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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Lecture 41
What is Change?
Change is the process of moving from one state (current state) to another (future state). It refers to
actions taken by organizational leaders to achieve and maintain outstanding performance in a dynamic
Facts about Change:
o  Change is inevitable
o  Change is uncomfortable
o  Change is disruptive
o  The complexity of change has increased
Dynamics of Change:
People .......
o  feel awkward, self-conscious
o  think first about what they have to give up
o  feel alone
o  can only handle so much
o  are at different levels of readiness
o  revert to the old as soon as the pressure is off
Organizations must learn faster & adapt to the rapid changes in the environment....
"Change takes place, no matter what deters it". (Plato, 428-347BC)
Organization's long-term success: ability to manage change
Types of Organizational Change
Corporate Level
Chain of command, unity of
Growth, stability, turnaround,
command, division of labor
System process
Business Level
Prospecting, defending, and
Formal and informal, line and
staff, centralize and
Functional Level
Marketing, operation, finance
Organization design
Job design
Job rotation, job
simplification, work teams
Forces for change
External: change in the external (Macro environment) i.e. new technologies, political, economic,
financial conditions, world market, customer demands, changes in competition.
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Internal: change in internal environment of the organization (micro environment) i.e. re-
engineering, costs- revision of plan/objectives, communications, employee turnover, changes in
work practices.
Change Requires Leaders Who Can....
o  Create a realistic sense of urgency for change
o  Create a clear vision of the future
o  Remove obstacles to change
o  Anchor changes in the organization's culture
o  Follow through with plans
Change Models
Lewin's Model
Moving (Making Adjustment)
A Comprehensive Change Model
Recognize the need for Change
Identify possible resistance to the change and plan to
overcome it
Plan the Change interventions
Implement the Change interventions
Control the Change
Lewin's Change Management Model: Understanding the Three Stages of Change
Change is a common thread that runs through all businesses regardless of size, industry and age. Our
world is changing fast and, as such, organizations must change quickly too. Organizations that handle
change well thrive, whilst those that do not may struggle to survive.
The concept of "change management" is a familiar one in most businesses today. But, how businesses
manage change (and how successful they are at it) varies enormously depending on the nature of the
business, the change and the people involved. And a key part of this depends on how far people within
it understand the change process.
One of the cornerstone models for understanding organizational change was developed by Kurt Lewin
back in the 1950s, and still holds true today. His model is known as Unfreeze ­ Change ­ Refreeze,
refers to the three-stage process of change he describes. Lewin, a physicist as well as social scientist,
explained organizational change using the analogy of changing the shape of a block of ice.
Understanding Lewin's Model If you have a large cube of ice, but realize that what you want is a
cone of ice, what do you do? First you must melt the ice to make it amenable to change (unfreeze).
Then you must mold the iced water into the shape you want (change). Finally, you must solidify the
new shape (refreeze).
By looking at change as process with distinct stages, you can prepare yourself for what is coming and
make a plan to manage the transition ­ looking before you leap, so to speak. All too often, people go
into change blindly, causing much unnecessary turmoil and chaos.
To begin any successful change process, you must first start by understanding why the change must
take place. As Lewin put it, "Motivation for change must be generated before change can occur. One
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
must be helped to re-examine many cherished assumptions about oneself and one's relations to others."
This is the unfreezing stage from which change begins.
This first stage of change involves preparing the organization to accept that change is necessary, which
involves break down the existing status quo before you can build up a new way of operating.
Key to this is developing a compelling message showing why the existing way of doing things cannot
continue. This is easiest to frame when you can point to declining sales figures, poor financial results,
worrying customer satisfaction surveys, or suchlike: These show that things have to change in a way
that everyone can understand.
To prepare the organization successfully, you need to start at its core ­ you need to challenge the
beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors that currently define it. Using the analogy of a building, you
must examine and be prepared to change the existing foundations as they might not support add-on
storeys; unless this is done, the whole building may risk collapse.
This first part of the change process is usually the most difficult and stressful. When you start cutting
down the "way things are done", you put everyone and everything off balance. You may evoke strong
reactions in people, and that's exactly what needs to done.
By forcing the organization to re-examine its core, you effectively create a (controlled) crisis, which in
turn can build a strong motivation to seek out a new equilibrium. Without this motivation, you won't
get the buy-in and participation necessary to effect any meaningful change.
