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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
Lesson 42
LEASE FINANCING AND TYPES OF LEASE FINANCING
Learning Objectives:
After going through this lecture, you would be able to have an understanding of the following
topics:
·  Lease Financing:
·  Types of Lease Financing:
Lease Financing:
·  Leasing of Fixed Assets (Financing of Capital Expenditure)
­  Leasing Company (Lessor) Buys / Owns the Asset and the Lessee (Borrower) Controls,
Operates, and Uses it. Lessor receives a regular and fixed Lease Rental. Lifespan of
lease is limited (few months to several years).
­  It is just like a Collateralized Loan (where the leased asset is the collateral). Lease
Contract is just as serious as a loan agreement. Failure to pay lease rental is just like
failure to pay interest. Can bankrupt the Lessee (Borrower). Lessor (Lender or Leasing
Company) can seize the leased asset and, if the claim is larger, also demand up to 1 year
lease rental.
­  The two parties of lease agreement are:
·  Lessor (Leasing Company)
·  Lessee
­  Ownership vs. Control:
·  Ownership of the asset is with leasing company
·  Control is with lessee
­  In most of the countries 10-30% of fixed assets owned by Companies are leased i.e.
Warehouses, offices, equipment, machinery, computers, cars, furniture, airplanes!
·  General Advantages of Leasing from Lessee's (Borrower / user) Point of View
It guides towards when lease financing should be used:
­  Less risky than investing own large amount of money in expensive fixed assets in a new
businesses that suffer from Cyclicality i.e. Airplanes
­  More suitable for hi-tech assets that become Obsolete quickly.
­  When product demand and hence equipment life is uncertain.
­  Lender has to share portion of operational risk and maintenance costs
Types of Leasing Finance:
·  1- Financial Lease (or Capital Lease)
­  Popular form of Leasing in Pakistan
­  Financial Lease is Fully Amortized: Lessor recovers BOTH the full Value of Asset
(Principal amount) AND the Profit (in form of interest or mark-up). BOTH are built
into the Lease Rental amount collected by the Lessor over the lifespan of the Lease.
Recall AMORTIZATION TABLE for Bank Loan where Principal and Interest are
recovered in equal regular installments.
Fully Amortized Lease means the lessor recovers the principal amount plus interest amount.
­  Financial Lease is NOT Cancelable: If Lessee MUST Cancel or Terminate the Lease
Prematurely then pays heavy penalty to Lessor.
­  Example of Financial Lease: You need to buy a Pentium IV computer hardware system
complete with peripherals but you don't have enough money. You go to computer
hardware store and negotiate the price for the system at Rs.50000. You then contact a
leasing company to buy the computer system and lease it to you in return for a monthly
rental of say, Rs.5000 per month. After one year, if you have paid all the lease rentals
on time, the Leasing Company will transfer the Ownership to you.
­  Advantage of Financial Lease for Lessee:
·  If factory needs to buy new machine urgently and does NOT have enough
finances.
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
·
Leased Assets (and lease liabilities) can sometimes be treated OFF THE
BALANCE SHEET ITEMS. Accounting Standards (i.e. FASB USA) in some
countries restrict this so generally speaking, Lease DOES affect DEBT RATIO
& Capital Structure in similar way as Loan on Balance Sheet.
·
If Company can NOT justify an increase in Assets on the Balance Sheet based
on historical earnings. Capital expenditure in Leased Asset can be "Expensed"
out gradually.
·
Lease Rental is a TAX-DEDUCTIBLE EXPENSE just like interest payments.
·
As long as IRR from leased equipment is higher than cost of lease financing.
·
2- Operating Lease (or Service Lease)
­  Operating Lease offers Financing AND MAINTENANCE: often the Lessor is the
Supplier / Vendor of the Asset i.e. IBM
­  Operating Lease is NOT FULLY AMORTIZED AND IS CANCELLABLE
·  Example: Car rental company (Lessor) charges you Rs.1000 per day for renting
out a new Honda Civic with driver. You can lease the car for 2 days. You will
pay the Lessor Rs.2000. BUT, the value of the car might be Rs.1 million.
Lessor does NOT expect you to pay that entire amount for using the car for just
2 days. The car rental company will service and maintain the car in good
condition so it can rent it out to other people. This way, they can recover the
value of the car from 1000 days of lease rent (= value / daily rental = 1,000,000
/ 1000)!! This is the Payback Period (without taking their maintenance costs
and profit margin). You can Cancel the lease and return the car after 1 day.
Now you just have to pay Rs.1000.
­  Other Examples of Operating Lease: IBM for Computer Hardware, Boeing for
Airplanes
By not fully amortizing operating lease means the leasing company does not expect to recover the
whole amount or value of asset from you.
3- Sale & Lease-Back
­  Sale & Lease-Back is the Most Interesting Leasing Scheme ­ creative extension of
Financial Lease where the Seller of the asset is the User-lessee. User sells his asset to
Leasing Company in return for lump-sum cash and then repays the Leasing Company in
form of Lease Rentals over a period of time to buy-back the asset. It is considered to be
a creative way of mobilizing your asset to raise debt.
­  Example of Sale & Lease-Back: You need Rs.300000 to start a business and all you
own is a car. What can you do? Go to Leasing Company. Ask them to buy your car for
Rs.300000 and then lease it back to you for 1 year!!! This way, the Leasing Company
will take ownership of the car and give you Rs.300000 cash to start your business.
Company has bought the car and you can start business from the cash you received.
Suppose you expect to earn Rs.50000 per month from your business. Then you can
easily pay Rs.30000 per month as lease rental and get your car back in 1 year.
Remember company bought car from you for Rs.300000 but you will pay suppose
Rs.360000 back to company at the end of period to have your car back. Rs.60000 is the
profit or interest or mark-up Company is charging above the principal amount of
Rs.300000.
Lease Analyses & Calculations:
·  To Buy or To Lease? ­ That is the Question. Here we are doing some numerical calculations
that can help us to decide whether it is better to lease?
·  Assume that the Decision to Acquire the Asset has already been made independently at the
Capital Budgeting Stage (which comes first).
·  First value is NPV (Similar to Capital Budgeting) modified to NAL for Leasing Analysis
­  NAL = Net Advantage of Leasing = PV (Cost of Owning Asset) ­ PV (Cost of Leasing).
If NAL >0 then Leasing is Better than Buying.
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
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·
Cost of Owning Asset: Cost of Owning includes following Cash Flows: Initial
investment Io, yearly maintenance and service costs, yearly depreciation tax
savings, replacement or the salvage value of the asset at the end of its life and
Final net residual value (after any tax).
·  Cost of Leasing includes following Cash Flows: Yearly Lease Rentals, Yearly
Tax Savings associated with Lease Rentals
·  Discount Rate "r": Generate Cash Flow forecasts for life of asset. Cash Flows
are quite FIXED AND CERTAIN so use a LOW DISCOUNT RATE = r =
mark-up rate on bank loan OR use Risk Free Rate of Return = rRF = T-bill
Interest rate. If Company is running in operation then use actual average cost of
Debt.
·
IRR (Similar to Capital Budgeting)
­  Set the NAL = 0 and solve for the Discount Rate "r" using Trial and Error or Iteration.
This gives us the value of IRR.
·  Most commonly used criterion ­ IRR % can simply be compared to mark-up %
on bank loans and also to the market rate of interest and inflation rate.
·  If IRR < interest rate on loan then leasing is better than buying
Lease Analysis (WACC):
·  WACC (Capital Structuring Criterion)
­  WACC = rDxD + rExE  (where rD is AFTER-TAX Cost of Debt). Lease IRR % affects
the "rD" After Tax Cost of Debt. WACC can be used as the Discount Rate "r" in NPV
calculations in Capital Budgeting.
­  Practically speaking, corporate financing and capital structure have feedback effect on
capital budgeting decision. This means that capital budgeting ranking of projects may
have to be revised taking into account the cost of debt (or leasing). The effect is minor
because projects are selected based on strategic value and operational efficiency and not
just minor differences in NPV. Of course, feedback effect goes entirely against mm
theory which is for ideal, efficient markets.
·  Leasing (and financing decisions in general) can (very rarely) have a
FEEDBACK EFFECT on Capital Budgeting Decisions. Suppose that you had
to choose one of 3 possible projects and you picked Project A based at the
Capital Budgeting Stage (based on NPV).  Many weeks later, you begin to
decide where to raise the money and HOW TO FINANCE Project A. You
need to take a bank loan at 15% pa interest. You realize now that another
Project B (which had been rejected at the Capital Budgeting Stage) uses
equipment that can be LEASED at a lower cost (say 13%). Now, you had done
the Capital Budgeting exercise using your company's WACC as the discount
rate in the NPV calculation. That WACC used the company's actual interest
cost on bank loans as the after-tax cost of debt. But, since Project C can use the
cheaper Lease Financing, you should RE-CALCULATE its NPV using the
Cost of Lease (i.e. IRR) as the discount rate. This case is rare and the difference
of a few percentage points in the cost of debt should not change a fundamental
decision based on cash-flows, operational effectiveness, and overall strategic
advantage of investing in a project which are considered at the Capital
Budgeting Stage.
