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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 09
LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES
Theoretical based: Theories always provided basis for the understanding of different concepts. In this
lecture main focus ill be to understand theoretical concepts of Leadership. These theories will also help
us to understand the behaviors and their relationship with the work environment.
Let's discuss first the basic approaches/theories which will help us to understand the other approaches
and theories directly related to leaderships.
Theory X and Theory-Y:
1. Theory X According to this theory, employees dislike work, are lazy, seek
to
avoid
responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
2. Theory Y the assumption is that employees are creative, seek
responsibility,
and
can
exercise self-direction.
Theory X assumed that lower-order needs (Maslow's) dominated individuals, and Theory Y assumed
that higher-order needs dominated the individual behaviors.
Hawthorne experiments: The Hawthorne Studies were, without question, the most important
contribution to the developing organizational behavior. These were series of experiments conducted
from 1924 to the early 1930s at Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois. The
studies were initially devised as a scientific management experiment to assess the impact of changes in
various physical environment variables on employee productivity. Other experiments looked at
redesigning jobs, making changes in workday and workweek length, introducing rest periods, and
introducing individual versus group wage plans.
The researchers concluded that social norms or group standards were the key determinants of individual
work behavior. Although not without critics (of procedures, analyses of findings, and the conclusions),
the Hawthorne studies did stimulate an interest in human behavior in organizations.
Leadership Theories/ Approaches
The above theoretical backgrounds and other similar studies provided basis to develop leadership
approaches/theories.
Early studies were based on two theories:
1. Trait Theories (focuses on leader qualities/traits)
2. Behavior Theories (focuses on leader actions/behavior)
1. Trait Theory/Approach: the basic focus was on the traits of leaders. Leaders are born with certain
traits which make them leaders. Common believes were that "Leaders are born, not made." and
Leaders possess certain traits that make them leaders
Theories that attempt to isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from  non-leaders.
Attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership  have been more successful.
Might be used as a basis for selecting the "right" people to assume formal leadership positions
Some facts/basis about this trait theory is given bellow.
1. Qualities such as intelligence, charisma, decisiveness, enthusiasm, strength, bravery,
integrity, and self-confidence.
2. These responses represent, in essence, trait theories of leadership.
3. If the concept of traits were to prove valid, all leaders would have to possess specific
characteristics.
4. Research efforts at isolating these traits resulted in a number of dead ends.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
5. Attempts failed to identify a set of traits that would always differentiate leaders.
6. However, attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more
successful.
7. Six traits on which leaders are seen to differ from non-leaders include drive, the desire to
lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, and job-relevant knowledge.
8. Explanations based solely on traits ignore situational factors.
9. Possessing the appropriate traits only makes it more likely that an individual will be an
effective leader.
10. He or she still has to take the right actions.
11. A major movement away from trait theories began as early as the 1940s.
Sir Francis Galton: One of the earliest leadership theorists Wrote "Hereditary Genius" pub. 1869. He
believes "leadership qualities were genetic". This theory assumes physical and psychological
characteristics like basic intelligence, clear and strong values and high personal energy that matters for
effective leadership.
Edwin identified six traits for effective leadership:
1.
Need for achievement
2.
Intelligence
3.
Decisiveness
4.
Self-confidence
5.
Initiative
6.
Supervisory ability
TRAIT APPROACH - People have special qualities that cause them to assume leadership positions in
any situation.
Personal Characteristics of Leaders
Social Characteristics
Personal Characteristics
Sociability, interpersonal skills
Energy
Cooperativeness
Physical stamina
Tact, diplomacy
Intelligence and Ability
Work-Related Characteristics
Intelligence, cognitive ability
Drive, desire to excel
Knowledge
Responsibility in pursuit of
Judgment, decisiveness
goals
Personality
Persistence against obstacles,
Self-confidence
tenacity
Honesty and integrity
Social background
Enthusiasm
Education
Desire to lead
Mobility
Independence
We  can  also
observe
following
common traits in the leaders which are very essential for the process of leadership.
Intelligence
Dominance
Self-confidence
High energy level
Task relevant knowledge
Behavioral Theories of Leadership:
According to this theory, there are behavioral determinants of leadership which can be learned.
People can be trained to be effective leaders.
