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Theory and Practice of Counselling

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Theory and Practice of Counseling - PSY632
VU
Lesson 03
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
1900-1909
Frank Parson
Frank Parson is known as a broad scholar, a persuasive writer, a tireless activist, and a great intellect. He is
rightly called the "father of guidance" and is best known for founding Boston's Vocational Bureau in 1908.
He initiated vocational guidance movement, but he would not have envisioned the growth of the movement
from the several dozen, he trained, to 115,000 school counselors by 1994.
Parson (1909) believed that the vocational counselor should have the following traits:
A practical working knowledge of psychology
An experience involving sufficient human contact
An ability to deal with young people
A knowledge of requirements and conditions of success
Information about courses and means of preparation
Scientific method analysis
Frank Parson's work on vocational guidance classified the facts, identified the causes, and drew the
conclusions about several issues pertaining to suitability of people for different work environments.
Clifford Beers: Mental Health Movement
During the same period (1900-1909), other professional developments evolved independently and merged
to help form the modern approach to counseling. Mental health movement, like vocational guidance
movement, owes much to the efforts of one person. Clifford Beers, a former Yale student, was hospitalized
for mental illness several times during his life. He found conditions in mental institutions deplorable and
exposed them in a book, A Mind That Found Itself (1908), which became very popular. Beers advocated
better mental health facilities and reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill. His work had an especially
powerful influence on the fields of psychiatry and psychology, where many of these people referred to what
they were doing as counseling. Beers was the impetus for the mental health movement in the United States,
and his work was a forerunner of mental health counseling.
He noted abuse of weak and violent patients. Weak patients and violent patients were abused the first day
they would admit into a hospital because of the helplessness of the later and aggressive behaviors of the
former. This procedure seemed to be a part of established code of dishonor. His descriptions aroused
public to humanitarian movements. During 798 days of depression in hospital, he said that he draw
countless incorrect deductions.
These and similar descriptions aroused the public to initiate
1. Humanitarian reforms
2. Scientific inquiry into the problems of mental illness and its treatment.
With the help of a few psychologists of the time, Such as William James and Adolph Meyer, the mental
hygiene movement was launched to educate the general people. Mental Hygiene movement was responsible
for legislative reforms, aftercare, and free clinics for the mentally ill. In 1909 Beers supplied the leadership
for National Committee for Mental Hygiene.
Psychopathic Hospitals
Viewpoint that individuals are products of both their environment and heredity gave rise to new type of
institutions called "Psychopathic Hospitals". Psychopathic Hospitals located in communities became the
forerunner of modern day community mental health centers. In these hospitals outpatient treatment was
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Theory and Practice of Counseling - PSY632
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preferred rather than custodial care. They Improved standards of treatment, though controversial, and
provided base for establishing local clinics for disturbed children.
Other Early Leaders in Guidance Movement
The work of Jesse Davis, Eli Weaver, and Frank Parsons and a host of other pioneers created momentum
for the development of a school counseling profession.)
Anna Reed:
Developed guidance programs to judge a person's worth by his/her employability. Reed was an admirer of
the prevailing concepts of the business world. She believed that guidance services are important for
developing best educational products. Contrary to today's philosophy, she placed the business needs above
those of the individual.
Eli Weaver:
Eli Weaver established teacher guidance committees in every high school in New York to help youths
discover their capabilities for the most appropriate employment
Davis S. Hill:
Davis S. Hill advocated and worked for a diversified curriculum complemented by vocational guidance.
1910s: Standardized Testing
Prior to World War I human assessments were made on the basis of individual differences on a variety
of tasks. The French psychologist Alfred Binet and his associate Theodore Simon introduced the first
general intelligence test in 1905. In 1916, a translated and revised version was introduced in the United
States by Lewis M. Terman and his colleagues at Stanford University, and it enjoyed widespread
popularity in the schools. Prior to World War I technical efforts to human assessment were limited to
the work of individual researchers attempting to measure individual differences on a variety of tasks like
reaction time and sensorimotor abilities.
World War I was the third important event of the decade. To screen its personnel, the U.S. Army
commissioned the development of numerous psychological instruments, among the Army Alpha and
Army Beta intelligence tests. Several of the army's screening devices were employed in civilian
populations after the war. These were based on group testing.
The first standardized achievement and aptitude tests were constructed at that time. Testing of special
aptitudes in music, mechanics, and arts was also started.
