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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 20
LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT
During last two lectures we tried to understand the concept of power and its relationship with the
process of leadership. In this lecture we will try to understand the concepts of empowerment and its
relationship with leadership.
What is Empowerment?
Empowerments is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and
control work and decision making in autonomous ways. It is the state of feeling self-empowered to take
control of one's own destiny. OR Empowerment is a social action process that promotes participation of
people, organizations, and communities towards the goals of increase individual and community
control, political efficacy, improved quality of community life and social justice." (Wallerstein, 1992)
Some other definitions/facts about empowerment are:
It is a management approach designed to give frontline employees the authority they need to do
what needs to be done without having to ask/check with management.
In spite of the entire favorable buzz, there is little hard evidence that it has really made much
difference in routine organizational life.
The concepts of encouraging and authorizing workers to take the initiative to improve operations,
reduce costs, and improve product quality and customer service.
Some empowerment does exist and, when accompanied by accountability and appropriate
guidance, it can lead to increased employee and customer satisfaction.
Significant employee empowerment is rare, and it is not easy to initiate or maintain.
What are some of the Common Myths about Empowerment?
Everybody's doing it.
It's easy.
Every manager wants empowered employees.
Every employee wants to be empowered.
All the manager needs to do is leave the empowered employees alone.
The organization has the responsibility to create a work environment which helps foster the ability and
desire of employees to act in empowered ways. The work organization has the responsibility to remove
barriers that limit the ability of staff to act in empowered ways. Because every body wants
empowerment and every manager/leader wants empowered employees.
Always keep in your mind "Empower your employees"- The most important asset in the organizations.
Empowered personnel have "responsibility, a sense of ownership, satisfaction in accomplishments,
power over what and how things are done, recognition for their ideas, and the knowledge that they are
important to the organization" (Turney 1993: 30). Without productive employees, the organization is
nothing and can do nothing. Empowerment works the best when employees need their organization as
much as the organization needs them, "and the need is much more than a paycheck and benefit
package" (Johnson, 1993: 47).
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Why Important? Powerlessness
Living in poverty
Powerlessness
Relatively low in hierarchy
Chronic Stress
Disease
Lack of Social Support
Lack of Control Over
Income Inequities
Destiny
Racial Discrimination
What is Empowerment, and How Can Empower Others?
The power keys to empowerment: there are two views about power keys to empowerment;
1. Traditional view: in traditional view power is relational in terms of individuals.
2. Empowerment view: In empowerment view, the emphasis is on the ability to make things
happen. Power is relational in terms of problems and opportunities, not individuals.
\Power as an expanding pie: With empowerment, employees must be trained to expand their
power and their new influence potential. Empowerment changes the dynamics between
supervisors and subordinates.
Ways to Expand Power: there are different ways to expand power;
1. Clearly define roles and responsibilities to the employees.
2. Provide opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act. This
is the responsibility of top management.
3. Emphasize different ways of exercising influence to make sure that every thing is going on
smoothly.
4. Provide support and help to individuals so they become comfortable with developing their
power.
5. Expand inducements for thinking and acting, not just obeying.
Empowerment Outcomes-Organizational:
Well-Functioning Services
Publicly accountable
Efficient
Integrated
Culturally appropriate
Maintained overtime
Organizational Effectiveness and Capacity
Sustainability
Produce outcomes
Effective leadership
Empowering to members
Bridging social capital
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Empowering Organizations:
"At the organizational level, OE [organizational empowerment] refers to organizational efforts that
generate PE [personal empowerment] among members and organizational effectiveness needed for goal
achievement"
 Provide opportunities for staff to be involved in organizational decision-making, program
development, and evaluation.
 Reduce organization hierarchies and supervisory structure so that workers have more control over
their work.
 Encourage professional development and team-building among staff.
 Provide resources that facilitate the development of political power among people.
 Regard workers as partners rather than subordinates.
What Is the Bottom line?
Appropriate employee empowerment is essential to organizational success.
Everyone claims to empower employees, but this is easier said than done.
A failed organizational empowerment initiative is at best a waste of time.
Power sharing and Empowerment:
Power sharing: The delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization. What's
wrong with this concept? Most of the times, after sharing of power or authority, people think that,
employee misuse it and their influence on employee will reduce consequently.
Empowerment: being enabled to make independent decisions and take effective action.
Guidelines for effective employee empowerment:
Share authority instead of giving it up.
Select the right managers.
Encourage dissent.
Choose the right employees.
Give it time.
Provide training.
Accept increased turnover.
Offer guidance.
Share information.
Hold everyone accountable.
Build trust.
Realize  that  empowerment  has  its
limitations.
Focus on relationships.
Involve employees in decision-making.
Stress organizational values.
Transform mistakes into opportunities.
Reward and recognize.
Chose the Right Managers for proper empowerment:
 Select leaders who are already empowering their colleagues routinely.
 Confront dictatorial leaders.
 Give them a fair chance to change, but make it clear that their odds of success are not good.
 Call attention to leaders who are doing it right, and encourage young leaders to select them as
mentors.
Select the Right Employees:
 Identify those people already taking the initiative.
 Explain the risks and benefits of empowerment, and then wait for those who want to stretch to step
forward.
 Share information openly, and then identify those with good instincts, confidence and the
willingness to take risks.
Provide Adequate Training:
Identify the most common challenges they will face.
Demonstrate attitudes and behaviors most likely to be successful.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Point out that nothing works every time.
Celebrate every incremental improvement; perfection is in short supply.
Enlist them as trainers ASAP.
Share Information:
Begin by asking what information is needed.
Encourage everyone to contribute to the information pool.
Except for personal stuff, avoid secrets.
Demonstrate openness.
Invite questions and challenges.
Change your position readily when new information demands reconsideration.
Hold Everyone Accountable:
Authority without accountability becomes self-centeredness.
Every little bit of power is seductive.
Find out what happened.
Ask why it happened?
Inquire whether, on looking back, a better option might have been employed.
Let the emotion of the moment pass.
View mistakes as opportunities to grow
Leadership and Empowerment: Empowerment involves sharing or giving power or influence to
another. It is the process through which leaders enable and help others to gain power and achieve
influence within the organization. When employees feel powerful they are more willing to make
decisions and take action.
How Leaders Can Empower Others
 A leader can involve others in selecting their work assignments and tasks
 He creates an environment of cooperation, information sharing, discussions, and shared ownership
of goals.
 He encourages others to take initiative, make decisions, and use their knowledge.
 He finds out what others think and let them help design solutions.
 Leader can give others the freedom to put their ideas and solutions into practice.
 He recognizes successes and encourages high performance.
Participative leadership: some characteristics of a participative leader;
 Begins with involving people
 Involvement leads to understanding, which leads to commitment
 Taps the constructive power of people
 Creates a humanistic and productive workplace
 Means understanding the views and interests of all affected
Making a Difference: Treat people as if they were what they should be, and you help them become
what they are capable of becoming." Johann von Goethe. Empowerment!
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature