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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 08
HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ­ II
At the end of the lecture the students will be able:
To know the history of public administration during British period.
The 1857 war of Independence is a turning point in the history of subcontinent from many
perspectives. From the perspective of public administration it can be said that events that led to 1857 war of
Independence were that the British had tried to divide the two religions of the sub-continent. But it is also
said that British had become laxed in administration and they did not expect the locals to rise up-against
them. When the war erupted and spread, it was realized that things should not be left to the company to be
managed. Therefore, the government in London stepped in to rule directly.
In 1858 a constitutional document "Government of India Act 1858" was passed by the British
Parliament. Now the Secretary of State was to exercise powers previously given to the Company. These
powers were to suppress all local up rising and use force against any up rising.
A Council of 15 members was created under the Act. It was to conduct all business relating to
Government of India in UK.
The Act was a comprehensive written constitution for the subcontinent. The Constitution was
unitary and the provincial governments derived their powers by devolution from the central government
under the control and direction of Governor General. This meant that the control of administration of the
subcontinent was in London. Even the Governor General for the sub-continent was appointed by the
British government and the ultimate control was of Secretary of State sitting in London who was
answerable to the British Parliament.
The initial structure of civil service in the sub-continent was laid by the East India Company (EIC).
The employees of EIC initially belonged to Mercantile Service (1601 ­ 1858) and then the Imperial Service
1858 -1947. During this period of British rule in sub-continent, the civil service of EIC under went changes
according to the requirement of colonial rule. The employees of EIC were divided into `covenanted' (higher
employees) and `un-covenanted' employees (lower level of service). The covenanted civil servants signed
agreement with the Company regarding terms and conditions of the service. The un-covenanted did not
sign any agreement and these could be removed any time without giving any benefits.
Atchison Commission (1886-87) recommended that distinction between covenanted and un-
covenanted service should be abolished and `Imperial Civil Service' should be established. This
nomenclature was later on changed to `Indian Civil Service'. The Commission also recommended the
creation of Provincial Civil Service
The India Civil Service was organized on the principle that `it would be characterized by integrity
and ability' (Philip Woodruff, The Men who Ruled India). It developed standards of honesty and conduct and
the system grew where power was combined with confidence and bust.
To train man for career in Indian Civil Service (ICS) in the sub-continent, East India College was
established in 1806 at Hailey bury England. Entry to the College and service was open to natural-born
British. The Government of India Act 1853 provided young men of sub-continent to compete for the entry
to the College, irrespective of religion, place of birth, descant colour or race. The College offered residential
course of two years where young men were taught by eminent scholars of the time. The College imbibed a
sense of pride in the young men at the College.
The civil servants were paid salaries and wages which allowed them a proper standard of living
according to the responsibilities, which meant that their salaries should not be meager and that they should
not resort to unfair means of earning.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
The Indian Civil Service Act 1861 freed the service from the rule of seniority and seniority was not
the only criteria of promotion. With some safeguards the Act allowed appointment from outside. Public
Service Commission was established in 1926, as a recruiting agency.
The Government of India Act 1935 provided security of tenure: i.e. no officer could be dismissed
until heard in his defence and was given the right to appeal up to the Secretary State.
The British left noteworthy administrative heritage in such areas as law, finance, education, railways,
public works and public health. The foundation of modern Police was laid in 1861. The Police Act 1861
introduced a uniform system of police. In each district Superintendent of Police was appointed with
hierarchy of Deputy Superintendent and inspectors. The police system that British has set-up functioned
efficiently for a long time.
The British made several noteworthy contributions in the area of public financial management.
Great stress was laid upon land a revenue collection procedure which was greatly improved. These were
important as land revenue provided 15% of total revenue. The British reconstituted a system of committees
of revenue as Boards of control over districts administered by collectors who assessed and received land
revenue. By creating compact revenue system in fact they revived part of Akbar's system. Treasury
functions were reorganized and placed under Auditor General. Income tax procedure was also introduced.
Various financial functions were given to the provinces. Under the Act of 1935 the federal budget was to be
presented to the legislature and was to show separate estimates of expenditure of votable and non-votable
were shown. The British gave the system of law administration. They codified the law and introduced the
system of judicial and expanded the court system. Three levels for both civil and criminal courts came into
being, small courts, district or city courts and provincial courts.
The Charter of 1833 provided for Indian Law Commission (1833) which inquired into the powers
and rules of all courts and police establishment, al forms of judicial procedures and the nature and operation
of all laws. As a result of the work of Commission the first Indian Penal Code was enacted.
The Indian Universities Act 1904 brought improvements in the education system. As a result of the
Act the education system was improved and better teachers were employed, cramming for examination was
reduced, closer inspection of College was done. The British gave to the sub-continent institutions like post
and telegraph, railways, irrigation system, public works department etc. But Pakistan came into existence
under condition which caused strain for public administration, as public administration was confronted with
grave challenges.
At the time of independence professional non- Muslims out numbered Muslims and there was large
exodus of non-Muslims from the part that constitutes Pakistan. Non Muslims were more educated and
were more in important position.
The public administration of the new country faces following problem:
Dearth of trained labor (civil servants economists, doctors, engineers): There was grave vacuum of
trained and professional civil servants. At the time of independence, there were around 100 civil
servants.
Refugees: Millions of dislocated and displaced people moved from Pakistan to India and vice versa.
Inadequate physical infrastructure: The part which became Pakistan had no industry, roads were
inadequate, there were few.
Constitution making: The major task was of constitution making. Pakistan faced leadership crisis
after the death of Quaid-i-Azam. The leadership and political crisis shelved the process of
Constitution making. It was in 1973 that Pakistan got the Constitution ­ which could provide
framework for government.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management