175
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Corporate Financing & Capital Structure,
  2. OBJECTIVES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FINANCIAL ASSETS AND FINANCIAL MARKETS:Real Assets, Bond
  3. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Basic Financial Statements, Profit & Loss account or Income Statement
  4. TIME VALUE OF MONEY:Discounting & Net Present Value (NPV), Interest Theory
  5. FINANCIAL FORECASTING AND FINANCIAL PLANNING:Planning Documents, Drawback of Percent of Sales Method
  6. PRESENT VALUE AND DISCOUNTING:Interest Rates for Discounting Calculations
  7. DISCOUNTING CASH FLOW ANALYSIS, ANNUITIES AND PERPETUITIES:Multiple Compounding
  8. CAPITAL BUDGETING AND CAPITAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES:Techniques of capital budgeting, Pay back period
  9. NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) AND INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR):RANKING TWO DIFFERENT INVESTMENTS
  10. PROJECT CASH FLOWS, PROJECT TIMING, COMPARING PROJECTS, AND MODIFIED INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (MIRR)
  11. SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING:SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING, SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
  12. CAPITAL RATIONING AND INTERPRETATION OF IRR AND NPV WITH LIMITED CAPITAL.:Types of Problems in Capital Rationing
  13. BONDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF BONDS:Textile Weaving Factory Case Study, Characteristics of bonds, Convertible Bonds
  14. BONDS’ VALUATION:Long Bond - Risk Theory, Bond Portfolio Theory, Interest Rate Tradeoff
  15. BONDS VALUATION AND YIELD ON BONDS:Present Value formula for the bond
  16. INTRODUCTION TO STOCKS AND STOCK VALUATION:Share Concept, Finite Investment
  17. COMMON STOCK PRICING AND DIVIDEND GROWTH MODELS:Preferred Stock, Perpetual Investment
  18. COMMON STOCKS – RATE OF RETURN AND EPS PRICING MODEL:Earnings per Share (EPS) Pricing Model
  19. INTRODUCTION TO RISK, RISK AND RETURN FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT:Diversifiable Risk, Diversification
  20. RISK FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT, PROBABILITY GRAPHS AND COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
  21. 2- STOCK PORTFOLIO THEORY, RISK AND EXPECTED RETURN:Diversification, Definition of Terms
  22. PORTFOLIO RISK ANALYSIS AND EFFICIENT PORTFOLIO MAPS
  23. EFFICIENT PORTFOLIOS, MARKET RISK AND CAPITAL MARKET LINE (CML):Market Risk & Portfolio Theory
  24. STOCK BETA, PORTFOLIO BETA AND INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY MARKET LINE:MARKET, Calculating Portfolio Beta
  25. STOCK BETAS &RISK, SML& RETURN AND STOCK PRICES IN EFFICIENT MARKS:Interpretation of Result
  26. SML GRAPH AND CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL:NPV Calculations & Capital Budgeting
  27. RISK AND PORTFOLIO THEORY, CAPM, CRITICISM OF CAPM AND APPLICATION OF RISK THEORY:Think Out of the Box
  28. INTRODUCTION TO DEBT, EFFICIENT MARKETS AND COST OF CAPITAL:Real Assets Markets, Debt vs. Equity
  29. WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL (WACC):Summary of Formulas
  30. BUSINESS RISK FACED BY FIRM, OPERATING LEVERAGE, BREAK EVEN POINT& RETURN ON EQUITY
  31. OPERATING LEVERAGE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, ROE, BREAK EVEN POINT AND BUSINESS RISK
  32. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Capital Structure Theory
  33. MODIFICATIONS IN MILLAR MODIGLIANI CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORY:Modified MM - With Bankruptcy Cost
  34. APPLICATION OF MILLER MODIGLIANI AND OTHER CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORIES:Problem of the theory
  35. NET INCOME AND TAX SHIELD APPROACHES TO WACC:Traditionalists -Real Markets Example
  36. MANAGEMENT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Practical Capital Structure Management
  37. DIVIDEND PAYOUT:Other Factors Affecting Dividend Policy, Residual Dividend Model
  38. APPLICATION OF RESIDUAL DIVIDEND MODEL:Dividend Payout Procedure, Dividend Schemes for Optimizing Share Price
  39. WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT:Impact of working capital on Firm Value, Monthly Cash Budget
  40. CASH MANAGEMENT AND WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING:Inventory Management, Accounts Receivables Management:
  41. SHORT TERM FINANCING, LONG TERM FINANCING AND LEASE FINANCING:
  42. LEASE FINANCING AND TYPES OF LEASE FINANCING:Sale & Lease-Back, Lease Analyses & Calculations
  43. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS:Leveraged Buy-Outs (LBO’s), Mergers - Good or Bad?
  44. INTERNATIONAL FINANCE (MULTINATIONAL FINANCE):Major Issues Faced by Multinationals
  45. FINAL REVIEW OF ENTIRE COURSE ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Financial Statements and Ratios