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Digital Logic Design

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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Lesson No. 29
UP/DOWN COUNTER
The down-counter is implemented by connecting the Q  0 and Q1 outputs. Figure 29.1
F0
F1
F2
1
SET
SET
SET
Q
Q
Q
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 3
Q
Q
Q
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Figure 29.1
3-bit Synchronous Down-counter
The down-counter counter circuit is very similar to the up-counter circuit discussed
earlier. The only change is the connection of the AND gate to the complementary outputs of
the first and second flip-flops.
The up-counter and down-counter can be implemented as a single counter circuit by adding
some extra logic. In the circuit diagram, the Up-down counter is configured to count up or
down by setting the UP / DOWN input to logic 1 or 0 respectively. When the UP / DOWN
input is set to logic 1, upper AND gates are enabled, allowing flip-flip 2 to toggle its state when
F0 output of flip-flop 1 is logic 1. Similarly when both F0 and F1 outputs are logic 1, flip-flop 3
toggles its state. When the UP / DOWN input is set to logic 0, the lower AND gates are
enabled. When F0 is logic 0, Q  0 is logic 1 and the flip-flop 2 toggles its output state. Similarly,
when both outputs F0 and F1 are at logic 0, that is, Q  0 and Q1 are at logic 1 the flip-flop 3
toggles its state. During the counting sequence, the UP / DOWN input can be set to logic 1 or
0 at any time to reverse the counting sequence. Figure 29.2
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F0
F1
F2
UP / DOW N
1
SET
SET
SET
J
Q
J
Q
J
Q
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 3
K
Q
K
Q
K
Q
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Figure 29.2a Up-Down Synchronous Counter
UP / DOWN
Figure 29.2b Timing diagram of an Up-Down Synchronous Counter
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Integrated Circuit Up/Down Decade Counter
Implementing a 4-bit Up/Down counter by connecting flip-flops and logic gates
increases the circuit size and requires many connections. The 74HC190 is a 4-bit Up/Down
Synchronous Counter available in an Integrated Circuit form. Figure 29.3. The counter has the
following pins.
1.
Parallel data inputs D0, D1, D2 and D3
2.
Data outputs Q0, Q1, Q2 and Q3
3.
Positive edge-triggered CLOCK signal
4.
Active-low LOAD input which loads the 4-bit data applied at the counter inputs
5.
Active-low CTEN counter enable input
D / U the count down/up input. When the input is set to logic 1, the counter counts down
6.
and when the input is set to logic 0, the counter counts up
7. The MAX/MIN output that is set to high when the terminal count 1001 is reached when
counting up or when the terminal count 0000 is reached when counting down. The
MAX/MIN output is logic high for one complete cycle when a terminal count is reached.
8. The Ripple Clock Output RCO goes low when the Counter reaches the terminal count
1001 or 0000 when counting up or down respectively. The RCO output remains low during
the negative half of the clock cycle. The RCO, the MAX/MIN output along with CTEN input
is used to cascade multiple counter ICs for implementing larger counters.
D0  D1  D2  D3
CTEN
LOAD
MAX/MIN
74HC190
D/U
RCO
CLK
Q0  Q1  Q2  Q3
Figure 29.3
74HC190 4-bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter
Counter Decoding
In digital circuits the counter outputs are decoded using decoders or logic gates to
determine when the counter is in a certain state in its counting sequence. For example, a 4-bit
Modulus-16 counter counts from state 0 to state 15. A digital circuit is enabled when the count
reaches count value 4, a second circuit is enabled when the count value reaches 8 and a third
circuit is enabled when the count value reaches 12. A decoder using AND or NAND gates
logic gates can be implemented. Figure 29.4
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F1
F2
F0
F3
1
SET
SET
SET
SET
J
Q
J
Q
J
Q
Q
J
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 3
flip-flop 4
K
Q
K
Q
K
Q
Q
K
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Active-high
Active-high
Active-low
select 4
select 8
select 12
Figure 29.4a Decoder circuit decoding counter outputs 4, 8 and 12
The output of the first AND gate is set to logic high when the counter output is set to
0100 (4). The output of the second AND gate is set to logic high when the counter output is set
to 1000 (8). The NAND gate is set to logic low when the counter output is set to 1100 (12). The
propagation delay due to ripple effect in Asynchronous counters, discussed earlier causes
these Asynchronous counters to work erratically. The propagation problem also exists in
Synchronous counters to some degree due to the propagation delays from the clock transition
to the Q output of the flip-flop which varies slightly for each flip-flop. The timing diagram for the
decoder circuit shows that the decoder outputs are activated for different time intervals at
different intervals which are not in a proper sequence. Figure 29.4b. The counter output for
count 2 is detected by the AND gate decoder during interval t2A to t3 and again for a very short
interval at t4. Similarly, the counter output 8 is selected for a very short duration between
intervals tAB and t9. The decoder outputs for very short durations at interval t2, t4, t6 and t8 are
known as `gliches'.
Glitches can be eliminated by enabling the decoder outputs after the glitches have
settled down. Glitches are removed by using the clock signal to enable the decoder circuit.
Figure 29.5. The clock signal is connected to the inputs of each of the three decoder gates.
During the second, positive half of the clock signal the three gates are enabled, all the glitches
occur during the first negative half of the clock cycle during which the decoder gates are
disabled. This method is known as Strobing method where the decoder outputs are activated
after some delay allowing the glitches to settle down.
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CLOCK
Input
F0
Output
F1
Output
F2
Output
F3
Output
0
1
0
2
3
20 4
5
4
6
7
640
9
t2 t2A
t3
t4 t4A  t5
t6
t7
t8 tA8 t9
t10
t1
Figure 29.4b Decoded Outputs of Synchronous Counter
F1
F2
F0
F3
1
SET
SET
SET
SET
J
Q
J
Q
J
Q
Q
J
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 3
flip-flop 4
K
Q
K
Q
K
Q
Q
K
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Active-high
Active-high
Active-low
select 4
select 8
select 12
Figure 29.5
The Decoder circuit connected to remove glitches
Glitches occur even with Integrated circuits due to different propagation delays
between the clock transition and the variable path lengths between different inputs and outputs
within the integrated circuit. The Glitches that occur at the output of a 74x 138 3-to-8 decoder
connected to a 74HC163 counter can be removed by enabling the decoder during the second
half of the clock signal. Figure 29.6
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Figure 29.6
74x163 Counter output Decoded using a 3 x 8, 74x138 Decoder
Figure 29.7
74x138 Decoder enabled by a clock signal
Counter Applications
1. Digital Clock
The primary use of counter is in counting applications and sequencing through a set of
operations. A digital clock can be implemented using the AC 50 Hz frequency as the clock
signal. Figure 29.8
In the digital clock circuit the 50 Hz, 220 volt ac mains sinusoidal signal is shaped into
a 50 Hz, 5 volt square-wave signal. A divide-by-50 counter divides the input 50 Hz signal to a
1 Hz signal. The Seconds, divide-by-60 counter counts up to sixty seconds (0 to 59). The
Minutes, divide-by-60 counter also counts up to sixty minutes (0-59). The Hours, decade
counter counts from 0 to 9. The flip-flop connected to the output of the decade counter is set to
0 or 1 to represent hours from 0 to 9 and 10 to 12 respectively.
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Figure 29.8
Digital Clock Circuit
The circuit diagram of the Divide by 60 Seconds and Minutes counter is shown in figure
29.9. The 74HC160A decade counter is sued which has Asynchronous clear. The divide by 60
counter is implemented by cascading two 74HC160A counters. The least significant counter
which is the units counter is configured as a decade counter and counts from 0000 to 1001.
On reaching the terminal count value, the RCO output of the Units counter is set to high which
enables the tens counter. The tens counter is configured as a Mod-6 counter, thus it counts
from 000 to 101. The NAND gate output is set to low when the counter counts up to 110, the
NAND gate output is connected to the asynchronous clear input which resets the counter to
000. When the tens counter reaches its terminal count 101, and the units counter reaches its
terminal count 1001, the AND gate output is set to logic high to indicate the terminal count 59
of the divide by 60 counter. The output of the AND gate is connected to the counter enable
pins ENT and ENP of the next stage, thus on reaching the terminal count the next stage is
enabled and the count is incremented by 1 on a clock transition.
The hours counter is implemented using a single decade counter and a flip-flop. Two
counters are not required as the hours counter counts 12 unique output states. Implementation
of a Mod-12 requires 5 flip-flops. Figure 29.10
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
CLR
CLR
LD
Figure 29.9
Divide by 60 Minutes and Seconds counter
LD
Figure 29.10a Hours Counter Circuit
The hours unit counter circuit is configured as a decade counter, counting from 0000 to
1001 when it is enabled by the Minutes counter circuit. The terminal count 1001 is detected by
the NAND gate (1) which sets the J input of the flip-flop to logic 1. The K input of the flip-flop is
at Logic 0, therefore on a clock transition the J­K flip-flop output is set to logic 1 when the units
counter recycles to 0000. The NOT gate connected to the clock input of the J-K flip-flop allows
the J-K flip-flop to trigger when the units counter is triggered to count from 1001 to 0000. The
unit counter counts to 0001 and 0010 to represent hours 11 and 12 respectively along with the
output of the J-K flip-flop which is set to logic 1. On the next clock transition when the units
counter counts to 0011 the NAND gate (2) output set to logic 0 reloads the units counter with
the count value 0001 and the J-K flip-flop toggles to 0 output as its K input which is set to logic
1.
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LOAD
Figure 29.10b Hours Counter timing diagram
2. Frequency Counter
A frequency counter is used to measure the frequency of an input signal. The basis for
the operation of a frequency counter is counting of the clock pulses in predetermined time
interval. The frequency of periodic signal is the number of cycles in a time period of one
second. The frequency of the unknown signal can be calculated by counting the number of
clock pulses of the unknown signal and dividing the count number by the time interval in which
the clock pulses are counted, Figure 29.11
In the circuit shown, the input signal with unknown frequency is applied at the AND
gate input. The second input of the AND gate is connected to a signal which determines the
sampling interval. The signal is set to logic high at interval t1 to enable the AND gate allowing
the input signal to be connected to the clock input of the counter circuit. The sampling interval
signal is set to logic low at the end of the sampling interval t2 to disable the AND gate and
inhibit the counter from counting. Before the counter counts the clock pulses of the input signal
it is reset by activating the Asynchronous input to clear the counter at interval t0. At the end of
the sampling interval the counter output is displayed on 7-segment displays.
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Clear
Input Signal with
unknown frequency
Counter
Sampling
BCD & Segment
Interval
Decoder
a
a
g
g
f
f
b
b
c
c
e
e
d
d
Figure 29.11a Frequency Counter Circuit
Figure 29.11b Timing diagram of the Frequency Counter Circuit
The accuracy of the frequency counter depends on the duration of the timing sampling
interval, which must be very accurate. Consider that during a sampling interval of 1 second
4573 clock pulses of the input signal are measured. Thus, the frequency of the unknown signal
is 4573 Hz. If the same input signal is sampled using a 0.1 second sampling interval then
457.3 pulses are counted, which means that either 457 or 458 will be counted depending on
the start of the sampling interval at t1. Similarly, if the sampling interval is reduced to 0.01
seconds, the numbers of clock pulses measured are 45.73, which means that either 45 or 46
will be read.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Very accurate sampling intervals are implemented using cascaded counter which is
connected to a very accurate timing signal generated by a crystal controlled oscillator (Astable
multi-vibrator). The output timing signal of each cascade section is available at a switch which
is used to select the appropriate timing signal for controlling the sampling interval. The output
of the switch is connected to the clock input of a negative triggered J-K flip-flop, which divides
the input signal by 2. Thus, when the 1 Hz sampling interval is selected, the signal at the
output of the J-K flip-flop has a time period of 2 seconds. Figure 29.12
100
100
KHz
KHz
Pulse
Crystal
Shaper
Oscillator
Div by 10
Div by 10
Div by 10
Div by 10
Div by 10
100
10
1
10
Hz
Hz
KHz
KHz
1
1
Divide by
J
Q
Hz
2 output
K
Figure 29.12 Cascaded Counter circuit for obtaining accurate sampling intervals
The detailed circuit diagram and the timing diagram of the frequency diagram are
shown in figure 29.13. In the timing diagram the Sampling Interval pulse is obtained from the
output of the J-K flip-flop shown in figure 29.8. The duration of the Sampling interval pulse can
be selected through the switch. The sampling interval signal is connected to the input of the 3-
input AND gate and the clock input of the second J-K flip-flop which toggles its output at each
negative transition of the clock. When the output of the second flip-flop changes to logic 1
(interval t1) it triggers the One-Shot which generates a short output pulse which clears the
Counter circuit. At interval t2 during the positive half of the sampling interval when the output of
the second J-K flip-flop is high the 3-input AND gate is enabled and the input signal with
unknown frequency is applied at the input of the counter, which count the input signal pulses.
At interval t3 there is negative transition of the sampling signal, which triggers the second flip-
flop changing its output to logic 0. Logic 0 output of the flip-flop disables the 3-input AND gate
inhibiting the counter from counting. The pulses counted by the counter during interval t2 to t3
are directly displayed.
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Input Signal with
unknown frequency
Counter
Sampling
Clear
Interval
BCD & Segment
Decoder
Q
Q
J
One
Flip-flop
Shot
2
a
a
K
g
g
f
f
b
b
1
c
c
e
e
d
d
Figure 29.13a Detailed circuit diagram of a frequency counter
Input
signal
Sampling
Interval
Output of
flip-flop 2
Counter
reset signal
Counter
Input
t0
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
t9
Figure 29.13b Timing diagram of the frequency counter circuit
Design of Synchronous Counters
The counters that have been discussed are binary counters that count in a sequence
either upwards or downwards. The count start and end sequence of a counter can also be set
arbitrarily and the counter can then count up or down with in the terminal count limits.
Counters can also be designed that do not count in a sequence, instead they sequence
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through a set of predefined arbitrary values. Counters can also be implemented using D flip-
flops instead of J-K flip-flops. Counters are sequential circuits which are designed using
standard set of steps.
Sequential Circuit (State Machine)
A general Sequential circuit consists of a combinational circuit and a memory circuit
(flip-flop). In a clocked Sequential circuit the memory element has a clock input. At any given
instant the memory element is in its present state. On a clock transition the output of the
memory element changes to the next state. The next state is determined by the inputs applied
at the memory input at the time of clock transition. The inputs to the memory which allow the
memory to change its state on a clock transition are known as excitation inputs or excitation
variables. The present state of the memory is represented by state variables. The state
variables and the inputs to the sequential circuit determine the sequential circuit output. Figure
29.14
Figure 29.14 Clocked Sequential Circuit Block diagram
Design Procedure
The design procedure is based on a number of steps starting from defining the state
diagram and ending at the implementation of State machine.
