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Personality Psychology

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Personality Psychology ­ PSY 405
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Lesson 19
MASLOW'S THEORY
Humanistic view puts the emphasis on the positive aspects of life, free choices and personal growth
experiences. Abnormality results from refusal to accept personal responsibility for one's own actions and
thoughts. So human behavior is caused by the choices we make voluntarily. The Humanistic assume that
human nature is inherently good and they blame abnormal / aggressive behavior caused by the society but
not by the individual.
Is Maslow a humanistic Psychologist?
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) postulated a hierarchy of needs beginning with physiological needs at the
bottom and self actualization at the top. An individual must meet the basic needs before trying to meet the
higher needs.
Self Actualization
Self Esteem
Love and Belongingness
Safety Needs
Psychological Needs
Maslow's Theory (Hierarchy of needs)
The triangle or pyramid has a broad base and narrow top, so majority of individuals are involved at
fulfilling basic needs and only few reach the top i.e. self actualization means that we can reach our highest
potential in all areas of functioning if we had freedom to grow. Majority of the people are involved in
fulfilling the needs at the lower level and it is very few who reach the top. Examples are Quaid-e-Azam,
Dr. Abdul Salam, and Javed Miandad.
Do you want to reach the top?
Certainly all of us involved in this process of self actualization, but it is very few who reach the top.
Basic Concepts of Humanistic Psychology
1-The Individual as an Integrated Whole
2-Irrelevance of Animal Research
3-Man's Inner Nature
4-Human Creative Potential
5-Emphasis on Psychological He
4- Maslow's Hierarchical Theory of Motivation
1-Physiological Needs
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2-Safety needs
3-Belongingness and Love Needs
4-Self-Esteem Needs
5-Self-Actualization Needs
Why Can't All People Achieve Self-Actualization?
Differences between basic needs and meta-needs.
7- Empirical Validation of Humanistic Theory Concepts
8-What Are Self-Actualizers Like?
(Sixteen characteristics of self actualizers)
9-Self-Actualizers Aren't Angels
10-What is goal of psychotherapy?
11- Summary
12-Evaluation
Biographical Sketch
Abraham Harold Maslow was born April 1, 1908, in Brooklyn, New York. His parents were uneducated
Jewish immigrants from Russia who dreamed of a better life for their son than theirs had been. Maslow, the
eldest of seven children, was strongly encouraged by his parents to be academically successful.
Maslow's decision to study psychology at Wisconsin was largely affected by the behaviorism of John
Watson. Maslow's enthusiasm for behaviorism literally vanished when the first of two daughters was born.
Evidently, the complex behavior displayed by Maslow's own children convinced him that Behaviorist
Psychology was more relevant to understanding animals than humans.
As a member of the American Psychological Association he was president of the Division of Personality
and Social Psychology, and was elected president of the entire association for 1967-1968. Maslow was also
a founding editor of both the Journal of Humanistic Psychology and the Journal of Transpersonal
Psychology, and he served as consulting editor of numerous other scholarly periodicals. Maslow was vitally
interested in growth psychology.
The majority of Maslow's books were written within the last ten years of his life and include Toward a
Psychology of Being (1962); Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences (1964); Eupsychian Management: A
Journal (l965b); The Psych'ology of Science: A Reconnaissance (1966); Motivation and Personality (1970,
2d edition); and The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1971, a collection of articles previously published
by Maslow in various psychological journals). A volume compiled with the assistance of his wife and
entitled Abraham H. Maslow: A Memorial Volume was published posthumously in 1972.
Basic Tenets of Humanistic Psychology
The term "humanistic psychology" refers to third force in psychology. Although proponents of this
movement represent a wide range of views, they do share certain fundamental conceptions of human
nature.
Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and the unique problems of human existence.
Man is literally one who exists as being-in-the-world, consciously and painfully aware of his own existence
and eventual nonexistence (death).
1-The Individual as an Integrated Whole
One of the most fundamental aspects of humanistic psychology- and Maslow's version of it-is that each
individual must be studied as an integrated, unique, organized whole. In fact, Maslow's theory was
primarily developed as a revolt against those theories (especially behaviorism) that deal in bits and pieces
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of behavior while ignoring the person as a unified whole.
2-Irrelevance of Animal Research
Advocates of humanistic psychology recognize a profound difference between human and animal behavior.
For them, human beings are more than just animals; they are special kinds of animal. Highly significant
from a humanistic perspective, then, is the fact that there are no rat, pigeon, monkey, or even dolphin
personologists- only humans have the capacity to theorize about humans.
3-Man's Inner Nature
Freud's theory implicitly assumed that man basically has an evil character, human impulses, if not
controlled, will lead to the destruction of others as well as the self. One might not be able to appreciate this
view while being mugged in Central Park; however, from the humanistic perspective, the evil, destructive,
and violent forces in people arise from a bad environment rather than from any inherent rottenness on their
part.
4-Human Creative Potential
The primacy of human creativity is perhaps the most significant concept of humanistic psychology.
