semesters in Daejoen University in South Korea.
Cooperation with Japan is based on two projects. The first is based on the sharing of experiences and has been
set up by the Keizai Koho Centre. For this programme, a group of educators from ASEAN visited Japanese
universities and governmental and private organisation in Japan. These `educational trips' were organised
annually from 1998 until 2000. A more substantive project is the AUN/Southeast Asian Engineering
Education Development Network (AUN/SEED-Net), an initiative of the Japanese Government. This network
is aimed at promoting both Japan-ASEAN cooperation in engineering education as well as the internal ASEAN
cooperation. Activities under this network are in the field of research, graduate education (both short courses
and full Masters programmes) and the exchange of staff and students. This sub-network network was
established in 2001 and currently consists of nineteen universities from both Japan and the ASEAN region
(mainly, but not exclusively, members of AUN).
Collaborative activities with India are mainly in the sphere of human resource development. The ASEAN-India
joint HRD collaboration initiative will also function as a coordination mechanism for the various ongoing
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institutional and bilateral collaborative activities in the HRD domain, in order to bring these activities under a
broader regional framework.
The ASEAN ­China Academic Cooperation and Exchange Programme was initiated by a joint effort of the
AUN and the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China in 2001. The activities under this
programme include the ASEAN-China Rectors conference, grants for joint research and training and an
exchange programme for academics in order to strengthen the network between ASEAN and Chinese scholars.
Recently, AUN has also proposed activities for a further cooperation with Russia. At present these activities are
in the stage of seeking funding for collaborative activities.
Development
The ASEAN University Network emerged from a highly ambitious idea of the ASEAN leaders and the
ASEAN Subcommittee on Education (ASCOE) to establish an ASEAN University. A year after this idea was
launched; it became clear that this would present too many problems concerning funding, location and
leadership. Therefore, in 1994, it was decided that the founding of a network of existing institutions would be
more feasible. In its early years (1995-1999), the AUN focused mainly on the sharing of knowledge and
experiences and on small-scale student and staff exchange. As from 1999, the collaborative activities became
more complex with programmes like joint curriculum development, cooperation in ICT and the establishment
of sub-networks. This is not only the case for intra-ASEAN cooperation but also for the activities with the
dialogue partners.
This also led to the establishment of a permanent secretariat in Bangkok in March 2000. Although there existed
a secretariat since 1997, this secretariat was temporary. With the permanent office also came an increase in
structural funding for the secretariat. In addition to the operating costs for the AUN secretariat, also the
financial support for AUN activities increased substantially since 1999. In addition to a growth in financial
terms, projects also became more comprehensive. In particular, the AUN Quality Assurance programme has
very ambitious goals with consequences that transcend the disciplinary boundaries. This can also form a
turning point in the sense that through such projects all members of the participating universities will be
affected. Many of the current activities are focused on particular individuals of the universities, and many other
students and staff that are not involved in activities are not familiar with AUN and its activities. Most
exchanges and gatherings for instance, although successful, have been modest in its impact on the universities
as a whole. An explanation for this lies in the top-down character of the activities, with a high involvement of
the university's central level (and in some countries the ministry level) and only modest involvement of the
faculties.
Source: Beerkens, H.J.J.G. (2004) Global Opportunities and Institutional Embeddedness; Higher Education
Consortia in Europe and Southeast Asia (PhD Dissertation). Enschede: Cheps/UT. Available at:
http://www.beerkens.info/files/phd.pdf
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASEAN_University_Network
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs