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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 5
INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR
After studying this chapter, you should be able to understand the concepts about...
A. Individuals
B. Groups
C. Teams
LESSON OVERVIEW
In this lecture, we will look at individuals, groups, and teams in organizations. We will explore the role and
functioning of groups within organizations and factor affecting the behavior. We will starts by defining a
team, discussing its key characteristics, examining its fit in the organization, and exploring the effect of
national culture and diversity on teams. Next, we will look at various types of teams in organizations
including simple work teams, administrative teams, cross-departmental teams, and process teams.
Organizations that use teams are facing with the critical challenge of making their teams effective through
team building, a process that is examined in detail in this chapter, followed by an in-depth look at teams in
context. The manager needs to understand why employees engage in some behaviors rather than others and
to predict how employees will respond to various actions by the manager. The emphasis will be on
employee productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase job satisfaction.
A. Individual
Why to Focus on Individuals:
Individuals are important units of any organization. If we understand the behavior of individuals, we can
predict the outcomes; it will become easy to manage the behaviors of individuals in desirable directions.
We have to look at three individual variables--
biographical characteristics, ability, and learning.
Biographical characteristics are readily available to
managers. Generally, they include data that are contained
A lot of athletes say they
in an employee's personal file. The most important
conclusions are that, age seems to have no relationship to
productivity; older workers and those with longer tenure
want to be part of a
are less likely to resign; and married employees have fewer
absences, less turnover, and report higher job satisfaction
cohesive team--but they
than do unmarried employees. But what value can this
information have for managers? The obvious answer is
also want their name printed
that it can help in making choices among job applicants.
Ability directly influences an employee's level of
on the back of their jerseys
performance and satisfaction through the ability-job fit.
Given management's desire to get a compatible fit, what
in 6-inch-high block letters.
can be done? First, an effective selection process will
improve the fit. A job analysis will provide information
about jobs currently being done and the abilities that
S P R bbi
individuals need to perform the jobs adequately.
Applicants can then be tested, interviewed, and evaluated on the degree to which they possess the necessary
abilities. Second, promotion and transfer decisions affecting individuals already in the organization's employ
should reflect the abilities of candidates. With new employees, care should be taken to assess critical abilities
that incumbents will need in the job and to match these requirements with the organization's human
resources. Third, the fit can be improved by fine-tuning the job to better match an incumbent's abilities.
Often modifications can be made in the job that while not having a significant impact on the job's basic
activities, better adapts it to the specific talents of a given employee. Examples would be to change some of
the equipment used or to reorganize tasks within a group of employees. A final alternative is to provide
training for employees. This is applicable to both new workers and present job incumbents. Training can
keep the abilities of incumbents current or provide new skills as times and conditions change.
Any observable change in behavior is prima facie evidence that learning has taken place. What we want to
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do, of course, is ascertain if learning concepts provide us with any insights that would allow us to explain
and predict behavior. Positive reinforcement is a powerful tool for modifying behavior. By identifying and
rewarding performance-enhancing behaviors, management increases the likelihood that they will be
repeated. Our knowledge about learning further suggests that reinforcement is a more effective tool than
punishment. Although punishment eliminates undesired behavior more quickly than negative reinforcement
does, but punished behavior tends to be only temporarily suppressed rather than permanently changed.
Punishment may produce unpleasant side effects such as lower morale and higher absenteeism or turnover.
In addition, the recipients of punishment tend to become resentful of the punisher. Managers, therefore, are
advised to use reinforcement rather than punishment.
Finally, managers should expect that employees would look to them as models. Managers who are
constantly late to work, or take two hours for lunch, or help themselves to company office supplies for
personal use should expect employees to read the message they are sending and model their behavior
accordingly.
Individual differences do not dictate people's behavior. Instead, they limit a person's behavioral range,
making some behavior easier than others.
B. Group
A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve
particular objectives.
Types of Groups
a.  Formal groups are work groups established by the organization and have designated work
assignments and established tasks. The behaviors in which one should engage are stipulated by and
directed toward organizational goals.
b. Informal groups are of a social nature and are natural formations. They tend to form around
friendships and common interests.
Why Do People Join Groups?
There is no single reason why individuals join groups.
1. Security reflects a strength in numbers.
 The group helps the individual to feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and be more resistant to threats.
2. Status indicates a prestige that comes from belonging to a particular group.
 Inclusion in a group viewed as important provides recognition and status.
3. Self-esteem conveys people's feelings of self-worth.
 Membership can raise feelings of self-esteem--being accepted into a highly valued group.
4. Affiliation with groups can fulfill one's social needs.
 Work groups significantly contribute to fulfilling the need for friendships and social relations.
5. One of the appealing aspects of groups is that they represent power.
 What often cannot be achieved individually becomes possible through group action.
 Power might be desired to protect themselves from unreasonable demands.
 Informal groups additionally provide opportunities for individuals to exercise power.
6. Finally, people may join a group for goal achievement.
 There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task.
 There is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to get a job completed.
Group Roles
What Are Roles?
1. The concept of roles applies to all employees in organizations and to their life outside the
organization as well.
2. A role refers to a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given
position in a social unit.
3. Individuals play multiple roles.
4. Employees attempt to determine what behaviors are expected of them.
5. An individual who is confronted by divergent role expectations experiences role conflict.
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6. Employees in organizations often face such role conflicts.
Following are the different types of group roles:
1. Task-oriented roles
2. Relationship-oriented roles
3. Individual roles
Task-oriented roles
 Initiator-Contributors
 Information seekers/providers
Relationship-oriented roles
 Encouragers
 Harmonizers
Individual roles
 Blockers
 Jokers
Characteristics of a well-functioning, effective group
A group is considered effective if it is having following characteristics.
 Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere
 Task to be performed are well understood & accepted
 Members listen well & participate in given assignments
 Clear assignments made & accepted
 Group aware of its operation & function
 People express feelings & ideas
 Consensus decision making
 Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or method
C. Team
A team is a mature group with highly independent members who are completely committed to a common
goal. All teams start out as groups, but not all groups become teams. The elements that distinguish teams
from groups are ...
 full commitment by members to a common
goal and mission
 interdependent
 mutual accountability
 shared leadership
 trust and a collaborative culture, and
 achievement of synergy
Differentiating Groups and Teams:
Groups and teams are different. All teams are groups, but a group is not always a team. A team is always
distinguished by the fact that its members are committed to a common purpose, a set of performance goals,
and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. A group is defined as two or more
persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is
influenced by each other person.
Types of Teams
Organizations use four types of teams, which differ according to the complexity of their task and the
fluidity of their membership.
1. Self managed Teams
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2. Cross Departmental Team
3. Quality Circles
4. Virtual Teams
Self-Directed /managed Work Teams:
A self-managed work team is a formal group of employees who operate without a manager and are
responsible for a complete work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an external or
internal customer. This kind of team has control over its work pace, determination of work assignments,
etc. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and evaluate performance.
As a result, supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated.
Cross Departmental Team
Cross-departmental teams work on simpler tasks, and their membership fluidity is high, which means that
members come and go over time. Process teams, which address complex tasks, have highly fluid
membership.
Problem solving Team
Problem solving also known as Quality circles, which are simple work teams, consist of eight to ten
volunteers from a common work area who meet to find solutions to specific problems about the quality of
work processes, products, or services. Quality circles have a clear and specific focus on quality improvement
within a single work unit. They meet regularly and have limited power to implement their ideas.
Organizations can establish quality circles without making major organizational changes, because they
operate in parallel to the rest of the structure.
Are Virtual Teams a Reality Today?
A virtual team is an extension of the electronic meetings; virtual team allows groups to meet without
concern for space or time and enables organizations to link workers together that in the past couldn't have
been done. Team members use technology advances to solve problems-even though they may be
geographically dispersed or a dozen time zones away.
