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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 23
MAXIMIZING LEARNING
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
C.
Maximizing Learning
D.
Selecting the Stage for Learning
E.
Maintaining performance after Training
F.
Following up on Training
G.
Learning Principles
H.
Training versus Development
I.
Human Resource Development (HRD)
J.
Role of Line Managers and Training and Development
K.
Role of HR Department in Training and Development
LESSON OVERVIEW
In this lecture we will discuss how a learning process can be maximized in terms of learning. As we know
that training is a learning process we should know the basic learning principles that can be helpful in making
training process more effective. We will also discuss the HRD that is, Human Resource Development in
detail as well.
C. Maximizing Learning:
Learning can be maximized by considering the basic principles of learning. That will be discussed later.
D. Selecting the Stage for Learning
Effective learning requires two things (1) Clear Task Instructions that what is going to be learnt how and
what is its importance and the (2) is Model Appropriate Behavior. When ever the training need is assessed,
it should be translated to behavioral objective and trainer should try to present the results in behavioral
terms. This will be contributing towards quality training and effective learning.
E. Maintaining Performance after Training
Effective training can raise performance, improve morale, and increase an organization's potential. Poor,
inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for everyone involved. To maximize the
benefits of training, managers must closely monitor the training process. Developing learning points, to
assist knowledge retention, Setting specific goals, identifying appropriate reinforces and teaching trainees,
self-management skills can help organizations to maintain performance after training.
F. Following up on Training:
Any training or development implemented in an organization must be cost effective. That is the benefits
gained by such programs must outweigh the cost associated with providing the learning experience.
Training to be more effective, is supposed to be followed with careful evaluation. Evaluation methods are
discussed in the previous lecture. Different techniques and approaches can be used to evaluate the training
program and, if required at any level, revisions and redesigning should not be avoided. It is not enough to
merely assume that any training effort of an organization is effective; we must develop substantive data to
determine whether our training effort is achieving its goals- that is, if it's correcting the deficiencies in skills,
knowledge or attitudes that were assessed in needing attention. Training programs are expensive. The cost
incurred alone justify evaluating the effectiveness.
G. Learning Principles
These are the basic principles or conditions that facilitate learning.
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I. Participation
Learning should permit and encourage active participation of the learner. The learning activities should be
experiential rather than just informational. Therefore, the trainers should arrange the physical surroundings
to facilitate small group interaction and promote the sharing of ideas.
II. Repetition
An important principal of the learning is to provide the learner with the opportunity for practice and
repetition. To gain the full benefit of training learned behaviors must be over learned to ensure smooth
performance and minimum of forgetting at a latter date. Proficiency in learning and retaining new skills is
improved when individuals visualize themselves performing the new behavior.
III. Relevance
The learning should be problem centered rather than content centered. People are motivated to learn when
training is immediately relevant to help them solve a current problem. Learning something just because
someone says "it is important" is not as motivating.
IV. Transference
Because the training occurs in a special environment, an important question to ask is whether learning will
transfer to the actual job situation. Transfer of training occurs when trainees can apply the knowledge and
skills learned in training course to their jobs. If the learning in one setting does not transfer to the actual job
situation, the training has failed .Three transfers training situations are possible (1) Positive transfer of
training, when the training activities enhance performance in the new situation; (2) negative transfer of
training, when the training activities inhibit performance in new situation; and (3) no observable effect of
training.
V. Feedback
Performance feed back is necessary prerequisite for learning. Feedback improves performance not only by
helping learners correct their mistakes, but also by providing reinforcement for learning. Knowledge of
results is a positive reinforcement itself. Learning activities have more intrinsic interest if feedback is
available. Nevertheless, performance feedback should do more than inform learners whether they were right
or wrong. Merely informing the trainees that they were wrong is not as effective as telling them why they
were wrong and how they can avoid making mistakes in future. In general, knowledge of results is an
essential feature of learning, and this knowledge comes after the learner's response.
H. Training vs. Development
Although training is often used with development, the terms are not synonymous. Training typically
focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them to correct deficiencies in their
performance. In contrast, development is an effort to provide employees with the abilities that the
organization will need in the future
I. Purposes of T & D
The most prominent changes affecting T&D that have been prophesied and that are actually occurring
today in business include:
 Orient new employees and Preparing them for promotion
 Satisfy personal growth needs
 Improve performance
 Avoid Managerial Obsolescence
 Solve organizational problems
 Changes in organization structure caused by mergers, acquisitions, rapid growth, downsizing, and
outsourcing
 Changes in technology and the need for more highly skilled workers
 Changes in the educational level of employees
 Changes in human resources; a diverse workforce consisting of many groups
 Competitive pressures necessitating flexible courses and just-in-time and just-what's-needed
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training
Increased emphasis on learning organizations and human performance management
II. Selecting T & D Program
While selecting the training ad development programs and selecting training and development methods to
be used, following factors should be kept in mind in order to have more effective utilization of resources
that are supposed to be spent on proposed training and development programs.
a.  Cost Effectiveness: Any training or development implemented in an organization must be
cost effective. That is the benefits gained by such programs must outweigh the cost
associated with providing the learning experience. If measured the effectiveness of the
training process, there should be air justification of assigning training programs in the
organization because if organizations are not able to have advantages or development and
enhancement of the performance after training it is only wastages of the resources.
b. Desired Program Content: Contents of the training program and the methods used to
deliver the training should be in relevance to training objectives and need assessed for
training.
c.  Learning Principles: Learning principals should be implemented to have more effective
training.
d. Appropriateness of the Facilities: Factors that are supposed to facilitate the training
program should be appropriate and available.
e.
Trainee Performance and Capabilities: There is chance and enough probability that
training will lead to the enhancement of the trainees.
f.
Trainer Performance and Capabilities: Trainers or people who are assigned responsibility
to train the trainees are having enough experience, skills, capabilities and past trends that
show that they can be effective trainers. Trainers themselves are required to be well trained in
order to provide the training.
I. Human Resource Development (HRD)
HRD has been defined as an organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase
the possibility of improving job performance and growth. Training is the part of HRD that deals with the
designing programs that permit learners to acquire knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs.
HRD Involves Following Activities;
Training &
Training & Development:
Training typically
focuses on providing employees with specific skills or
Development
helping them to correct deficiencies in their
H
performance. In contrast, development is an effort to
Organization
provide employees with the abilities that the
R
Development
organization will need in the future.
D
Organizational Development: It is an organization
wide application of behavioral science knowledge ­ to
Career
the planned development and reinforcement of a
Development
firm's strategies, structures, and processes for
improving its effectiveness.
Career Development: A formal approach taken by an organization to help people acquire the skills and
experiences needed to perform current and future jobs is termed as career development. Company's policies
especially policies regarding promotion, counseling the employees, opportunities to excel in future help
employees to develop their career. It consists of skills, education and experiences as well as behavioral
modification and refinement techniques that allow individuals to work better and add value.
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HRD programs are divided into three categories
Training for the
(1)
Training:  Training  is  the  acquisition  of
technology which permits employees to perform
their present job to standards.
present,
(2)
Education: Education is training people to do a
Educating for the
different job. It is often given to people who have
been identifies as being promotable, being
future,
considered for a new job either lateral or upwards
(3)
Development: Development is training people to
Developing to
acquire new horizons, technology, or viewpoints.
It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto
new expectations by being proactive rather than
lead.
reactive.
Human Resource Development Methods:
Some development of the individuals' ability can take place on the job (Job Rotation, assistant-to-position
and committee assignment) and some times off the job methods (Lectures, Courses, Seminars, Simulation,
Outdoor Training) are to be used to provide the development opportunity to the workforce. We will have
brief discussion on these methods.
Job Rotation: It involves moving employees to various positions in organization in an effort to expand
their skills, knowledge and abilities. Job rotation can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical rotation is
nothing more than promoting a worker in to a new position.
Assistant to Position: Employees with demonstrated potential are sometimes given the opportunity to
work under a successful manger, often in different areas of organization. In doing so, these employees get
exposure to wide variety of management activities and are groomed for assuming the duties of next higher
level.
Committee Assignments: Committee Assignments can provide an opportunity for the employee to share
in decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems.
Lectures & Seminars: Traditional forms of instruction revolved around formal lecture course and
seminars. These offered opportunity for individuals to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and
analytical abilities.
Simulations: Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world.
Simulation refers to creating an artificial learning environment that approximates the actual job conditions
as much as possible.
Outdoor Training: A trend in employee development has been the use of outdoor training. The primary
focus of such training is to teach trainees the importance of working together, of gelling as teams. The
purpose of these trainings is to see how employees react to the difficulties that nature presents to them.
Developing a succession planning program:
Succession planning programs are considerations of the job openings that presently exist in an organization,
the openings that are likely to occur in the future, and how these positions might be filled. If positions are
to be filled from within, training and development will be needed to prepare employees for promotion. If
positions are to be filled by hiring from without, the organization will need to make a careful analysis of the
labor market and the likelihood of finding qualified replacements.
J.
Role of line Managers and Training and Development
Provide employee orientation training.
Assess training needs and plan developmental strategies.
Provide on-the-job training.
Ensure transfer of training.
K. Role of the HR Department in Training and Development
HRM department helps in Training and development program by performing the following functions.
 Provide employee orientation training.
 Contribute to management development programs.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
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Provide training and development.
Evaluate training.
Key Terms
Training: The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational
performance.
Human Resource Development: A major HRM function that consists not only of T&D but also
individual career planning and development activities and performance appraisal.
Learning Organizations: Firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related
training and development and take appropriate action.
Job Rotation: It involves moving employees from one job to another for the purpose of providing them
with broader experience.
Assistant to Position: Employees with demonstrated potential are sometimes given the opportunity to
work under a successful manger.
Job Rotation: It involves moving employees to various positions in organization in an effort to expand
their skills, knowledge and abilities.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System