In 1915, the first guidance journal "Vocational Guidance" was published.
The first standardized achievement tests predicted success in areas such as academic performance.
Robert Yerks, APA president, headed a committee of psychologists to develop IQ and other measures.
In many ways developments in mental measurements and other types of human assessment formed the
basis for the early technology of counseling practice
1920s
The 1920s were relatively quiet for the development of guidance profession.
A notable event was the certification of counselors in Boston and New York in the mid-1920s.
Another turning point was the development of the first standards for the preparation and evaluation of
occupational materials. Certification in guidance profession started in mid-twenties.
Along with these standards came the publication of new psychological instruments such as Edward
Strong's Strong Vocational Interest Inventory (SVII) in 1928, which set the stage for future directions
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In 1921, Cattel founded Psychological corporation to sell tests
First centre of Marriage and family counseling by Abraham & Hannah (1929) marked the beginning of
the subspecialty
This decade not only stimulated the development and usage of standardized tests, but also was
significant to the development of one of the early specializations in counseling: rehabilitation counseling.
Vocational rehabilitation services were initiated for veterans.
In 1921 Rorschach's very popular inkblot test, Psychodiagnostic, was developed.
Child Guidance Movement:
Child Guidance Movement was primarily initiated as the result of the work of G. Stanley Hall.
Hall was also influenced by Freud, and introduced his ideas in USA. He studied different phases of mental
life in all ages.
Child-study movement was fourfold:
 Individual as the focal point of study
 Importance of the formative years
 Need for reliable, factual knowledge about children
 More accurate methods of child study
Child study centers were designed to promote the well-being of children
The first child guidance clinic was founded in Chicago in 1909 by an English psychiatrist, William Halley,
who worked on children delinquency and misbehaviour.
1930s
Williamson's Trait-Factor Approach:
Highlight of this decade is the development of first counseling theory by Williamson et al. Williamson used
this theory to work with students and unemployed. His theory is a trait-factor, directive, and counselor
centered approach. His approach is also considered the Williamson modified Parsons's theory. He
emphasized traits (aptitudes, interests, personalities, and achievements) of the counselor for the
effectiveness of counseling. His pragmatic approach emphasized the teaching, mentoring, and influential
skills of the counselor. His theory dominated counseling for the next 2 decades. It was based on a scientific,
problem solving, and empirical method that was individually tailored to each client in order to help him stop
his nonproductive thinking.
John Brewer:
John Brewer helped broaden counseling beyond occupational concerns. He emphasized this change and
published a book "Education as Guidance" He maintained that every teacher be a counselor and that guidance
be incorporated into school curriculum. The purpose is to teach the student to live outside the school.
Influence of World War I:
World War I resulted in two significant acts:
1. Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act
2. Veteran's bureau
Other Important Developments:
The term of Rehabilitation Counselor appeared in late 1930.
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By the 1930s 50 psychological clinics and 12 child guidance clinics were formed.
In 1939, Wechseller Adult Intelligence Scale was introduced
Establishment of US Employment Service, published the first edition of Dictionary of Occupational
Titles in 1939. DOT was used as the major source of career information for guidance specialists
working with students and unemployed.
New measures of personality, interests, abilities, emotions and traits were constructed.
1940s
By 1940 over 500 psychological tests appeared.
A Measurement Year Book was constructed to catalogue tests
During this decade, three major events radically shaped the practice of counseling:
1. The theory of Carl Rogers: Client Centered Approach
2. World war II
3. Govt.'s involvement in counseling
Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers rose to prominence in 1942 with the publication of counseling and psychotherapy.
More than any other person, Rogers influenced the way American counselors interact with clients.
Client centered approach maintained that counselor serve as a mirror, reflecting the verbal and emotional
manifestations of the clients.
He emphasized in his two books: "counseling and psychotherapy" "client centered therapy" that the client
assumes the major responsibility for solving his/her problems. His nondirective approach was opposite of
traditional method of counselor being the focus of attention. This approach was different from the trait
approach of Williamson. After continued research and application efforts, this was a semantic change from
nondirective to client-centered approach.
Often it is stated that his contribution to counseling is analogous to Henry Ford's contribution to the
development of automotive industry.
Aubery (1977) noted that before Rogers the literature in counseling was very practical, e.g., a lot of testing,
maintaining cumulative records, vocational and placement functions, etc. Rogers emphasized a new
approach focusing on techniques of counseling, training of counselor, and research. Due to Rogers'
influence guidance for all intents and purposes suddenly disappeared.
