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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand the following:
Concept of Staffing (Human Resource Management)
Importance of HRM to the organization
Process of HRM
What is Human Resource
The most important resource of any organization is the human resource. All organizations have
three important resources. These are:
Human resource is the most vital resource in an organization
Why is Human Resource Vital
This resource is vital because it drives or moves all the other resources in the organization. This
resource can increase the efficiency, economy and effectiveness of other resources. It is this resource that is
most difficult to control because human beings are most unpredictable. However, if you are able to manage
it properly, it can give wonderful results which no other resource can give.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the management function and it is also staff function,
through which managers recruit, select, train, and develop organization members. We will begin by
discussing the importance of human resource management and point out how HRM can assure the
organization of an adequate and constant supply of skilled and right employees.
Importance of Human Resource
HRM is a staff function. HRM managers advise line managers throughout organization about what
Figure 1
Human Resource
Training and
Promotions, Transfers, Demotions,
and Separations
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
people to recruit for different departments of the organization. In addition, organization may need
employees and managers from time to time. Therefore, the HRM becomes important function
The HRM process is an ongoing procedure that tries to keep the organization supplied with the
right people in the right positions, when they are needed. The HRM process is shown in Figure 1. It
includes seven basic activities which are: 1) human resource planning, 2) recruitment, 3) selection, 4)
socialization, 5) training and development, 6) performance appraisal and 7) promotion, transfers and
Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning is the first step in HRM. It deals with the future requirements of human
asset for the organization. The need for human resource planning may not be readily apparent. However,
an organization that does not do planning for human resources may find that it is not meeting either its
personnel requirements or its overall goals effectively.
How is Human Resource Planning done? It has following components:
1. Planning for future needs: The organization must decide how many people it will need in the future.
What kind of skills those people will possess. In other words organization should be able to
forecast its future human requirements for planning for its future needs.
2. Planning for future balance: organization should be able to determine the future balance of its human
resource. It has to see how many people will retire or the likely hood of people leaving the
organization. HRM should compare the number of employees needed to the number of present
employees who can be expected to stay with the organization, which leads to
3. Planning for recruiting or laying off employees: This will determine how many employees will be recruited
and how many will be laid off.
4. Planning for the development of employees, Once new employees are recruited there need to train these
employees for the jobs in organizations.
The purpose of recruitment is to provide a group of candidates that is large enough to let managers
select the qualified employees they need.
Recruitment is defined as the development of a pool of job candidates in accordance with a human resource
Job and Position Descriptions
Before employees can be recruited, recruiters must have some clear ideas regarding the activities
and responsibilities and qualifications required for the job being filled. Job analysis is therefore an early step
in the recruitment process. In Job analysis each job in the organization is categorized. For each job the
activities and responsibilities are enumerated and then qualification, experience, knowledge and skills
required to perform the job are written down. Following are the three components of job analysis which are
discussed below:
1. Job description: A written description of a non-management job, covering title, duties, and
responsibilities, and including its location on the organization chart.
2. Position description: A written description of a management position, covering title, duties,
and responsibilities, and including its location on the organization chart.
3. Hiring specification: A written description of the education, experience, and skills needed to
perform a job or fill a position effective.
Once a specific job has been analyzed, a written statement of its content and location is included in
the organization chart. This statement is called either a job description or a position description. Job
analysis which comprises hiring specification and job description is important before recruitment is done.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Sources for Recruitment
Recruitment takes place within the labour market ­ that is, the pool of available people who have
the skills to fill vacant positions. The labour market changes over time in response to environmental
The labour market for different jobs would be different. For example labour market for doctors,
accountants, financial managers, history teacher, clerks, messengers, cleaners, etc. will be the from
respective group
The selection process ideally involves mutual decision. The organization decides whether to make
a job offer and how attractive the offer should be made so that right people join the organization. The
candidate has to decide whether the organization and the job offer fit his or her needs and goals, whether it
is just the income or there are is challenge in the job etc.
In reality, the selection process is often more one-sided because it is the organization that has upper
edge. Also, in situations when the job market is extremely tight, several candidates will be applying for each
position, and managers at the organization will use a series of screening devices to identify the most suitable
On the other hand, when there is a shortage of qualified workers, or when the candidate is a highly
qualified executive or professional, the organizations will have to make the offer attractive to the candidate.
Human resource management:
it is also called staffing. It involves the seven steps of
performance appraisal, compensation and promotion,
Job description:
A written description of a non-management job,
covering title, duties, and responsibilities, and including
its location on the organization chart.
Position description:
A written description of a management position,
covering title, duties, and responsibilities, and including
its location on the organization chart.
Hiring specification:
A written description of the education, experience, and
skills needed to perform a job or fill a position effective.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management