Some facts/basis about this behavior theory is given bellow.
1. It was hoped that the behavioral theories would provide more definitive answers.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
a) If behavioral studies were correct, we could train people to be leaders.
2. We shall briefly reviewed during our lecture three of the most popular studies:
a) Kurt Lewin's studies at the University of Iowa.
Explored three leadership styles
autocratic - leader dictated work methods
democratic - involved employees in decision making
­  used feedback to coach employees
 laissez-faire - gave the group complete freedom
­
satisfaction higher with democratic leader
b) The Ohio State group.
 identified two dimensions of leadership
­
Initiating structure
­
Consideration
c) The University of Michigan studies.
­
Studied leaders' behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance
­
Identified two dimensions of behavior:
 Job centered (Initiating Structure)
 Employee centered (Showing Consideration)
Are There Identifiable Leadership Behaviors?
1.  One of the first studies; Kurt Lewin and his associates at the University of Iowa. Three
leadership behaviors or styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.
2. An autocratic style tends to centralize authority, dictate work methods, etc.
3. The democratic style tends to involve employees in decision making, delegates authority,
encourages participation in deciding work methods, and uses feedback to coach employees.
a) Further classified: consultative and participative.
b) A democratic-consultative leader seeks input but makes the final decision.
c) A democratic-participative leader often allows employees to have a "say."
4. The laissez-faire leader generally gives employees complete freedom.
5. Which one of the three leadership styles was most effective?
a) The laissez-faire style was ineffective on every performance criterion.
b) Democratic leadership style could contribute to both quantity and high quality of work.
c) Later studies of autocratic and democratic styles of leadership showed mixed results.
d) Group members' satisfaction levels were generally higher under a democratic leader.
6. Tannenbaum and Schmidt developed a continuum of leader behaviors.
7. Tannenbaum and Schmidt proposed that managers look at forces within themselves, forces
within the employees, and forces within the situation when choosing their style.
8. Suggested that managers should move toward more employee-centered styles in the long
run.
a) Such behaviors would increase employees' motivation, decision quality, teamwork,
morale, and development.
Why Were the Ohio State Studies Important?
1. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories.
2. These studies sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior.
3. Beginning with over 1,000 dimensions, they eventually narrowed the list down to two
categories: initiating structure and consideration.
a) Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure
his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
b) Consideration is defined as the extent to which a leader has job relationships
characterized by mutual trust and respect for employees' ideas and feelings.
4. Research found that a leader high in initiating structure and consideration achieved high
employee performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low on
consideration, initiating structure, or both.
5. However, leader behavior characterized as high on initiating structure led to greater rates of
grievances, absenteeism, and turnover etc., for workers performing routine tasks.
Other studies found that high consideration was negatively related to performance ratings of the
leader by his or her manager.
Leadership Dimensions of the University of Michigan Studies:
1. Two dimensions of leadership behavior, employee oriented and production oriented.
a) Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relations, took a personal interest
in employees' needs, and accepted individual differences among members.
b) The production-oriented leaders emphasized the technical aspects of the job, focused
on accomplishing their group's tasks, and regarded group members as a means to that
end.
2. The Michigan researchers strongly favored leaders who were employee oriented.
What Did the Behavioral Theories Teach Us about Leadership?
1. Behavioral researchers have had very little success in identifying consistent relationships
between patterns of leadership behavior and successful performance.
2. What was missing, consideration of the situational factors that influence success or failure?
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton
­  Developed a managerial grid reflecting Ohio and Michigan dimensions
­  The ideal leader has high concern for both production and people
Managerial Grid:
1. A two-dimensional view of leadership style developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton.
a) Based on the styles of "concern for people" and "concern for production."
b) Essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure
and the Michigan dimensions of employee orientation and production orientation.
2.
The grid depicted has nine possible positions along each axis, creating 81 different positions
into which a leader's style may fall.
3.
The grid shows the dominating factors in a leader's thinking in regard to getting results.
a) The five key positions are focused on the four corners of the grid and a middle-ground
area.
4.
Blake and Mouton concluded that managers perform best using a 9,9 style.
5.
The grid offers only a framework for conceptualizing leadership style--it offers no answers
to the question of what makes an effective leader.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature