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Strategic Management

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Strategic Management ­ MGT603
VU
Lesson 44
MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Learning Objectives
This topic concern with various is for measuring the performance of an organization.
Measuring organizational performance
To determine that which objectives are most important in the evaluation of strategies can be difficult.
Strategy evaluation is based on both quantitative and qualitative criteria. Selecting the exact set of criteria
for evaluating strategies depends on a particular organization's size, industry, strategies, and management
philosophy. An organization pursuing a retrenchment strategy, for example, could have an entirely
different set of evaluative criteria from an organization pursuing a market-development strategy.
Quantitative criteria commonly used to evaluate strategies are financial ratios, which strategists use to
make three critical comparisons: (1) comparing the firm's performance over different time periods, (2)
comparing the firm's performance to competitors', and (3) comparing the firm's performance to industry
averages. Some key financial ratios that are particularly useful as criteria for strategy evaluation are as
follows:
1. Return on investment
2. Return on equity
3. Profit margin
4. Market share
5. Debt to equity
6. Earnings per share
7. Sales growth
8. Asset growth
But there are some potential problems associated with using quantitative criteria for evaluating strategies.
First, most quantitative criteria are geared to annual objectives rather than long-term objectives. Also,
different accounting methods can provide different results on many quantitative criteria. Third, intuitive
judgments are almost always involved in deriving quantitative criteria. For these and other reasons,
qualitative criteria are also important in evaluating strategies. Human factors such as high absenteeism and
turnover rates, poor production quality and quantity rates, or low employee satisfaction can be underlying
causes of declining performance. Marketing, finance/accounting, R&D, or computer information systems
factors can also cause financial problems. Seymour Tilles identified six qualitative questions that are useful
in evaluating strategies:
1. Is the strategy internally consistent?
2. Is the strategy consistent with the environment?
3. Is the strategy appropriate in view of available resources?
4. Does the strategy involve an acceptable degree of risk?
5. Does the strategy have an appropriate time framework?
6. Is the strategy workable?
Some additional key questions that reveal the need for qualitative or intuitive judgments in strategy
evaluation are as follows:
1. How good is the firm's balance of investments between high-risk and low-risk projects?
2. How good is the firm's balance of investments between long-term and short-term projects?
3. How good is the firm's balance of investments between slow-growing markets and fast-growing
markets?
4. How good is the firm's balance of investments among different divisions?
5. To what extent are the firm's alternative strategies socially responsible?
6. What are the relationships among the firm's key internal and external strategic factors?
7. How are major competitors likely to respond to particular strategies?
153
Table of Contents:
  1. NATURE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT:Interpretation, Strategy evaluation
  2. KEY TERMS IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT:Adapting to change, Mission Statements
  3. INTERNAL FACTORS & LONG TERM GOALS:Strategies, Annual Objectives
  4. BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT:Non- financial Benefits, Nature of global competition
  5. COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGIC MODEL:Mission statement, Narrow Mission:
  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF A MISSION STATEMENT:A Declaration of Attitude
  7. EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT:The Nature of an External Audit, Economic Forces
  8. KEY EXTERNAL FACTORS:Economic Forces, Trends for the 2000ís USA
  9. EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT (KEY EXTERNAL FACTORS):Political, Governmental, and Legal Forces
  10. TECHNOLOGICAL FORCES:Technology-based issues
  11. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS:Global challenge, The Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM)
  12. IFE MATRIX:The Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix, Internal Audit
  13. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT:Planning, Organizing, Motivating, Staffing
  14. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT:Customer Analysis, Product and Service Planning, Pricing
  15. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT (FINANCE/ACCOUNTING):Basic Types of Financial Ratios
  16. ANALYTICAL TOOLS:Research and Development, The functional support role
  17. THE INTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION (IFE) MATRIX:Explanation
  18. TYPES OF STRATEGIES:The Nature of Long-Term Objectives, Integration Strategies
  19. TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Horizontal Integration, Michael Porterís Generic Strategies
  20. TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Intensive Strategies, Market Development, Product Development
  21. TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Diversification Strategies, Conglomerate Diversification
  22. TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Guidelines for Divestiture, Guidelines for Liquidation
  23. STRATEGY-FORMULATION FRAMEWORK:A Comprehensive Strategy-Formulation Framework
  24. THREATS-OPPORTUNITIES-WEAKNESSES-STRENGTHS (TOWS) MATRIX:WT Strategies
  25. THE STRATEGIC POSITION AND ACTION EVALUATION (SPACE) MATRIX
  26. THE STRATEGIC POSITION AND ACTION EVALUATION (SPACE) MATRIX
  27. BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG) MATRIX:Cash cows, Question marks
  28. BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG) MATRIX:Steps for the development of IE matrix
  29. GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX:RAPID MARKET GROWTH, SLOW MARKET GROWTH
  30. GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX:Preparation of matrix, Key External Factors
  31. THE NATURE OF STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION:Management Perspectives, The SMART criteria
  32. RESOURCE ALLOCATION
  33. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE:Divisional Structure, The Matrix Structure
  34. RESTRUCTURING:Characteristics, Results, Reengineering
  35. PRODUCTION/OPERATIONS CONCERNS WHEN IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIES:Philosophy
  36. MARKET SEGMENTATION:Demographic Segmentation, Behavioralistic Segmentation
  37. MARKET SEGMENTATION:Product Decisions, Distribution (Place) Decisions, Product Positioning
  38. FINANCE/ACCOUNTING ISSUES:DEBIT, USES OF PRO FORMA STATEMENTS
  39. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
  40. STRATEGY REVIEW, EVALUATION AND CONTROL:Evaluation, The threat of new entrants
  41. PORTER SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL:The activities of the Value Chain, Support activities
  42. STRATEGY EVALUATION:Consistency, The process of evaluating Strategies
  43. REVIEWING BASES OF STRATEGY:Measuring Organizational Performance
  44. MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
  45. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE EVALUATION SYSTEM:Contingency Planning