Maslow (1950) merits the distinction of being the first to call attention to the fact that the most universal
characteristic of the people he studied or observed was creativeness. One need not write books, compose
music, or produce art objects to be creative. Comparatively few people do. Creativity is a universal human
function and leads to all forms of self-expression. Thus, for example, there can be creative homemakers,
disc jockeys, shoe salespersons, business executives, and even college professors!
5-Emphasis on Psychological Health
Maslow consistently argued that none of the available psychological approaches to the study of behavior
does justice to the healthy human being's functioning, mode of living, or life goals. In particular, he
strongly criticized Freud's preoccupation with the study of neurotic and psychotic individuals. For example,
the nature of graduate students would hardly become evident by studying high school dropouts exclusively.
In fact, such a study would be much more likely to discover what graduate students are not like than what
they are like.
Maslow's Hierarchical Theory of Motivation
Maslow believed that much of human behavior can be explained by the individual's tendency to seek
personal goal states that make life rewarding and meaningful. In fact, motivational processes are the heart
of his personality theory. Maslow (1970) depicted the human being as a "wanting animal" who rarely
reaches a state of complete satisfaction. If nirvana exists, it is temporary. In Maslow's system, as one
personal desire is satisfied, another surfaces to take its place. When a person satisfies this one, still another
clamors for satisfaction. It is characteristic of human life that people, are almost always desiring something.
Maslow proposed that human desires (i.e., motives) are innate and that they are arranged in an ascending
hierarchy of priority or potency.
In this need-hierarchy conception of human motivation. The needs are, in order of potency: (1) basic
physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belongingness and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-
actualization needs, or the need for personal fulfillment. Underlying this scheme is the assumption that low-
order needs must be at least somewhat satisfied before an individual can become aware of or motivated by
higher-order needs.
For instance, he noted that some creative people have pursued the development and expression of their
special talents despite serious hardships and social ridicule. There are also people whose values and ideals
are so strong that they are willing to suffer hunger or thirst or even die rather than renounce them. For
example, social reformers have continued their struggles despite harrassment, jail sentences, physical
deprivation, and, often, certain death. In general, however, the lower the need in the hierarchy, the greater
its strength or priority tends to be.
Let's examine each of Maslow's need categories.
1-Physiological Needs: The most basic, powerful, and obvious of all human needs is the need for physical
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survival. Included in this group are the needs for food, drink, oxygen, activity and sleep, sex, protection
from extreme temperatures, and sensory stimulation. These physiological drives are directly concerned
with the biological maintenance of the organism and must be gratified at some minimal level before the
individual is motivated by higher-order needs.
2-Safety needs: Once the physiological needs have been satisfied, an individual becomes concerned with a
new set, often called the safety or security needs. The primary motivating force here is to ensure a
reasonable degree of certainty, order, structure, and predictability in one's environment. Maslow suggested
that the safety needs are most readily observed in infants and young children because of their relative
helplessness and dependence on adults. Infants, for instance, respond fearfully if they are suddenly dropped
or startled by loud noises or flashing lights. Experience and education eventually neutralize such apparent
dangers, e.g., "I am not afraid of thunder and lightning because I know something about them." The
urgency of safety needs is also evident when a child experiences bodily illnesses of various kinds. A child
with a broken leg will temporarily experience fears, have nightmares, and manifest a need for protection
and reassurance not evident before the accident.
3-Belongingness and Love Needs: The belongingness and love needs constitute the third hierarchical
level. These needs emerge primarily when the physiological and safety needs have been met. An individual
motivated on this level longs for affectionate relationships with others, for a place in his or her family and /
or reference groups. Group membership becomes a dominant goal for the individual. Accordingly, a person
will feel keenly the pangs of loneliness, friendlessness, and rejection, especially when induced by the
absence of friends, relatives, a spouse, or children. Students who attend college far from home fall prey to
the effects of belongingness needs, striving with great intensity to be recognized within a group regardless
of its size.
4-Self-Esteem Needs: When one's needs for being loved and for loving others have been reasonably
gratified, their motivating force diminishes, paving the way far self-esteem needs. Maslow divided these
into two subsidiary sets: self-respect and esteem from others. The farmer includes such things as desire for
competence, confidence, personal strength, adequacy, achievement, independence, and freedom. An
individual needs to know that he or she is worthwhile- capable of mastering tasks and challenges in life.
Esteem from others includes prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, status, fame, reputation, and
appreciation. In this case people need to be appreciated for what they can do, i.e., they must experience
feelings of worth because their competence is recognized and valued by significant others.
5-Self-Actualization Needs: Finally, if all the foregoing needs are sufficiently satisfied, the need for self-
actualization comes to the fore. Maslow characterized self-actualization as the desire to become everything
that one is capable of becoming. The person who has achieved this highest level presses toward the full use
and exploitation of his or her talents, capacities, and potentialities. Self-actualization is a person's desire for
self-improvement, his or her drive to make actual what he or she is potentially. In short, to self-actualize is
to become the kind of person one wants to become-to reach the peak of one's potential: "A musician must
make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be at peace with himself. What a man can be,
he must be. He must be true to his own nature".