1. State Diagram
A sequential circuit (state machine) is described by a state diagram, which shows the
sequence of state through which the sequential circuit progresses when it is clocked. The state
diagram of a 3-bit Synchronous Up-Counter (sequential circuit) is shown in the figure. 28.3
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Figure 28.3
State diagram of a 3-bit Up-Counter
2. Next-State Table
Once the state diagram of the sequential circuit is defined, a Next-State Table is
derived which lists each present state and the corresponding next state. The next state is the
state to which the sequential circuit switches when a clock transition occurs. Table 28.1
Present State
Next State
Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
Table 28.1
Next-State Table for a 3-bit Up-Counter
3. Flip-flop Transition Table
The Memory element of the Sequential circuit is implemented using flip-flops. The
number of flip-flops used is determined by the total number of states. When there is a clock
transition at the clock input of the flip-flops they change from their present state to the next
state. The Flip-flop transition table lists all the possible flip-flop input combinations which
allows the present state to change to the next state on  a clock transition. The flip-flop
transition table is based on the flip-flop used (D, S-R or J-K). Table 28.2
Flip-flop Inputs
Output Transitions
J
K
Qt
Qt+1
0
x
0
0
1
x
0
1
x
1
1
0
x
0
1
1
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Table 28.2
J-K flip-flop Transition table
4. Karnaugh Maps
For each state variable shown in the Next-State table, the change from present state to
the next state on a clock transition depends upon the J-K inputs. Table 28.3. Considering the
state variable Q2, J2 and K2 inputs set to 0 and x (don't care) allow Q2 to change from present
state 0 to next state 0 shown in the first row. Similarly, the state variable Q0 changes from 1 to
0 when J0 and K0 inputs are set at x (don't care) and 1 respectively. The table is completed
using the information in the Next-State table and the J-K flip-flop transition table. The J-K
inputs can be directly mapped to Karnaugh maps. Table 28.4
Present State
Next State
J-K flip-flop inputs
Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
J2
K2
J1
K1
J0
K0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
x
0
x
1
x
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
x
1
x
x
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
x
x
0
1
x
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
x
x
1
x
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
x
0
0
x
1
x
1
0
1
1
1
0
x
0
1
x
x
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
x
0
x
0
1
x
1
1
1
0
0
0
x
1
x
1
x
1
Table 28.3
J-K flip-flop input table
Q2Q1/Q0
0
1
Q2Q1/Q0
0
1
00
0
0
00
x
x
01
0
1
01
x
x
11
x
x
11
0
1
10
x
x
10
0
0
Table 28.4a
Karnaugh Map for J2 and K2 inputs
Q2Q1/Q0
0
1
Q2Q1/Q0
0
1
00
0
1
00
x
x
01
x
X
01
0
1
11
x
X
11
0
1
10
0
1
10
x
x
Karnaugh Map for J1 and K1 inputs
Table 28.4b
Q2Q1/Q0
0
1
Q2Q1/Q0
0
1
00
x
1
00
1
x
01
x
1
01
1
x
11
x
1
11
1
x
10
x
1
10
1
x
Table 28.4c
Karnaugh Map for J0 and K0 inputs
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5. Logic expressions for Flip-flop Inputs
Simplified expressions for J2-K2, J1-K1 and J0-K0 are directly obtained from the
Karnaugh maps.
J2 = Q1Q  0
K  2 = Q1Q  0
J1 = Q  0
K1 = Q0
J0 = 1
K0 = 1
6. Sequential Circuit Implementation
The Boolean expressions obtained in the previous step are implemented using logic
gates. The sequential circuit implemented is shown in figure 28.4.
Q0
Q1
Q2
1
SET
SET
SET
Q
Q
Q
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 3
Q
Q
Q
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Figure 28.4
Implementation of the Sequential Circuit
Implementing a 3-bit Up/Down Counter
1. State Diagram
The state diagram of a 3-bit Up/Down Synchronous Counter is shown in the figure.
28.5. X=0 and X =1 indicates that the counter counts up when input X = 0 and it counts down
when X =1.
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Figure 28.5
State diagram of a 3-bit Up-Counter
2. Next-State Table
The next state is the state to which the sequential circuit switches when a clock
transition occurs. Table 28.5. The next state outputs for X=0 and X=1 are shown separately.