After the uncertainty created in the unfreeze stage; the change stage is where people begin to resolve
their uncertainty and look for new ways to do things. People start to believe and act in ways that
The transition from unfreeze to change does not happen overnight: People take time to embrace the new
direction and participate proactively in the change. A related change model, the Change Curve, focuses
on the specific issue of personal transitions in a changing environment and is useful for understanding
this specific aspect in more detail.
In order to accept the change and contribute to making the change successful, people need to
understand how the changes will benefit them. Not everyone will fall in line just because the change is
necessary and will benefit the company. This is a common assumption and pitfall that should be
avoided. Time and communication are the two keys to success for the changes to occur. People need
time to understand the changes and they also need to feel highly connected to the organization
throughout the transition period. When you are managing change, this can require a great deal of time
and effort and hands-on management is usually the best approach.
When the changes are taking shape and people have embraced the new ways of working, the
organization is ready to refreeze. The outward signs of the refreeze are a stable organization chart,
consistent job descriptions, and so on. The refreeze stage also needs to help people and the organization
internalize or institutionalize the changes. This means making sure that the changes are used all the
time; and that they are incorporated into everyday business. With a new sense of stability, employees
The rationale for creating a new sense of stability in our every changing world is often questioned.
Even though change is a constant in many organizations, this refreezing stage is still important. Without
it, employees get caught in a transition trap where they aren't sure how things should be done, so
nothing ever gets done to full capacity. In the absence of a new frozen state, it is very difficult to tackle
the next change initiative effectively. How do you go about convincing people that something needs
changing if you haven't allowed the most recent changes to sink in? Change will be perceived as
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
change for change's sake, and the motivation required to implement new changes simply won't be
As part of the Refreezing process, make sure that you celebrate the success of the change. This helps
people to find closure, thanks them for enduring a painful time, and helps them believe that future
Practical Steps for Using the Framework:
Determine what needs to change
o  Survey the organization to understand the current state
o  Understand why change has to take place.
Ensure there is strong support from upper management
Use Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Management to identify and win the support of
key people within the organization.
Frame the issue as one of organization-wide importance.
Create the need for change
Create a compelling message as to why change has to occur
Use your vision and strategy as supporting evidence
Communicate the vision in terms of the change required
Emphasize the "why".
Manage and understand the doubts and concerns
Remain open to employee concerns and address in terms of the need to change.
Communicate often
o  Do so throughout the planning and implementation of the changes
o  Describe the benefits
o  Explain exactly the how the changes will effect everyone
o  Prepare everyone for what is coming.
Dispel rumors
o  Answer questions openly and honestly
o  Deal with problems immediately
o  Relate the need for change back to operational necessities.
Empower action
o  Provide plenty of options for employee involvement
o  Have line managers provide day­to­day direction.
Involve people in the process
o  Generate short-term successes to reinforce the change
o  Negotiate with external stakeholders as necessary (such as employee organizations).
Anchor the changes into the culture
o  Identity what supports the change
o  Identify barriers to sustaining change.
Develop ways to sustain the change
o  Ensure leadership support
o  Create a reward system
o  Establish feedback systems
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Adapt the organizational structure as necessary.
Provide support and training
o  Keep everyone informed and supported.
Celebrate success!
Resistance to Change:
Sources of Resistance to Change
o  Facts: Provable statements that identify reality.
o  Beliefs: Subjective opinions that cannot be proven.
o  Values: What people believe are important and worth pursuing or doing.
Focuses of Resistance to Change
o  Self: The reaction of individuals who feel their self-interests are threatened by change.
o  Others: The consideration given to how others will be affected by change.
o  Work environment: Change in the working environment threatens individuals control of
the environment
Managerial Perspective:
Critical factors in managing complex change:
o  Trust
o  Vision
o  Skills
o  Resources
o  Incentives
o  Action plan
o  Accountability
Example Change Initiatives
o  New e-mail system
o  New ERP system
o  Introducing a new senior manager
o  Total Quality Management/Six Sigma
o  Postage coming from a printer--not using stamps
o  Change in work hours
Starting Out...3 Key Questions
o  Where are you; what is the current state? Why change?
o  Where do you want be?
o  How are you planning to get there?
Answering these questions will provide the basic scope ­ a short document that lays out the case for
change, the benefits to be gained and a basic risk assessment that addresses the major unknowns.
The Eight-Stage Model of Planned Organizational Change
o  Establish a sense of urgency.
o  Form a powerful guiding coalition.
o  Develop a compelling vision and strategy.
o  Communicate the vision widely.
o  Empower employees to act on the vision.
o  Generate short-term wins.
o  Consolidate gains, create greater change.
o  Institutionalize changes in the organization culture.
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Some Barriers to Effective Change
The compelling case for change
o  Failing to "paint the right picture" of the future state
o  Poor employee involvement and discussion
o  Failing to build up the case for change over time ­ too rushed
o  Failing to share key data with employees ­ lack of transparency
Not understanding what change is
o  Failing to see change as a journey, not a single event
o  Over-simplified view of "getting the change out the way"
Employee involvement
o  Failing to involve employees in feedback sessions
o  Failing to involve employee teams in optimising solutions and developing implementation
plans that will work!
Ownership confusion
o  Failing to establish clearly who is responsible for what, and who is making the decisions
Ineffective implementation
o  Viewing implementation as the "easy part"!
o  Failing to clarify who is coordinating implementation
o  An unclear transition plan of roles and responsibilities
o  Poor alignment of senior team around leadership behaviours
o  Poor communication ­ confusion about what is happening, and when
Perpetuating "the way we do things here" too long
o  Failing to see the impact of the wider sector or economic environment
o  "Good times" may have masked some less than effective management practice!
Leadership during Change: Change will simply not happen without effective leadership in the
organization. To a large degree change is really about;
o  Good communication
o  Personal desires
o  Alternative culture and culture change
o  Anxiety and loss of control
o  Hidden agendas
These are all leadership issues
What are the leadership behaviours most relevant to change situations?
Communicates a clear and consistent vision (or plan) with commitment
Champions change ­ able to engage others and get them ready (convince)
Treats people with respect
Demonstrates integrity and high ethical standards
Sets and sustains high personal standards of delivery
Is decisive, particularly when confronted with challenging issues
Able to adapt and capitalise on new opportunities
Builds effective relationships
Builds effective team performance
Openly encourages and recognises the contribution of others
Gives constructive feedback on a regular basis
Encourages personal development and provides appropriate opportunities
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
8 Steps to Effective Change Leadership
So what should leaders do to help make change more effective?
1) Recognise that you are a role model
2) Be visible, and listen to concerns - encourage constructive debate and feedback
3) Even if you don't "buy-in" fully to what is happening, you still have a responsibility to help
employees through the process in a supportive, positive and constructive way
4) Be consistent in what you say, and never speculate ­ if you don't know or can't say, then
say so
5) Be empathetic to concerns, and help people understand what is actually happening, not
what they think is happening
6) Ensure that business keeps running smoothly during the change process
7) Go out of your way to involve people and explain what is happening
8) Focus on team working and team development needs
Key Messages
o  Leader Qualities of Holistic Thinking and Holistic Action
o  Beware of Attempts to Improve Performance through Singular Changes
o  Building the Complementary Changes the Integrated Systems of Mutually Reinforcing
o  Be Prepared for the Dangers of Transitions and the Perils of the 'J' Curve
Things May Get Worse Before They Get Better. Need For Strong Leaders To Survive Transition
Partial Changes may be Politically and Emotionally Easier to Contemplate, but Encourage
Long Term Declines
Beware of Complementary Traps: Sticking With the Old System that Works
Learning is Crucial, But it is Also a Challenge Complements May Be:
Hard to Understand
Hard to Implement
Hard to Imitate
Building the Complements and the Capabilities that Underpin them Takes Time and Courage
Building Complements Requires Customization
The Virtual Cycle of Complementary Change Needs to Stay In Motion
Leading Change is a Continuous Process
The Crucial Importance of:
Duration of Leader in Post
Careful Management of Leader Succession
Leading Continuity and Change
The Importance of Inter-Generational Leader Effects
Imposing the change: some issues to consider
o  Compliance versus Commitment
o  Short term "speed" versus long term satisfaction with the change
o  "Powerless leader"
The goal of Fearless Change: People become so involved and interested in the change process that they
want to change.
Change is not an event. It is a process.
Material presented during this course is taken from different books, presentations and work done by
great peoples in this field to make the material understandable for a common person and purely for
learning purpose. Material/work used from different sources is highly acknowledged.
Table of Contents:
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature