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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 15
It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle if it is lightly greased.
Kehlog Albran
I do not love the money. What I do love is the getting of it...What other interest can you suggest to me? I
do not read. I do not take part in politics. What can I do?
Philip D. Armour (1832 - 1901) U.S. business executive
Interpretation: Philip may like to gift away money but will probably not like to let any body else win in a
business conflict. Deeper interest here is the personal success of an individual in a negotiation.
Principles and values
Conflict participants have underlying principles and values at play in their motivations.
Disputants may express principles and values disingenuously, as rationalization for a position, rather than as
honest expressions of deeply held beliefs. A conflict diagnostician must be able to distinguish between
legitimately held principles and values and those that are trotted out as argument.
Principles and values are closely tied to basic human needs. The need for the esteem of others and a stable,
positive sense of self are among the most important and deeply seated basic human needs.
Justice and basic principles/values
Principles and values are almost always one element of a disputant's interest tree.
The need for justice is one of the basic human needs. A sense of justice, of having and doing justice, is an
intrinsic part of almost all interpersonal conflict. Each participant in a conflict seeks justice for him or
herself, and an outcome that violates a participant's sense of justice is almost sure to fall apart later on.
Justice scholars generally identify two major type of justice: distributive justice and procedural justice.
Distributive justice is concerned with whether the outcome of a conflict is fair. According to the scholarly
research on justice, there are three basic principles generally called upon to determine distributive justice,
each of which tends to the more important in particular sorts of situations. Equity considerations, which
allocate resources based on the contributions of the participants, are often most relied upon when groups of
people must be motivated as a group. Equality considerations, which indicate that resources should be
allocated equally, are generally most prominent when there is a high need for group cohesion.
Finally, need considerations just that resources should be allocated to those who need them most, as when a
judge orders child support to a child based on the need of the family the child is living with. Many decisions
about distributive justice are a combination of two or even all three, considerations.
Procedural justice refers to the fairness of the process used to reach a given outcome. Procedural justice is
extremely important in lending a sense of legitimacy to a conflict resolution process that imposes an out
come, or exerts some other sorts of pressure or influence, on the disputants.
Basic Human Needs
Lying even more deeply at the heart of the conflict onion than principles and values are basic human needs.
People are not able to verbalize easily the basic human needs that lie at the heart of a conflict onion: they
must be inferred from what people say and do and the circumstances they are in.
A good interest analysis should include basic human needs. Basic human needs are basic, and a failure to
deal with and address them creates pressure for them to be expressed in other ways.
Theories about human development and human drives provide a conflict diagnostician with guidance about
basic human needs.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Conflict Onion
Underlying interests
Principles, values
Basic human
Interests and the Conflict Onion
Kind of Interest
The demand the disputant makes to others
The bottom line the disputant is looking for
The reasons for the aspirations
Principles and
Beliefs and moral codes that influence the
Basic Human
Underlying needs that drive the motivations of
the disputant
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Mazlow's Needs
Self-Actualization Needs:
Truth, goodness, beauty,
aliveness, individuality,
perfection, necessity,
completion, justice, order,
simplicity, richness,
playfulness, effortlessness,
Esteem of others
Love and Belongingness
Safety and security
Air, water, food, shelter, sleep
Mazlow's Need Theory
Abraham Mazlow, a psychologist working in the first half of the twentieth century presented a theory to
explain the behaviour and development of mentally healthy adults. Mazlow theorized that people have a
drive to satisfy human needs and these needs are organized hierarchically. He believed that the most basic
needs are the physiological needs (such as needs for air, food, shelter and sleep) and that, until these needs
are satisfied, people are not motivated to address other needs or desires. The next most basic need on
Mazlow hierarchy is for safety and security.
Mazlow believed that one is not motivated to satisfy the higher needs until and unless more basic needs are
satisfied. On the other hand, one might expect that, when a need is "just barely" satisfied, one might be
motivated to consolidate that need even while addressing higher ­level needs.
Erik Erikson's Theory
Another theory that can illuminate the deep seated motivations of persons involved in conflict is the
psychological theory of Erik Erikson. Erikson's theory, which is based fundamentally on the work of
Sigmund Freud, posits that healthy development over the human life span follows a set course of
development, in which a particular life stages are associated with particular sets of overriding concerns.
Thus, knowing Erikson's theory and the approximate ages of the individuals involve can provide some clues
into deep seated motivations.
People at different stages of life have predictable motivations or drives or interests.
Poorly resolved stages can get people "stuck" at various positions. These underlying motivations often drive
irrational conflict and prevent fair, rational resolution of conflicts
A legal professional can deal with the underlying motivation as s/he is trained to look into that.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Erik Erikson's Life Span Stages
Birth-1 yr
Trust vs. Mistrust
1-3 yr
Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt
3-6 yr
Initiative vs. Guilt
6-12 yr
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adult
Middle age
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late adult
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
8 Stages of Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development
Stage1 (birth to 1 year) ­ "trust versus mistrust." The individual's life challenge is to develop a healthy and
realistic ability to trust others in his or her world, particularly an ability to trust the primary caregiver.
Stage 2 (1 to 3 years) ­ "autonomy versus doubt and shame." The individual's life challenge is to learn to
act in an autonomous manner, to exercise control over him- or herself.
Stage 3 (3 to 6 years) ­ "initiative versus guilt." The individual's life challenge is to develop a sense of
potency over his or her environment, to be able to act on the environment in creating situations and plans,
without impinging on the rights and needs of others in the social system. It is here that the developing
individual first confronts the limits of social organization and interpersonal conflict first appears.
Stage 4 (6 years to adolescence) ­ "industry versus inferiority." The individual's life challenge is to develop
a mastery of the academic, social, and vocational skills that will be needed in adulthood.
Stage 5 (adolescence and very young adulthood) ­ "Identity versus role confusion." The individual's life
challenge is to develop a strong and stable sense of self with clear values,
a sense of vocational identity, a social identity, and so forth.
Stage 6 (young adulthood) ­ "intimacy versus isolation." The individual's life challenge is to develop
enduring intimate relationships, such as marriages.
Stage 7 (middle adulthood) ­ "generativity versus stagnation." The individual's life challenge is to find a
way to make a lasting contribution to others and to society in general.
This stage often includes an emphasis on procreation and the raising of children.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Stage 8 (late adulthood) ­ "ego integrity versus despair." The individual's life challenge is to find a way to
reconcile and find peace and satisfaction with the manner in which he or she has lived life and to find
meaning for the experience.
In summary, we need to understand the dynamics of human behavior. What are the fundamental and
superficial factors that move an individual to act in a certain direction? If we understand the human-related
drives to move in particular direction, we have to understand about these drives. This explanation can help
modify human behaviors in the desired directions.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication