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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 14
The interest of the landlord is always opposed to the interests of every other class in the community. David
Ricardo (1772 - 1823) British political economist.
We have no eternal allies and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and
those interests it is our duty to follow.
Lord Palmerston (1784 - 1865) British prime minister. Speech to the British Parliament
In the previous lecture, we talked about the analysis of interests. How interests of conflict participants are
important to understand the nature of conflict. The analysis of interests helps diagnose conflict greatly. The
deeper understanding of the sources of conflict, both superficial and deep, could help resolve conflict
successfully and favorably.
Conflict in its collective sense is sometimes defined as a condition, sometimes as a process, and sometimes
as an event. Conflict can be taken as a challenge and could be transformed into an opportunity.
Analyzing the interests of constituents and stakeholders
Constituents and stakeholders are affected by the course and outcome of a conflict; in turn, their
connection to the disputants can lead to their significantly affecting the settlement, or potential settlements,
made by the disputants, for good or for ill. Uncover conflicting interests that might lead to undermining
negotiation or sabotaging a settlement.
Improve the ultimate result by taking account of what others are likely to do. For example in a divorce case,
the children's interests should be analyzed carefully. Apart from the moral responsibility the adults in the
situation to act in the best interests of these children, it is highly likely that, without an understanding of the
children's interests, the children will themselves contribute to the destruction of the agreements made by
the grown ups. Children also attempt to create a secure relationship between themselves and each parent by
telling each parent what the children think the parents want to hear.
Analyzing the interests of all participants is important as any participant could sabotage the settlement of
the dispute.
An interest analysis should also include the agents and advocates for the other disputant. This is because the
interests of other participants in the conflict can add to the complexity of motivations driving behavior in
the conflict.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Advantages of interests analysis
Clarifies what the disputant really wants and needs
The Disputant
Enables the disputant to consider whether interests, values,
and needs would be better met outside the conflict
Enables greater flexibility and creativity in crafting solutions
Avoids the pitfalls of positional bargaining.
The other disputant Enables the negotiator to craft appealing proposals
Avoids errors of judgment about how to resolve the conflict
Sabotage by a disputant whose deep-seated interests are not
addressed by the resolution of the conflict
Avoids the pitfalls of positional bargaining
Enables the negotiator to (if necessary) tailor coercive
measures to the disputants interests
Constituents and
Allows action to be taken up front to avoid later sabotage of or
damage to the settlement
Disputants own
Reveals possible conflicts of interest. Requiring replacement of
Agents and
Agents or
Reveals possible conflicts of interests and how they may make
Advocates for the
resolution more difficult and complex.
other Disputant
Interests analysis of agents and advocates
An interest analysis should explore the interests, values, and needs of the agents and advocates on all sides
of the conflict. The principal reason that interests' analysis should include the agents and advocates of one's
team is to clarify whether they have problematic conflicts of interest with their principal.
Better understand the complexities of what is motivating the "other team" and develop coping strategies.
Develop understanding of motivators of other team members and strategize to cope with such conflicts.
What are interests?
Interests are emotions, drives, needs, principles, values, preferences, likes and dislikes, or the forces that
move you to an action. These interests are drives or motivators of human behavior.
The interests are many in one individual. They are related in a complex way and if the parties to a conflict
are multiple, then understanding the logical relationship among interests is hard and complex; that is why
we diagram the relationships among various interests.
Why diagram interests?
Superficial interests are logically connected to more fundamental interests.
The concept of an interest tree diagram is used to represent the hierarchical and logical relationships
between interests. It also clarifies which fundamental interests underlie more superficial interests.
Because the superficial interests are "driven" by the deeper ones; clarifying these logical connections allows
one to concede on superficial interests while standing firm on more fundamental interests.
Looking at interests of others allows one to appeal to deeper interests as an "end run" around more
superficial demands. Diagramming the interests of others, creates the knowledge base one needs to develop
effective negotiation and other resolution strategies.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Tips for Interest Trees
An interest tree must include following points:
1. There must always be needs ­ other elements are optional
2. There may be multiple levels of underlying interests
3. Each position, aspiration, interest, and principle/value rectangle must logically relate (directly or
indirectly) to one or more need rectangles
4. Don't confuse interests with facts or contentions
Interests Analysis
IInterestt Tree
nteres Tree
Get fair
Examp e
People should
Brother-in-law will
be fairly paid
think I'm spineless if
I don't get good
I'd take
anything over
$10,000 if I can
avoid court!
should be
Get back out-of-
pocket losses
I demand $20,000
Esteem needs
or I sue!
Identity needs
Avoid court:
Deficiency needs
(food, shelter,
safety, clothing,
Avoid time,
Get paid as
expense of
soon as
Need money
now: can't
Security needs
pay rent
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Always ask WHY!
Why it is important for you to get compensated fairly; may be your values of justice.
Conflict Onion
Underlying interests
Principles, values
Basic human
Layers in the Conflict Onion
A stated demand of a conflict participant; no stated demand means no position.
Concrete aspirations may also be absent. For example, highly experienced negotiators, coming into a
situation wanting to avoid positional bargaining, may avoid either positions or aspirations altogether and
start their analysis with interests.
Deeper interests
There may be more than one level of underlying interests, with more superficial interests being driven by
deeper ones.
For example, an auto purchaser may have an interest in reliable transportation, and his deeper interest may
be to get reliably to work every day.
Knowing interests and analyzing them will make us understand the complimentary interests. It can help us
bargain in our favor. These interests are significant for the success of our personal, work, and social life.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputantís interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutschís Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clientsí Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication