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Information Systems

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Information System (CS507)
Systems vs. Procedures
Procedure is a defined set of instructions aimed at describing how to proceed in achieving a pre-defined
milestone/target. Systems have collection of predefined procedures related to each other in a sequenced
logical manner in order to collectively achieve the desired results. The system & procedures in all kinds of
environment are subject to internal controls and checks that are necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the
6.1 Purpose of Systems & Procedures
The basic purpose behind setting up systems and procedures is to make available information when
required. But when procedures are organized in a logical manner to form systems, the value of information
as an output of a system enhances. When technology is added to the system, scope of a system changes to
include hardware, software and designs linked together in accordance with the procedures contained in that
system to give a purposeful architecture.
6.2 Data & Information
Before defining what information systems are? I would like to once again differentiate between data and
information. Data represents facts of any kind. Information is the processed form of data being verified and
substantiated from various sources.
100,000 is a figure which by itself does not add to the knowledge
When we say 100,000 sales orders, it does add to our knowledge, hence is information.
6.3 Data & Information
Generation of relevant information is the objective of every information system. Now we would move fwd
with the definition & necessity of information systems.
What are Information Systems?
Interrelated components working together to collect, process, store and disseminate information to support
decision making, coordination control, analysis and visualization in an organization.
6.4 Manual Vs Computerised Information Systems
As advancement was made in every field of life, manual information systems were converted to
computerized systems. In manual environment, the concept of transformation was difficult to apply, since
input of data into records was by itself the output which also included simple computations. Concept of
control mechanism grew stronger as computerized information systems emerged. Now the concept of
Information system exists with the usage and benefits of Computers as an inevitable part.
6.5 What is Computer based Information System (CBIS)?
CBIS is an Information System that uses computer & telecommunications technology to perform its
intended tasks. In CBIS, Information technology (IT) becomes a subset of the Information system.
Information System (CS507)
The terms Information System (IS) and Computer Based Information System (CBIS) with the
extensive use of computers in almost every field renders it inevitable to think of an IS as CBIS.
6.6 Why Information Systems?
In modern age, there has been felt a growing need for the use of information systems. Let's take a look at
what factors increased the importance of efficient information systems.
6.7 Emerging Global Economies
High level of foreign trade has resulted in imports and exports which require inter linkage for smooth
coordination. Core business functions (manufacturing, finance and customer support) have been distributed
in different countries. Coordination
6.8 Transforming Industrial Economies
Industrial economies have started merging as knowledge-and-information-based economies. Manufacturing
activities being shifted to low wage countries. More opportunities are available in education, health care,
banks, insurance firms and law firms. More knowledge and information intense products are being created.
Higher commitment expected from customer e.g. overnight package delivery, world wide reservation
6.9 Transformed Business Enterprise
The structure of business enterprise have also changed, initially the organizations used to be Hierarchical,
Centralized, Structured following a Fixed Set of SOP's. However, now the organizations are moving
towards more Flatter, Decentralized and Flexible structures. Information Technology makes it convenient
and efficient to promote this new culture.
6.10 Emerging Digital Firms
Firms where all significant business process and relationships with customers and suppliers and employees
are digitally enabled and key corporate assets are managed through digital firms. This results in rapid
response with more flexibility to survive and getting more global.
Table of Contents:
  1. Need for information, Sources of Information: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sources
  2. Data vs. Information, Information Quality Checklist
  3. Size of the Organization and Information Requirements
  4. Hierarchical organization, Organizational Structure, Culture of the Organization
  5. Elements of Environment: Legal, Economic, Social, Technological, Corporate social responsibility, Ethics
  6. Manual Vs Computerised Information Systems, Emerging Digital Firms
  7. Open-Loop System, Closed Loop System, Open Systems, Closed Systems, Level of Planning
  8. Components of a system, Types of Systems, Attributes of an IS/CBIS
  9. Infrastructure: Transaction Processing System, Management Information System
  10. Support Systems: Office Automation Systems, Decision Support Systems, Types of DSS
  11. Data Mart: Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Types of Models Used in DSS
  12. Organizational Information Systems, Marketing Information Systems, Key CRM Tasks
  13. Manufacturing Information System, Inventory Sub System, Production Sub System, Quality Sub system
  14. Accounting & Financial Information Systems, Human Resource Information Systems
  15. Decision Making: Types of Problems, Type of Decisions
  16. Phases of decision-making: Intelligence Phase, Design Phase, Choice Phase, Implementation Phase
  17. Planning for System Development: Models Used for and Types of System Development Life-Cycle
  18. Project lifecycle vs. SDLC, Costs of Proposed System, Classic lifecycle Model
  19. Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), Design of the information flow, data base, User Interface
  20. Incremental Model: Evaluation, Incremental vs. Iterative
  21. Spiral Model: Determine Objectives, Alternatives and Constraints, Prototyping
  22. System Analysis: Systems Analyst, System Design, Designing user interface
  23. System Analysis & Design Methods, Structured Analysis and Design, Flow Chart
  24. Symbols used for flow charts: Good Practices, Data Flow Diagram
  25. Rules for DFDs: Entity Relationship Diagram
  26. Symbols: Object-Orientation, Object Oriented Analysis
  27. Object Oriented Analysis and Design: Object, Classes, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism
  28. Critical Success Factors (CSF): CSF vs. Key Performance Indicator, Centralized vs. Distributed Processing
  29. Security of Information System: Security Issues, Objective, Scope, Policy, Program
  30. Threat Identification: Types of Threats, Control Analysis, Impact analysis, Occurrence of threat
  31. Control Adjustment: cost effective Security, Roles & Responsibility, Report Preparation
  32. Physical vs. Logical access, Viruses, Sources of Transmissions, Technical controls
  33. Antivirus software: Scanners, Active monitors, Behavior blockers, Logical intrusion, Best Password practices, Firewall
  34. Types of Controls: Access Controls, Cryptography, Biometrics
  35. Audit trails and logs: Audit trails and types of errors, IS audit, Parameters of IS audit
  36. Risk Management: Phases, focal Point, System Characterization, Vulnerability Assessment
  37. Control Analysis: Likelihood Determination, Impact Analysis, Risk Determination, Results Documentation
  38. Risk Management: Business Continuity Planning, Components, Phases of BCP, Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
  39. Web Security: Passive attacks, Active Attacks, Methods to avoid internet attacks
  40. Internet Security Controls, Firewall Security SystemsIntrusion Detection Systems, Components of IDS, Digital Certificates
  41. Commerce vs. E-Business, Business to Consumer (B2C), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), E-Government
  42. Supply Chain Management: Integrating systems, Methods, Using SCM Software
  43. Using ERP Software, Evolution of ERP, Business Objectives and IT
  44. ERP & E-commerce, ERP & CRM, ERP Ownership and sponsor ship
  45. Ethics in IS: Threats to Privacy, Electronic Surveillance, Data Profiling, TRIPS, Workplace Monitoring