Present State
Next State X=0
Next State X=1
Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
Table 28.5
Next-State Table for a 3-bit Up-Counter
3. Flip-flop Transition Table
The flip-flop transition table is based on the J-K flip-flop. Table 28.6
Flip-flop Inputs
Output Transitions
J
K
Qt
Qt+1
0
x
0
0
1
x
0
1
x
1
1
0
x
0
1
1
Table 28.6
J-K flip-flop Transition table
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4. Karnaugh Maps
The J-K flip-flop inputs for change in state variables when X=0 and X=1 are shown in
the table 28.7. The J-K inputs can be directly mapped to 4-Variable Karnaugh maps. Table
28.8.
Present State
Next State X=0
J-K flip-flop inputs
Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
J2
K2
J1
K1
J0
K0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
x
0
x
1
x
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
x
1
x
x
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
x
x
0
1
x
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
x
x
1
x
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
x
0
0
x
1
x
1
0
1
1
1
0
x
0
1
x
x
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
x
0
x
0
1
x
1
1
1
0
0
0
x
1
x
1
x
1
Table 28.7a
J-K flip-flop input table for X=0
Present State
Next State X=1
J-K flip-flop inputs
Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
J2
K2
J1
K1
J0
K0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
x
1
x
1
x
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
x
0
x
x
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
x
x
1
1
x
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
x
x
0
x
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
x
1
1
x
1
x
1
0
1
1
0
0
x
0
0
x
x
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
x
0
x
1
1
x
1
1
1
1
1
0
x
0
x
0
x
1
Table 28.7b
J-K flip-flop input table for X=1
Q2Q1/Q0X
00
01
11
10
Q2Q1/Q0X
00
01
11
10
00
x
x
x
x
00
0
1
0
0
01
x
x
x
x
01
0
0
0
1
11
0
0
0
1
11
x
x
x
x
10
0
1
0
0
10
x
x
x
x
Table 28.8a
Karnaugh Map for J2 and K2 inputs
Q2Q1/Q0X
00
01
11
10
Q2Q1/Q0X
00
01
11
10
00
0
1
0
1
00
x
x
x
x
01
x
x
x
x
01
0
1
0
1
11
x
x
x
x
11
0
1
0
1
10
0
1
0
1
10
x
x
x
x
Table 28.8b
Karnaugh Map for J1 and K1 inputs
310
img
CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Q2Q1/Q0X
00
01
11
10
Q2Q1/Q0X
00
01
11
10
00
x
x
1
1
00
1
1
x
x
01
x
x
1
1
01
1
1
x
x
11
x
x
1
1
11
1
1
x
x
10
x
x
1
1
10
1
1
x
x
Table 28.8c
Karnaugh Map for J0 and K0 inputs
5. Logic expressions for Flip-flop Inputs
Simplified expressions for J2-K2, J1-K1 and J0-K0 are directly obtained from the
Karnaugh maps.
J2 = Q1Q  0 X + Q1 Q  0 X
K  2 = Q1Q  0 X + Q1 Q  0 X
J1 = Q  0 X + Q  0 X
K1 = Q0 X + Q0 X
J0 = 1
K0 = 1
6. Sequential Circuit Implementation
The Boolean expressions obtained in the previous step are implemented using logic
gates. The sequential circuit implemented is shown in figure 28.6.
X=0 (up)
Q0
Q1
Q2
X=1 (down)
1
SET
SET
SET
J
Q
J
Q
J
Q
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 3
K
Q
K
Q
K
Q
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Figure 28.6
Implementation of the Sequential Circuit
311
Table of Contents:
  1. AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
  2. Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s & 2’s complement
  3. Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
  4. Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
  5. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
  6. AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
  7. DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
  8. Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorgan’s Theorems
  9. Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
  10. KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
  11. Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
  12. COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
  13. ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
  15. BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
  16. 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
  17. BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
  18. 2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
  19. Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
  20. OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
  21. OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
  22. Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
  23. APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
  24. Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
  25. Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
  26. THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
  27. Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
  28. Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
  29. Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
  30. DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
  31. NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
  32. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
  33. Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
  34. SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
  35. APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
  36. Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
  37. Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
  38. Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
  39. Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
  40. Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
  41. Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
  42. First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
  43. LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
  44. THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
  45. SUCCESSIVE –APPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER