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Introduction to Public Administration

INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism Next >>>
Introduction To PublicAdministration­MGT111
Thecourse on Public Administration/Managementhas followingobjectives:
Understand the concept of public administration/ management/organization
Understand the evolution of the concept of public administration and its importance
Understand the role of government
Understand the role and core functions of public manager
Understand the structure of government /organizations
Create understanding about the skills required by the publicmanager in impartingduties
Understand the changing role of government androle of publicmanagers.
Importance of Course: Thecourse on public administration/management is important as every citizen
mustunderstand the functioning of government. Besides, whether one works in private or public
organization, or one is doing ones ownbusiness or whatever the profession, this course is useful as it helps
understandorganizations and theirfunctioning. It also helps us understand the environment in which we
Introduction: definitions, concepts & setting
At the end of lecture the students should be able to understanding:
The meaning of PA
The practice of public administration (PA)
Public administration as a subject of study
Definition of Public administration
Public administration, democracy and rights of citizens
The Meaning
Theword `administration' has been derived from Latin words `ad' = to and `ministiare' = serveand
`Public' =people or citizens
Thus the word administration means to execute the policy of government to servepublic.
Management is also defined as Cooperative humanendeavour to achieve given goals.Traditionally
management is also defined as Management = POSDCORB which stands for Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing, Coordination, Reporting, Budgeting.
In general administration and managementare usedinterchangeably.
A public administration as a practice is as old as the human civilization.When human beingsstarted
living in society in an organized way they started the practice of administration, because they started to live
cooperatively in society. It is said that when a man tried to left a stoneand was unable to do so alone and
was helped by another man, the practice of `management/administration began.
EgyptianPyramids (1491BC)
Youmust have seen Egyptianpyramids and must havethought how
suchhuge structure was built.The construction of Egyptian pyramids in 1491
is an example of practice of administration, as it involved cooperative effort
of thousands of people.
Mohenjodaro and Harrapa
In Pakistan Mohenjodaro and Harrapa civilizations are a magnificent example of practice of
administration. The two cities hadwell planned roads, granary,wells and walls around the city to protect it.
Suchplanning of city shows that the rulers managed the city well.
Introduction To PublicAdministration­MGT111
So we can say that public administration as a practice is old as civilization But Public
Administration as a discipline to be taught in formal educationalinstitution, started after WorldWar I
(1914), in USA and then in Europe. The emergence of public administration as discipline in USA and
Europewas due to the changing role of government. The Great Depression in USA and Europebrought
largescale unemployment and lowwages, and falling demandfor goods. It was feltthat in these
circumstances the government should invest to provide jobs.Thus, the role of government wasseen as
prime mover in economy.
WhyPublic Administration ReceivedImpetus as A Subject?
Followingwere the reasons for the emergence of public administration as a subject:-
1. Expanding welfare role(distributive) of the government
2. The emergence of privatesector and regulatory role, of government
3. The need for increased efficiency in the Organization
4. Development of Science andTechnology
5. Better management of public mattersthrough training in USA
Definition of Public Administration
Now we will look at variousdefinitions of public administration to better comprehend the concept:
"Publicadministration.... is the action part of government, the means by which the purposesand
goals of government are realized".
`Public administration as a field is mainly concernedwith the means for implementing political
"Theprocess of public administration consists of the actions involved in effecting the intent or
desire of a government. It is thus the continuously active,`business' part of government, concerned
withcarrying out the law, as made by legislative bodies (or otherauthoritative agents)and
interpreted by the courts, through the processes of organization and management."
It is a cooperative group effort in a publicsetting;
It covers all the threebranches --- executive,legislative, and judicial -- and
their interrelationships;
Allthese definitions explain us different dimension of the subjects.These definitions mightconfuse
us and we might say thatthere is really no suchsubject as "public administration,"but rather thatpublic
administration means different things to differentobservers and lacks a significant common theoretical or
applied meaning, or we might saythat public administration is everywhere:-
Buttwo things definitely emergefrom the above definition.These are:-
1. The study of public administration overlaps a number of other disciplines,including political
science, sociology, economics, psychology, andbusiness administration. and
2. Public administration is the use of managerial,political, and legaltheories and processes to
fulfill the goals of government (welfare of public).
Introduction To PublicAdministration­MGT111
Now before we further proceed to understandpublic administration we need to understand certain
conceptslike and state and government. The diagram showsthat citizens of any countryare user of services
andprovider of services.
Institutions of State
Theinstitutions of state are as follows:-
Legislature:Parliament (National andProvincial Assemblies) makeslaws for the organization
Judiciary:(Supreme Court & ProvincialCourts) - and SessionCourts) interpretlaws
Executive ( National, Provincial) implementslaws
TheMinistries, Division, Departments/Directorates are the organizationsthat function under the
executive to implement law. For example the police department has the responsibility to maintain peace &
Government is process of governing. It is the use of power derived from the law that is
made/approve by the legislature. It is means, methods,manner, or system of governingsociety and
The government of Islamic Republic of Pakistan derivesits systems and methodsfrom the
Constitution(1973). Article 90-99 of the Constitution gives provisionfor Rules of Business. TheRules of
Business1973 provide. The roles, responsibilities and function of government organizations (ministries,
What is Democracy
When we talk of state and government it is important to mention that what form of government
Pakistanhas. Pakistan is a parliamentaryDemocracy. The worddemocracy is a Greek wordwhere "demos"
mean people and "Krates" meansauthority.
Values of Democracy
Democracieshave certain values andthese are:-
Individualismmeans that the dignity andintegrity of individual is of supreme importance. It
suggeststhat achieving the fullestpotential of each individual is the best measure of the success of political
systemand government
Allnormal individuals are equal in their talents but alsoeach individual has an equalclaim to life,
libertyand the pursuit to happiness
Citizens should have the right to the maximumopportunity to select ownpurpose in life and
choosemeans to accomplish these.The citizen should be facilitated rather than hindered in their pursuit to
a meaningful life.
Thestudents must understand the following concepts:-
Thestructure and framework created to perform certain
functions to achieve goals.
Cooperative human effort to achievegoals
a systematic mechanism to complete an activity
Introduction To PublicAdministration­MGT111
Efficiency = Output: Efficiency relates to maximization of goals
Input  example: 10 output = 2 = efficient
4 input
10 = 1.66 = lessefficient.
A government is the process of governing, it comprise
organization, system, rules etc.
As State has territorialjurisdiction, it has people andinstitutions.
Democracy is a form of government in which people has
authorityand right to elect theirrepresentative.
Democratic values are life, liberty & individualism.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management