Process Teams:
Today's team-based organizations rely mainly on process teams, which do not have departmental affiliation
but function independently to undertake broad organizational-level process improvements. In many cases,
organizations that implement process teams then partially or totally disband their traditional departments.
Self-managed teams (SMTs) are process teams of employees who have full managerial control over their
own work. Functioning without outside supervision, they have the power to manage their own work and to
implement their own decisions.
A team leader within the SMT provides internal facilitation to remove work obstacles and obtain needed
resources. As a team, members coordinate and cooperate with other teams and individuals who are affected
by their decisions and activities. Using SMTs requires a total change in organizational structure; not
surprisingly, lack of commitment is the common reason for failure.
Making Teams Effective Through Team Building
Team building--activities aimed at improving the internal work and relationship processes of teams--
requires attention to both task and interpersonal relationships. In team building, organizations apply the
principles of group dynamics to select complementary members, support more cohesion, manage stages of
group development, and establish constructive norms that foster high performance. Membership in teams is
based on expertise in areas that are necessary for task accomplishment. The shamrock team combines a
core of permanent members with part-time members and outside subcontractors.
Turning Individuals in to teams:
Productive teams require careful selection, training, and management. Guidelines for building effective
teams include: seek employee input; establish urgent, demanding performance standards; select members
for skill and skill potential; pay special attention to first meetings and actions; set clear rules of behavior;
move from "boss" to "coach;" set a few immediate performance-oriented tasks and goals; challenge the
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group regularly with fresh facts and information; use the power of positive feedback; shoot for the right
team size; choose people who like teamwork; and train, train, train.
Turning Individuals In to Team Players
1. Introduction
a.  Some individuals prefer to be
Turning Individuals Into Team Players
recognized for their individual
achievements.
b. In some organizations, too, work
environments are such that only
Selection  Training
Rewards
the "strong" survive.
c.  Creating  teams  in  such  an
environment may meet some
resistance.
d. Teams fit well with countries that
score high on collectivism.
2. What Are the Management Challenges of Creating Team Players?
a.  Employees' success, when they are part of teams, is a function of how well the team as a
whole performed.
b. To perform well as team members, individuals must be able to communicate openly and
honestly with one another, to confront differences and resolve conflicts, and to place lower
priority on personal goals for the good of the team.
c.  The challenge of creating team players will be greatest where
i. The national culture is highly individualistic.
ii. The teams are being introduced into an established organization that has
historically valued individual achievement.
iii. This describes, for instance, what faced managers at AT&T, Ford, Motorola, and
other large U.S. companies.
d. In contrast, the challenge for management is less demanding when teams are introduced
where employees have strong collectivism values--such as in Japan or Mexico.
e.  The challenge of forming teams will also be less in new organizations that use teams as
their initial form of structuring work.
Saturn Corporation, the ability to be a good team player was a hiring prerequisite.
3. What Roles Do Team Members Play?
a.  High-performing work teams properly match people to various roles.
b. There are nine potential roles that work team members often can "play."
c.  Creator-innovators are imaginative and good at initiating ideas or concepts.
i. They are typically very independent and prefer to work at their own pace in their
own way--and very often on their own time.
d. Explorer-promoters like to take new ideas and champion their cause.
i. They are good at picking up ideas from the creator-innovator and finding the
resources to promote those ideas.
ii. They often lack the patience and control skills to ensure that the ideas are
implemented.
e.  Assessor-developers have strong analytical skills.
i. They're at their best when given several different options to evaluate and analyze
before a decision is made.
f.  Thruster-organizers like to set up operating procedures to get things done.
i. They set goals, establish plans, organize people, and establish systems to ensure
that deadlines are met.
g. And, somewhat like thruster-organizers, concluder-producers are concerned with results.
i. Their role focuses on insisting that deadlines are kept and commitments fulfilled
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ii. Concluder-producers take pride in producing a regular output to a standard.
h. Controller-inspectors have a high concern for establishing and enforcing rules and policies.
i. They are good at examining details and making sure that inaccuracies are avoided.
ii. They want to check all the facts and figures to make sure they're complete.
i.  Upholder-maintainers hold strong convictions about the way things should be done.
i. They will defend the team and fight its battles strongly supporting fellow team
members.
ii. These individuals provide team stability.
j.  Reporter-advisers are good listeners and don't tend to press their point of view on others.
i. They tend to favor getting more information before making decisions.
ii. They perform an important role in encouraging the team to seek additional
information and discouraging the team from making hasty decisions.
k. The linkers overlap the others.
i. This role can be "played" by any of the previous eight roles.
ii. Linkers try to understand all views.
iii. They are coordinators and integrators.
iv. They dislike extremism and try to build cooperation among all team members.
l.  If forced to, most individuals can perform in any of these roles.
i. Most have two or three they strongly prefer.
m. Managers need to select team members on the basis of an appropriate mix of individual
strengths, and allocate work assignments that fit with each member's preferred style.
4. How Can a Manager Shape Team Behavior?
a.  The three most popular ways include proper selection, employee training, and rewarding
the appropriate team behaviors.
5. What Role Does Selection Play?
a.  When hiring team members, the organization should ensure that applicants can fulfill their
team roles.
i. Some job applicants lack team skills.
ii. If team skills are woefully lacking, don't hire that candidate.
iii. A candidate who has some basic team skills but needs more refinement can be
hired on a probationary basis and be required to undergo training.
6. Can We Train Individuals to Be Team Players?
a.  Performing well in a team involves a set of behaviors, which can be learned.
b. People who were raised on the importance of individual accomplishment can be trained to
become team players.
c.  Training specialists can conduct exercises that allow employees to experience the
satisfaction that teamwork can provide.
d. The workshops offered usually cover such topics as team problem solving,
communications, negotiations, conflict resolution, and coaching skills.
e.  Outside consultants can provide a learning environment in which workers can gain
practical skills for working in teams.
7. What Role Do Rewards Play in Shaping Team Players?
a.  The organization's reward system needs to encourage cooperative efforts rather than
competitive ones.
b. Lockheed Martin's Space Launch Systems has organized its 1,000+ employees into teams.
i. Rewards are structured to return a percentage increase in the bottom line to the
team members on the basis of achievement of the team's performance goals.
c.  Promotions, pay raises, and other forms of recognition should be given to employees for
how effective they are as a collaborative team member.
i. Individual contribution is balanced with selfless contributions to the team.
d. Managers cannot forget the inherent rewards that employees can receive from teamwork.
i. Work teams provide camaraderie.
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e.
There are inherent rewards being on a team-it's exciting and satisfying to be part of a
successful one.
8. How Can a Manager Reinvigorate a Mature Team?
a.  Effective teams can become stagnant.
i. Initial enthusiasm can give way to apathy.
ii. Time can diminish the positive value from diverse perspectives as cohesiveness
increases.
iii. Teams don't automatically stay at the "performing" stage.
iv. Familiarity and team success can lead to contentment and complacency.
b. Mature teams, also, are particularly prone to suffer from groupthink.
i. Mature teams early successes are often due to having taken on easy tasks.
ii. As time passes, the team has to begin to tackle the more difficult issues.
c.  What a manager can do to reinvigorate mature teams, four suggestions.
i.
Prepare team members to deal with the problems of team maturity.
ii.
Remind team members that they are not unique.
iii.
Offer refresher training.
iv.
Provide them with refresher training in communication, conflict resolution, team
processes, and similar skills.
v.
Offer advanced training.
vi.
Mature teams can benefit from training to develop stronger problem-solving,
interpersonal, and technical skills.
vii.
Encourage teams to treat their development as a constant learning experience.
viii.
Just as organizations use continuous improvement program, teams should
approach their own development as part of a search for continuous improvement.
Key Terms
Individuals:
Individuals are important units of any organization
Group:
A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who
come together to achieve particular objectives.
Team:
A team is a mature group with highly independent members who are completely
committed to a common goal.
Role:
A role refers to a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who
occupies a given position in a social unit.
Self Esteem:
Self-esteem conveys people's feelings of self-worth.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System