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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson-10
LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following concepts:
A. Line and Staff Aspects
LESSON OVERVIEW
After reading this chapter student should know the basic concept of authority, different types of the
authority and difference between the line and staff hangers. Although most firms have a human resource
department with its own manager, all other managers tend to get involved in activities like recruiting,
interviewing, selecting, and training.
A. Line and staff aspects of HRM
I. Authority
Authority is the right to make decisions, to direct the work of others, and to give orders.
Authority refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders to be
obeyed. Authority was a major tenet of the early management writers, the glue that held the organization
together. It was to be delegated downward to lower-level managers. Each management position has specific
inherent rights that incumbents acquire from the position's rank or title.
Authority is related to one's position and ignores personal characteristics. When a position of authority is
vacated, the authority remains with the position.
The early management writers distinguished between two forms of authority.
a. Line Authority
b. Staff Authority
c. Functional Authority
Let's have brief view about the different types of authorities.
a. Line Authority
Line authority entitles a manager to direct the work of an employee. It is the employer-employee authority
relationship that extends from top to bottom. A line manager directs the work of employees and makes
certain decisions without consulting anyone. Sometimes the term line is used to differentiate line managers
from staff managers. Line emphasizes managers whose organizational function contributes directly to the
achievement of organizational objectives.
b. Staff Mangers and Staff Authority
Staff managers have staff authority. A manager's function is classified as line or staff based on the
organization's objectives. As organizations get larger and more complex, line managers find that they do not
have the time, expertise, or resources to get their jobs done effectively. They create staff authority functions
to support, assist, advice, and generally reduce some of the informational burdens they have.
c. Functional control
The authority exerted by a personnel manager as a coordinator of personnel activities. Here the manager
acts as "the right arm of the top executive."
II. Line versus Staff Authority
1.  Line Versus Staff Authority ­ Authority is the right to make decisions, to direct
the work of others, and to give orders. Line managers are authorized to direct the work of subordinates.
Staff managers are authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing their basic goals. HR
managers are generally staff managers.
2.  Line Managers' HRM Responsibilities ­ Most line managers are responsible
for line functions, coordinative functions, and some staff functions.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
III. Cooperative line and staff hr management:
In recruiting and hiring, it's generally the line manager's responsibility to specify the qualifications
employees need to fill specific positions. Then the HR staff takes over. They develop sources of qualified
applicants and conduct initial screening interviews. They administer the appropriate test. Then they refer
the best applicants to the supervisor (line manager), who interviews and selects the ones he/she wants.
IV. Line Manager
Authorized to direct the work of subordinates--they're always someone's boss. In addition, line managers
are in charge of accomplishing the organization's basic goals.
Line Managers' Human Resource Management Responsibilities
1.
Placement
2.
Orientation
3.
Training
4.
Improving job performance
5.
Gaining creative cooperation
6.
Interpreting policies and procedures
7.
Controlling labor costs
8.
Developing employee abilities
9.
Creating and maintaining departmental morale
10.  Protecting employees' health and physical condition
V. Staff Manager
Authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. HR managers are
generally staff managers.
Responsibilities Of Staff Managers
Staff managers assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. They do, however, need
to work in partnership with each other to be successful. Some examples of the HR responsibilities of staff
managers include assistance in hiring, training, evaluating, rewarding, counseling, promoting, and firing of
employees, and the administering of various benefits programs.
VI. Human Resource Manager:
An individual who normally acts in an advisory or staff capacity, working with other managers to help them
deal with human resource matters. One general trend is that HR personnel are servicing an increasing
number of employees. The human
resource  manager  is  primarily
HR E x e c u ti v e s , G e n e r a lis ts &
responsible  for coordinating  the
S p e c ia lis ts
management of human resources to
help the organization achieve its
goals. There is a shared responsibility
between line managers and human
VP
VP
INDUSTRIAL
resource professionals.
HUMAN RESOURCES
RELATIONS
*1 & *2
The recognition of HR as a legitimate
*1 & *3
business unit has made it highly
strategic in nature and more critical
to achieving corporate objectives. To
MANAGER,
MANAGER,
MANAGER,
TRAINING &
COMPENSATION
EMPLOYMENT
succeed,  HR  executives  must
DEVELOPMENT
& BENEFITS
*3
*3
*3
understand
the
complex
*1--Executive
organizational design and be able to
*1--Executive
BENEFITS
ANALYST
*2--Generalist
determine the capabilities of the
*2--Generalist
*3
*3---Specialist
*3 -Specialist
company's workforce, both today
and in the future. HR involvement in
strategy is necessary to ensure that human resources support the firm's mission. The future appears bright
for HR managers willing to forge a strategic partnership with other business units.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
VII. Distinguish among human resource executives, generalists, and specialists.
a. HR Executives
Executives are top-level managers, who report directly to the corporation's chief executive officer or the
head of a major division.
b. HR Generalists:
Generalists are people who perform tasks in a wide variety of human resource-related areas. The generalist
is involved in several, or all, of the human resource management functions.
c. HR Specialist:
Specialist may be a human resource executive, manager, or non-manager who typically is concerned with
only one of the functional areas of human resource management.
Key Terms
Authority: Authority is the right to make decisions, to direct the work of others, and to give orders.
Executives: Executives are top-level managers, who report directly to the corporation's chief executive
officer or the head of a major division.
Generalists: Generalists are people who perform tasks in a wide variety of human resource-related areas.
The generalist is involved in several, or all, of the human resource management functions.
Line Authority: Line authority entitles a manager to direct the work of an employee.
Specialist: Specialist may be a human resource executive, manager, or non-manager who typically is
concerned with only one of the functional areas of human resource management.
53
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System