World war II & Govt.'s (US) Involvement
After World War II, counseling and guidance movement appeared to be taking a new vitality and
focus. Involvement of psychology in World War II was far greater than World War I.
There was a postwar explosion effect, e.g., funding as well as stipend and paid internships were
available to students.
In 1944 alone over 60 million tests were administered to 20 million soldiers and civilians and
Veterans Administration (VA) established centers to provide counseling
VA coined the term Counseling psychologist and funded the training of counselors and psychologists
About 1500 psychologists served in war
Wider range of military-oriented tests including Army General Classification for groups was created.
Brief measures of TAT and Rorschach appeared.
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By 1960 many people had become highly critical of the practice of using such tests for educational
and job selection. The criticism was that these tests are penalizing minority groups who score low
on these tests not because of their lack of abilities but due to less equal opportunity.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Counseling Journals, Definitions of Counseling
  2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND COUNSELING & PSYCHOTHERAPY
  3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1900-1909:Frank Parson, Psychopathic Hospitals
  4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:Recent Trends in Counseling
  5. GOALS & ACTIVITIES GOALS OF COUNSELING:Facilitating Behavior Change
  6. ETHICAL & LEGAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING:Development of Codes
  7. ETHICAL & LEGAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING:Keeping Relationships Professional
  8. EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR:Personal Characteristics Model
  9. EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR:Humanism, People Orientation, Intellectual Curiosity
  10. EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR:Cultural Bias in Theory and Practice, Stress and Burnout
  11. COUNSELING SKILLS:Microskills, Body Language & Movement, Paralinguistics
  12. COUNSELING SKILLS COUNSELORíS NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:Use of Space
  13. COUNSELING SKILLS HINTS TO MAINTAIN CONGRUENCE:
  14. LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING SKILLS:Barriers to an Accepting Attitude
  15. LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING SKILLS:Suggestive Questions,
  16. LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING SKILLS:Tips for Paraphrasing, Summarizing Skills
  17. INFLUENCING SKILLS:Basic Listening Sequence (BLS), Interpretation/ Reframing
  18. FOCUSING & CHALLENGING SKILLS:Focused and Selective Attention, Family focus
  19. COUNSELING PROCESS:Link to the Previous Lecture
  20. COUNSELING PROCESS:The Initial Session, Counselor-initiated, Advice Giving
  21. COUNSELING PROCESS:Transference & Counter-transference
  22. THEORY IN THE PRACTICE OF COUNSELING:Timing of Termination
  23. PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELING:View of Human Nature
  24. CLASSICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH:Psychic Determination, Anxiety
  25. NEO-FREUDIANS:Strengths, Weaknesses, NEO-FREUDIANS, Family Constellation
  26. NEO-FREUDIANS:Task setting, Composition of Personality, The Shadow
  27. NEO-FREUDIANS:Ten Neurotic Needs, Modes of Experiencing
  28. CLIENT-CENTERED APPROACH:Background of his approach, Techniques
  29. GESTALT THERAPY:Fritz Perls, Causes of Human Difficulties
  30. GESTALT THERAPY:Role of the Counselor, Assessment
  31. EXISTENTIAL THERAPY:Rollo May, Role of Counselor, Logotherapy
  32. COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO COUNSELING:Stress-Inoculation Therapy
  33. COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO COUNSELING:Role of the Counselor
  34. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:Eric Berne, The child ego state, Transactional Analysis
  35. BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES:Respondent Learning, Social Learning Theory
  36. BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES:Use of reinforcers, Maintenance, Extinction
  37. REALITY THERAPY:Role of the Counselor, Strengths, Limitations
  38. GROUPS IN COUNSELING:Major benefits, Traditional & Historical Groups
  39. GROUPS IN COUNSELING:Humanistic Groups, Gestalt Groups
  40. MARRIAGE & FAMILY COUNSELING:Systems Theory, Postwar changes
  41. MARRIAGE & FAMILY COUNSELING:Concepts Related to Circular Causality
  42. CAREER COUNSELING:Situational Approaches, Decision Theory
  43. COMMUNITY COUNSELING & CONSULTING:Community Counseling
  44. DIAGNOSIS & ASSESSMENT:Assessment Techniques, Observation
  45. FINAL OVERVIEW:Ethical issues, Influencing skills, Counseling Approaches