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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 14
JOB ANALYSIS
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following concepts:
A. Job Analysis
LESSON OVERVIEW
We begin the chapter by describing why job analysis is a basic human resource management tool and
explaining the reasons for conducting job analysis. Next, we review the types of job analysis information
required and discuss job analysis methods. Then, we explain the components of a well-designed job
description and describe other methods for conducting job analysis and the ways job analysis helps to
satisfy various legal requirements. We then examine the human resource planning process and some human
resource forecasting techniques. Next, we discuss forecasting human resource requirements and availability
and describe what actions could be taken should either a surplus or a shortage of workers exist. The chapter
ends with a discussion of succession planning and development and job design.
A. Job Analysis:
Studying and under-standing jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM
program
I. Purposes of the job Analysis
Job analysis is used to acquire the information in following areas
1. Major duties or activities required
2. Conditions under which the job is performed
So this process helps us to learn the following concepts:
 Job: A group of tasks that must be performed if an organization is to achieve its goals.
 Position: The tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every
individual in an organization.
 Task: A distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions
 Duty: A larger work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual.
 Responsibility: An obligation to perform certain tasks and duties.
II. Job Analysis Defined:
Job Analysis is the SYSTEMATIC process of collecting and making judgments about all the important
information related to a job. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and
nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for them. You can utilize the information it
provides to write job descriptions and job specifications that are utilized in recruitment and selection,
compensation, performance appraisal, and training.
III. Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis
A sound job analysis system is extremely critical for numerous reasons.
 Staffing--All areas of staffing would be haphazard if the recruiter did not know the
qualifications needed to perform the job.
 Training And Development--if the specification suggests that the job requires a
particular knowledge, skill, or ability--and the person filling the position does not possess
all the qualifications required--training and/or development is probably in order.
 Compensation and Benefits--The relative value of a particular job to the company must
be known before a dollar value can be placed on it. From an internal perspective the more
significant its duties and responsibilities, the more the job is worth.
Safety and Health--Information derived from job analysis is also valuable in identifying
safety and health considerations.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Employee and Labor Relations--Regardless of whether the firm is unionized,
information obtained through job analysis can often lead to more objective human
resource decisions.
Legal Considerations--having properly accomplished a job analysis is particularly
important for supporting the legality of employment practices.
a.
Job Analysis for Teams--Today whenever someone asks, "What is your job
description?" the reply might well is, "Whatever." What this means is that if a project has
to be completed, individuals do what has to be done to complete the task.
IV. Types of Job Analysis Information
Considerable information is needed if job analysis is to be accomplished successfully. Knowledge of the
types of machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in performing the job is important. Some
job analysis systems identify the standards that are established for the job.
Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?
When does the job have to be completed?
Where is the job to be accomplished?
How does the worker do the job?
Why is the job done?
What qualifications are needed to perform the job?
V. When Job analysis is performed?
Job analysis is conducted under following situations.
 When the organization is founded
When organizations are created complete information about jobs to be performed is collected through job
analysis.
 When new jobs are created
When jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems for
analyzing them job analysis is conducted.
VI. Uses of Job Analysis Information
1.
Recruitment and Selection ­ Job descriptions and job specifications are formed from the
information gathered from a job analysis, which help management decide what sort of people to
recruit and hire.
2.
Compensation ­ The estimated value and the appropriate compensation for each job is determined
from the information gathered from a job analysis.
3.
Performance Appraisal ­ Managers use job analysis to determine a job's specific activities and
performance standards.
4.
Training ­ Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the job's required activities
and skills.
5.
Discovering Unassigned Duties ­ Job analysis can help reveal unassigned duties.
6.
EEO Compliance ­ The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection stipulate that job analysis is a
crucial step in validating all major personnel activities.
VII. Steps in Job Analysis
The job analysis process has the following steps:
1.
Identify how the information will be used because that will determine what data will be collected
and how it should be collected. Interviewing and position analysis questionnaire are some examples of data
collection techniques.
2.
Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
descriptions.
3.
Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar jobs to analyze,
and it may not be necessary to analyze them all.
4.
Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working
conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.
5.
Review and verify the job analysis information with job incumbents to confirm that it is factually
correct and complete.
6.
Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information.
VIII. Job analysis outcomes
a. Job description
A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how he or she does it, and
under what conditions the job is performed. There is no standard format for writing job descriptions, but
most descriptions include sections on:
 job identification
 job summary
 relationships, responsibilities, and duties
 authority of incumbent
 standards of performance
 working conditions
 job specifications
b.Job specification
A job specification is a document containing the minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should
possess in order to perform a particular job. Items typically included in the job specification are educational
requirements, experience, personality traits, and physical abilities.
c. Job evaluation
In Job Evaluation process the worth of job is identified based upon job comparability and according to
worth, importance of job and relative value Compensation is designed and selected.
Key Terms
Job Analysis: Studying and under-standing jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of
any HRM program
Job Specification: A job specification is a document containing the minimum acceptable qualifications that
a person should possess in order to perform a particular job
Job Description: A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how he or
she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed.
Job Evaluation: It suggests about the relevant importance of a particular job in organization.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System