In other words, self-actualization generates fulfillment, but it also generates fear of responsibilities and the
unknown.
Why can't all people achieve self-actualization?
According to Maslow; most, if not all, of mankind needs and seeks inner fulfillment. His own research led
him to conclude that the impulse toward realizing one's potentialities is both natural and necessary. Yet
only a few-usually the gifted- ever achieve it (less than I percent of the population Maslow estimated). In
part, he believed that this extremely unfortunate state of affairs exists because many people are simply
blind to their potential; they neither know that it exists nor understand the rewards of self-enhancement.
Rather, they tend to doubt and even fear their own abilities, thereby diminishing their chances of becoming
self-actualized. In addition, the social environment often stifles self-fulfillment.
Maslow's meta-motivational theory
He has given a meta-motivational theory which differentiates between basic needs and meta-needs. The
basic needs are hunger, thirst, affection, and security, self esteem while the meta-needs include justice,
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goodness, beauty, and order.
The basic needs have a hierarchy but meta-needs do not have a hierarchy rather they are instinctual just like
basic needs when they are not fulfilled individual becomes sick.
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Table of Contents:
  1. THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY THEORY:Objectives of Personality Psychology
  2. PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT:Observational Procedures, Rating Scales
  3. MAIN PERSPECTIVES:Psychometrics, observation, Behavioral Coding Systems
  4. SIGMUND FREUD: A PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF PERSONALITY
  5. INSTINCT: WHAT MOTIVATES HUMAN BEHAVIOR?, The Oral Stage
  6. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF SIGMUND FREUD:The Ego, Free association
  7. THEORY OF CARL JUNG:Biographical Sketch, Principles of Opposites, The Persona
  8. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES:Childhood, Young Adulthood, Middle Ages
  9. ALFRED ADLER:Biographical Sketch, Individual Psychology, Feeling of Inferiority
  10. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Fictional Finalism, Social Interest, Mistaken Styles of Life
  11. KAREN HORNEY:Adjustment to Basic Anxiety, Adjustment Techniques
  12. ADJUSTMENT TO BASIC ANXIETY:Moving Towards People, Moving Against People
  13. ERIK ERIKSON:Anatomy and Destiny, Ego Psychology, Goal of Psychotherapy
  14. ERIK ERIKSON:Human Development, Goal of Psychotherapy
  15. SULLIVAN’S INTERPERSONAL THEORY:Core Concepts, The Self-System
  16. SULLIVAN’S INTERPERSONAL THEORY:Cognitive Process, Tension
  17. CONSTITUTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:The Structure of Physique, Evaluation
  18. SHELDON’S SOMATOTYPE THEORY:The Structure of Physique
  19. MASLOW’S THEORY:Self-Actualizers Aren't Angels, Biographical Sketch
  20. MASLOW’S THEORY:Basic Concepts of Humanistic Psychology, Problem Centering
  21. ROGERS PERSON CENTERED APPROACH:Humanistic, Actualizing tendency
  22. ROGERS PERSON CENTERED APPROACH:Fully functioning person
  23. ROGERS PERSON CENTERED APPROACH:Client Centered Therapy,
  24. KELLY’S COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY THEORY:Biographical Sketch
  25. CORE CONCEPTS OF GEORGE KELLY’S COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY
  26. GORDON ALLPORT: A TRAIT THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Personality as a
  27. GORDON ALLPORT: A TRAIT THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Secondary Traits
  28. FACTOR ANALYTIC TRAIT THEORY:Factor Analysis, The Nature of Personality
  29. FACTOR ANALYTIC TRAIT THEORY:The Specification Equation, Research Methods
  30. HENRY MURRAY’S PERSONOLOGY:Need, Levels of Analysis, Thema
  31. HENRY MURRAY’S PERSONOLOGY (CONTINUED)
  32. ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
  33. ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:Reciprocal Determinism
  34. THE STIMULUS RESPONSE THEORY OF DOLLARD AND MILLER:Core Concepts
  35. THE STIMULUS RESPONSE THEORY OF DOLLARD AND MILLER:Innate Equipment
  36. SKINNER’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Biographical Sketch, Books
  37. SKINNER’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Positive Reinforcement, Generalization
  38. ALBERT ELLIS THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Biographical Sketch, Social Factors
  39. THE GRAND PERFECT THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Genes and Biology
  40. PERSPECTIVES OR DOMAINS OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY:Dispositional
  41. PERSPECTIVES OR DOMAINS OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY
  42. PERSPECTIVES OR DOMAINS OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY:Need
  43. THE GRAND THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Psychosexual Stages of Development
  44. PERSONALITY APPRAISAL:Issues in Personality Assessment
  45. PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY: NEW DIRECTIONS IN THE DISCIPLINE