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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 15
JOB ANALYSIS
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following concepts:
A. Job Analysis
LESSON OVERVIEW
Today we will be continuing with job analysis, we will be discussing the steps in job analysis. Further we will
discuss methods that can be used to analyze the job in organization.
A. Job Analysis:
Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds
of people who should be hired for them. You can utilize the information it provides to write job
descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation,
performance appraisal, and training.
I. Job Analysis Methods
Job analysis traditionally has been conducted in a number of different ways. Also, firms differ in their needs
and in the resources they have for conducting job analysis.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
Introduction
1.
An HR specialist (an HR specialist, job analyst, or consultant), a worker, and the worker's
supervisor usually work together in conducting the job analysis.
2.
Job analysis data is usually collected from several employees from different departments,
using interviews and questionnaires. The data is then averaged, taking into account the departmental
context of the employees, to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several
specific tasks.
a. The Interview
1.  The three types of interviews managers use to collect job analysis data are: individual (to
get the employee's perspective on the job's duties and responsibilities, group (when large numbers of
employees perform the same job), and supervisor (to get his/her perspective on the job's duties and
responsibilities).
2.  The pros of using an interview are that it is: simple, quick, and more comprehensive
because the interviewer can unearth activities that may never appear in written form.
3.  The following questions are some examples of typical questions. "What is the job being
performed?" "In what activities do you participate?" "What are the health and safety conditions?" Figure
3-3 gives an example of a job analysis questionnaire.
4.  The following are interview guidelines: a) the job analyst and supervisor should identify
the workers who know the job best and would be objective; b) establish a rapport with the interviewee; c)
follow a structured guide or checklist; d) ask worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of
occurrence; and e) review and verify the data.
b. Questionnaire
1.  Structured or unstructured questionnaires may be used to obtain job analysis information
2.  Questionnaires can be a quick, efficient way of gathering information from a large number
of employees. But, developing and testing a questionnaire can be expensive and time consuming.
c. Observation
1.  Direct observations are useful when jobs consist of mainly observable physical activity as
opposed to mental activity.
2.  Reactivity can be a problem with direct observations, which is where the worker changes
what he/she normally does because he/she is being watched.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
3.
Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together.
d. Participant Diary / Logs
1.  The employee records every activity he/she engages in, in a diary or log along with the
amount of time to perform each activity to produce a complete picture of the job.
2.  Employees may try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others.
e. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
1.  Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data
concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs, see Figure 3-5, on five basic activities: a) having
decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, b) performing skilled activities, c) being physically
active, d) operating vehicles/equipment, and e) processing information.
2.  Department of Labor Procedure (DOL) is a standardized method for rating, classifying,
and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things. Table 3-1 shows a set of basic
activities, and Figure 3-6 gives a sample summary.
3.  Functional job analysis: 1) rates a job on data; people; things; the extent to which specific
instructions are necessary to perform the task; the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to
perform the task; and mathematical ability required to perform the task; and 2) identifies performance
standards and training requirements.
f.  Using Multiple Sources of Information
Likely, no one job analysis method will be used exclusively. A combination is often more appropriate.
1.  Where possible, collect job analysis data using several types of collection techniques and
respondents.
2.  Potential inaccuracies in peoples' judgments could lead to inaccurate conclusions
II. Source of Data
Main sources of collection of data for job analysis are as following:
Employees
Supervisor
Manager
Job Analyst
Job Analyst (HR)
Outside consultant
Supervisor/Manager
III. Problems with Job Analysis
Too lengthy
Time consuming and requires much patience
Might be a reflection of stereotypes
Key Terms
Job Identification ­ contains the job title, the FLSA status, date, and possible space to indicate who
approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor's title, salary and/or pay scale.
Job Summary ­ should describe the general nature of the job, and includes only its major functions or
activities.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System