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Information Systems

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Information System (CS507)
Lesson 9
Infrastructure
Infrastructure, generally, is the set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework for
supporting the entire structure. It usually applies only to structures that are artificial. The term is used
differently in a variety of fields; perhaps the single most well-known usage is in economics, where it refers
to physical infrastructure such as buildings and roads.
The notion that a structure has an internal framework is popular especially in business organizations where
a dependency on interconnected information technology systems has become as prevalent as a city's
dependency on interconnected conveyance systems for power, people and things. Information
infrastructure consists of the physical facilities services and management that support all computing
resources in an organization. There are five major components of infrastructure
Computer hardware
General purpose software
Networks & communication facilities
Databases
Information management personnel
Each of these components is designed in such manner to collectively meet the needs and objectives
of the organization.
The infrastructure will include
The detailed configuration of the hardware
Design of the operating system,
Documentation of the operational and application software, and
Documentation on how to technically manage and operate the entire system
Infrastructure also includes the integration, operation, documentation, maintenance and management
the components as defined in infrastructure.
It is guideline to how specific computing resources are arranged, operated and managed.
9.1 Architecture
Architecture more specifically is related to defining the information needs and how these will be obtained
through the various application software modules. Architecture is the "Blueprint" that provides the
conceptual foundation for building information infrastructure and specific applications. It is a way of
mapping information requirements and resources. Architecture covers following components:
The business needs of the information
Existing planned information infrastructure and applications in the organizations.
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Information System (CS507)
9.1.1 Information Architecture
In context of web design Information (Or design for related media Information). Architecture is defined by
the Information Architecture Institute as
1. The structural design of shared information environments.
2. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to
support usability.
3. An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the
digital landscape.
An alternate definition of Information Architecture exists within the context of information system
design, in which information architecture refers to data modeling and the analysis and design of the
information in the system, concentrating on entities and their interdependencies. Data modeling depends
on abstraction; the relationship between the pieces of data is of more interest than the particulars of
individual records, though cataloging possible values is a common technique. The usability of human-
facing systems, and standards compliance of internal ones, is paramount.
The term information architecture describes a specialized skill set which relates to the management of
information and employment of informational tools. It has a significant degree of association with the
library sciences. Many library schools now teach information architecture.
9.2 Components/Sub-Systems of CBIS
Following are the components / subsystems of CBIS
Transaction Processing System
Management Information System
Support Systems
Office Automation System
Decision Support System
Knowledge System
Executive Support System
Let's consider them one by one.
9.3 Transaction Processing System
This system is used to record transactions of routine and repetitive nature.
For Instance
Defining eh transaction recording structure
Placing customer orders
Billing customers
Other basic business transactions
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Information System (CS507)
Features
It is a repetitive number crunching system.
Today the transaction processing systems are more sophisticated and complex but spirit is same,
that is to record routine business transactions, irrespective of their complexity, so as to help in
analysis and report generation at a higher level.
Help to cater needs for operational level management.
Rapid Response
Fast performance with a rapid response time is critical. Businesses cannot afford to have customers waiting
for a TPS to respond, the turnaround time from the input of the transaction to the production for the
output must be a few seconds or less.
Reliability
Many organizations rely heavily on their TPS; a breakdown will disrupt operations or even stop the
business. For a TPS to be effective its failure rate must be very low. If a TPS does fail, then quick and
accurate recovery must be possible. This makes well­designed backup and recovery procedures
essential.
Inflexibility
A TPS wants every transaction to be processed in the same way regardless of the user, the customer
or the time for day. If a TPS were flexible, there would be too many opportunities for non-standard
operations, for example, a commercial airline needs to consistently accept airline reservations from a
range of travel agents, accepting different transactions data from different travel agents would be a
problem.
Controlled processing
The processing in a TPS must support an organization's operations. For example if an organisation
allocates roles and responsibilities to particular employees, then the TPS should enforce and maintain
this requirement.
Data Processing Tasks
Major data processing tasks which a TPS is expected to per form are
Data identification and Gathering ­ keying in the data or obtaining it directly from machines by
providing suitable interface
Data manipulation/Analysis ­ refers to transformation of data into information
Classifying
Sorting
Calculating
Summarizing
Data storage ­ data is kept somewhere in a sequenced manner until when needed.
Document Preparation ­ output for managers as reports or as input to other systems.
Goals a TPS is supposed to achieve are predefined and highly structured, for instance
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Information System (CS507)
Checking a customer's credit limit every time an order is received
Checking inventory level before accepting an order
Payroll generation on monthly basis
9.4 Management Information System
MIRS makes information available to relevant users by producing pre-determined and pre-designed
reports required by the management. Management information system helps middle level management
planning, controlling and decision making. The data stored can be used or manipulated to produce
differently defined reports from pre-defined reports. It can be presented graphically or pictorially. The
reports generated by the MIS are used for analytical decision making by the management. The
application software can construct projections, build scenarios, do what if analysis to enable better
decision making.
For Example
MIS will use the TPS data to generate monthly and weekly summaries as per requirement (product,
customer and salesperson. Major purpose is report generation. We would discuss major types of reports.
Periodic reports ­ daily, weekly, monthly, annually, format is predefined and structured for
convenience.
Special ­ Management by Exception reports only when a special event occurs which needs to be
monitored. For instance
Report sequence to highlight- fast moving & slow moving
Group the exceptions together ­ Aged accounts receivable
Show variance from the norm ­ Sales analysis report
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Table of Contents:
  1. Need for information, Sources of Information: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sources
  2. Data vs. Information, Information Quality Checklist
  3. Size of the Organization and Information Requirements
  4. Hierarchical organization, Organizational Structure, Culture of the Organization
  5. Elements of Environment: Legal, Economic, Social, Technological, Corporate social responsibility, Ethics
  6. Manual Vs Computerised Information Systems, Emerging Digital Firms
  7. Open-Loop System, Closed Loop System, Open Systems, Closed Systems, Level of Planning
  8. Components of a system, Types of Systems, Attributes of an IS/CBIS
  9. Infrastructure: Transaction Processing System, Management Information System
  10. Support Systems: Office Automation Systems, Decision Support Systems, Types of DSS
  11. Data Mart: Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Types of Models Used in DSS
  12. Organizational Information Systems, Marketing Information Systems, Key CRM Tasks
  13. Manufacturing Information System, Inventory Sub System, Production Sub System, Quality Sub system
  14. Accounting & Financial Information Systems, Human Resource Information Systems
  15. Decision Making: Types of Problems, Type of Decisions
  16. Phases of decision-making: Intelligence Phase, Design Phase, Choice Phase, Implementation Phase
  17. Planning for System Development: Models Used for and Types of System Development Life-Cycle
  18. Project lifecycle vs. SDLC, Costs of Proposed System, Classic lifecycle Model
  19. Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), Design of the information flow, data base, User Interface
  20. Incremental Model: Evaluation, Incremental vs. Iterative
  21. Spiral Model: Determine Objectives, Alternatives and Constraints, Prototyping
  22. System Analysis: Systems Analyst, System Design, Designing user interface
  23. System Analysis & Design Methods, Structured Analysis and Design, Flow Chart
  24. Symbols used for flow charts: Good Practices, Data Flow Diagram
  25. Rules for DFDs: Entity Relationship Diagram
  26. Symbols: Object-Orientation, Object Oriented Analysis
  27. Object Oriented Analysis and Design: Object, Classes, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism
  28. Critical Success Factors (CSF): CSF vs. Key Performance Indicator, Centralized vs. Distributed Processing
  29. Security of Information System: Security Issues, Objective, Scope, Policy, Program
  30. Threat Identification: Types of Threats, Control Analysis, Impact analysis, Occurrence of threat
  31. Control Adjustment: cost effective Security, Roles & Responsibility, Report Preparation
  32. Physical vs. Logical access, Viruses, Sources of Transmissions, Technical controls
  33. Antivirus software: Scanners, Active monitors, Behavior blockers, Logical intrusion, Best Password practices, Firewall
  34. Types of Controls: Access Controls, Cryptography, Biometrics
  35. Audit trails and logs: Audit trails and types of errors, IS audit, Parameters of IS audit
  36. Risk Management: Phases, focal Point, System Characterization, Vulnerability Assessment
  37. Control Analysis: Likelihood Determination, Impact Analysis, Risk Determination, Results Documentation
  38. Risk Management: Business Continuity Planning, Components, Phases of BCP, Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
  39. Web Security: Passive attacks, Active Attacks, Methods to avoid internet attacks
  40. Internet Security Controls, Firewall Security SystemsIntrusion Detection Systems, Components of IDS, Digital Certificates
  41. Commerce vs. E-Business, Business to Consumer (B2C), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), E-Government
  42. Supply Chain Management: Integrating systems, Methods, Using SCM Software
  43. Using ERP Software, Evolution of ERP, Business Objectives and IT
  44. ERP & E-commerce, ERP & CRM, ERP Ownership and sponsor ship
  45. Ethics in IS: Threats to Privacy, Electronic Surveillance, Data Profiling, TRIPS, Workplace Monitoring