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Social Psychology

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Social Psychology (PSY403)
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Lesson 39
GROUP BEHAVIOR
A few topics from previous topic (Prosocial Behavior)
Any gender differences in helping?
Alice Eagly and Maureen Crowley's (1986) indicate that men and women differ in their willingness to
engage in certain prosocial actions:
Eagly & Crowley's (1986) meta-analysis of 172 studies:
·  Men are more likely to engage in helping that is heroic and chivalrous.
·  Men are more likely to help strangers--especially if the person needing help is female, if there's an
audience, and if the situation is dangerous.
·  Women are more likely than men:
·  to provide social and emotional support to others (Shumaker & Hill, 1991)
·  More willing to serve as caretakers for children and the elderly (Trudeau & Devlin, 1996).
·  Although these differences appear real, the help men render apply most to nonroutine prosocial
acts such as offering help to strangers in distress. When other forms of prosocial behavior--
such as helping a friend or caring for children--are studied, women generally prove to be more
helpful than men.
·  These differences become stronger from childhood to adulthood and are most apparent when
gender roles are salient.
Applied Social Psychology Lab
Can social psychology knowledge enhance prosocial behavior?
·  Learning about the barriers to helping: (Arthur Beaman & his colleagues (1978) randomly assigned
students to listen to either a lecture on bystander intervention or a neutral topic.
·  A total of 43% learning about the paralyzing effects of fellow bystander stopped to help a person
lying on the ground 2 weeks later.
·  Jane Piliavin says that in our society we are trained to leave people alone and mind our own
business.
·  In their classes when Jane Piliavin and her colleagues discussed this research students repeatedly
report an increased attentiveness and responsiveness to emergencies. Make people aware of
barriers and unlock their prosocial tendencies
·  Jane Piliavin stressed the need of knowledge-created awareness of the social dynamics of
emergency situations so that people could unlock their prosocial tendencies.
Group Behavior Lesson 39
Aims
To introduce the psychological effects of being in a group and of interacting with others on an inter-
individual level
Objectives
·
To describe basic features of groups
·
To discuss effects of group on individuals
·
Describe social facilitation
Chapter Summary
This chapter presents several topics related to group behavior, including the effects of the presence of
others on an individual's performance; key features of groups; group performance and decision-making;
competition, cooperation, social dilemmas; and leadership. Social facilitation, social inhibition, and social
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loafing are discussed and compared in terms of how behavior can be affected by the presence of others and
by the complexity of the task. Evaluation apprehension and the distraction-conflict model are presented in
this context. Social impact theory is put forth as a general explanation for the influence that others have
upon us, noting how the strength, number, and immediacy of observers can influence behavior. The effects
of crowding and deindividuation are also noted. A group is defined as a social unity in which people are
interdependent and interacting, and is distinguished from a crowd, an audience, or other collections of
individuals.  The basic features of groups are their structure (roles, norms, and status) and their
cohesiveness. How groups perform on tasks, including performance and decision-making, is discussed,
with a focus on biased use of information in groups, potentially leading to group polarization and
groupthink. Cooperation and competition and their determinants, including reward structure, personal
values, communication patterns, and reciprocity, are also described, and social dilemmas are considered.
Finally, the topic of leadership is discussed from the standpoint of personality characteristics, situational
demands, and the interaction between the two. The chapter concludes with a presentation of recent
research on gender and leadership.
What is a group?
·  Two or more people who interact with one another, share common goals, are somehow
interdependent, and recognize that they belong to a group
·
Here the focus is on the effects of physically interacting regularly in a work group, team, etc. and
the effects this has on productivity (i.e., vs. social categorization)
Basic Features of Groups
Social norms are shared rules and expectations about how group members should act. Some groups have
norms for personal appearance, opinions (no involvement in religious or political activities in universities,
etc.) behavior (smoking prohibition in university). Sometimes written guidelines are provided regarding
these norms, while on other occasions they are learned through everyday conversation. For example, in
Sherif's Robber's Cave experiments norms were developed in "Rattlers" and "Eagles" soon after
construction of their groups. Social norms increase conformity and reduce deviancy within group. They
also enhance performance by rewarding efficiency, effort, and quality.
Social roles are clusters of socially defined expectations that individuals in a given situation are expected to
fulfill. Sometime social roles evolve during group interaction; sometime people import their role into their
new group that they enjoyed playing in previous groups.
Social status refers to social position based on prestige and authority and distribution of power among
members. You can tell who has higher status in a group by paying attention to verbal and nonverbal
behavior. Usually people with higher status maintain great eye contact, stand more erect, are more likely to
criticize and command, and not only speak more but are also spoken to more. The social status often is
ascribed rather than earned. There are many advantages to having high status in a group. These people have
high self-esteem, are better liked by others, and are more satisfied with their group relations. However, in
case of bad decisions causing negative group consequences, they are judged rather harshly.
Cohesiveness refers to forces that cause members to remain in a group. As group cohesiveness increases,
people feel, think, and act more like group members and less like isolated members. This cohesiveness
allows the group to exert its influence on members, which increases productivity.
Positive factors associated with cohesiveness:
·  Liking of members for each other
·  Extent to which members act effectively together
·  Success of group in meeting goals
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Negative factors associated with cohesiveness:
·  Cost of Leaving
·  Lack of Alternatives
·  Group influence on individual behavior
Group affecting individuals
The following three phenomena can occur with minimal interaction (minimal group situation)
Social facilitation
An individual performing an activity in the presence of an audience
Social loafing
An individual performing an activity as part of a larger group of performers
Deindividuation
May occur in crowded, anonymous situations when people lose a sense of responsibility for their own
actions and feel free to express aggressive and sexual impulses
Social Facilitation
·  The enhancement of dominant responses due to the presence of others
·  Norman Triplett (1897) conducted one of the first experiments investigating whether the presence
of others enhance performance (cyclists).
·  Subsequent studies conducted during the first quarter of the 20th century found that the presence of
others enhances the speed with which people perform simple tasks, but inhibits task efficiency in
more complex tasks (Allport, 1920)
·  Observed also in animals (Chen, 1937) such as dogs, rats, fish, birds, and even ants and
cockroaches
Explanations of social facilitation effects
·  Drive theory
·  Evaluation-apprehension
·  Distraction-conflict
·  Mere exposure
Drive theory of social facilitation (Zajonce, 1965)
·  Researchers attempted to answer that presence of others should affect differently in case of easy
and complex tasks. Zajonce proposed a theory to reconcile the contradictory findings.
·
All animals are genetically predisposed to become physiologically aroused when around
conspecifics (members of one's own species) because they receive most of the rewards and
punishments from them, and have developed an innate arousal response due to their mere presence
·
Correct responses are dominant in case of easy tasks, but correct responses are not dominant in
case of difficult, unless memorized, like math test or learning maze (difficult) vs. clapping (easy).
·
Increased arousal enhances performance on easy task, increased arousal promotes incorrect
responding in case of complex tasks.
·
This, in turn, increases the tendency to make a dominant (well learned) response.
·
If the response correct - social facilitation, if incorrect - inhibition
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Figure 1: Zajonce's theory of social facilitation
Processes Leading to Social Facilitation versus
Social Inhibition
· Zajonc's theory:
If dominant
response correct,
SOCIAL
FACILITATION
Presence
Dominant
If dominant
Arousal
of other s
R esponse
response wrong,
SOCIAL
INHIBITION
Further research to test Zajonce's theory
Two separate meta-analyses of more than 300 experiments involving more than 25,000 participants
confirmed (Bond & Titus, 1983; Guerin, 1986)
Michaels et al. (1982)
·  A study of pool players in a college student union
·  Unobtrusively identified students either above or below average in their ability to shot (without an
audience present); students' shooting accuracy was recorded.
·  Then several rounds with 4 confederates closely watching
·  Good players' accuracy in making shots increased (from 71% to 80%) while others observing,
while that of poor performers deteriorated (from 36% to 25%)
·  In probably the most novel extension of all, Zajonce demonstrated that facilitation and inhibition
were not limited to humans. He placed cockroaches on either runways (a simple task) or in mazes
(a complex task) and measured their running speed when either alone or in the presence of a gallery
of other roaches. Supporting previous research, the presence of other roaches did indeed facilitate
performance on the runway task, whereas it hampered performance in the mazes.
·  We become energized in front of others unless we are self conscious or hyperaroused.
Evaluation apprehension
·  Concern over being judged by others (Cottrell, 1972)
Cottrell et al., 1968
·  Counter to the `mere-presence' effect
·  Performance was evaluated in three different conditions: working alone, in the presence of
confederates working on the same task, in the presence of blindfolded who supposedly were
performing for a perception test
·  As compared to being alone, with seeing subjects, participants were having both evaluation
apprehension and mere exposure.
·  With blindfolded, however, no evaluation apprehension as blindfolded could not evaluate the
participant's performance.
·  If people present, but not evaluating, no social facilitation occurs
Distraction-conflict explanation
·  Social facilitation also found in animals. Does this mean that insects worry about other insects
evaluating them? This probability is unlikely.
·  Conflict is a well-documented source of arousal, and in such a situation it is the distraction conflict
alone that creates arousal.
·  Heightened arousal occurs due to conflict between the task at hand and attending to others in the
immediate surroundings (Baron, 1986)
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·
Can explain social as well as non-social `distractions' (e.g., loud noises, flashing lights, etc.)
·
Overall, all three theories (drive, evaluation apprehension, and distraction conflict) can contribute
to the explanation of social facilitation/ inhibition
Distraction-conflict theory
Presence of others
or novel stimuli
Distraction
Attention conflict
Heightened
arousal
If dominant
If dominant responses
Enhancement of
responses are
are incorrect in present
Dominant responses
Correct in present
Situation
Situation
Performance is
Performance is
inhibited
enhanced
Mere presence
·  Zajonce contends that even without evaluation apprehension and arousing distraction, mere
presence of others produces some arousal.
·  People's colour perceptions are stronger when they make judgments with others present (Goldman,
1967)
·  Most joggers are energized when jogging with others even without any competition
·
·  Current trend in organizations is to have an "open-office plan". Rather than private offices, open
areas are divided with low partitions. The presence of others may boost the performance of well-
learned tasks, but disrupt creative thinking.
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Activity: Recognizing a group
1. Audience in a large auditorium
2. A family eating dinner together
3. All members of the rotary club
4. Residents of the same dorm
5. Members of a cricket team
6. A construction crew building a highway
7. People riding an elevator together
8. Acquaintances standing in line for tickets
9. All citizens of Pakistan
10. All people in cars waiting to pay their tolls at motorway
11. A mob of protestors at a demonstration
12. Two strangers speaking on the telephone
Note: Those underlined in the above list satisfy the criteria required for considering a collection of
individuals as a group.
Reading
·  Franzoi, S. (2003). Social Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 10.
Other Readings
·  Lord, C.G. (1997). Social Psychology. Orlando: Harcourt Brace and Company. Chapter 8.
·  David G. Myers, D. G. (2002). Social Psychology (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
·  Taylor, S.E. (2006). Social Psychology (12th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Readings, Main Elements of Definitions
  2. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Social Psychology and Sociology
  3. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Scientific Method
  4. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Evaluate Ethics
  5. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH PROCESS, DESIGNS AND METHODS (CONTINUED)
  6. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OBSERVATIONAL METHOD
  7. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CORRELATIONAL METHOD:
  8. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  9. THE SELF:Meta Analysis, THE INTERNET, BRAIN-IMAGING TECHNIQUES
  10. THE SELF (CONTINUED):Development of Self awareness, SELF REGULATION
  11. THE SELF (CONTINUE…….):Journal Activity, POSSIBLE HISTORICAL EFFECTS
  12. THE SELF (CONTINUE……….):SELF-SCHEMAS, SELF-COMPLEXITY
  13. PERSON PERCEPTION:Impression Formation, Facial Expressions
  14. PERSON PERCEPTION (CONTINUE…..):GENDER SOCIALIZATION, Integrating Impressions
  15. PERSON PERCEPTION: WHEN PERSON PERCEPTION IS MOST CHALLENGING
  16. ATTRIBUTION:The locus of causality, Stability & Controllability
  17. ATTRIBUTION ERRORS:Biases in Attribution, Cultural differences
  18. SOCIAL COGNITION:We are categorizing creatures, Developing Schemas
  19. SOCIAL COGNITION (CONTINUE…….):Counterfactual Thinking, Confirmation bias
  20. ATTITUDES:Affective component, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  21. ATTITUDE FORMATION:Classical conditioning, Subliminal conditioning
  22. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR:Theory of planned behavior, Attitude strength
  23. ATTITUDE CHANGE:Factors affecting dissonance, Likeability
  24. ATTITUDE CHANGE (CONTINUE……….):Attitudinal Inoculation, Audience Variables
  25. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION:Activity on Cognitive Dissonance, Categorization
  26. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION (CONTINUE……….):Religion, Stereotype threat
  27. REDUCING PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION:The contact hypothesis
  28. INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION:Reasons for affiliation, Theory of Social exchange
  29. INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION (CONTINUE……..):Physical attractiveness
  30. INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS:Applied Social Psychology Lab
  31. SOCIAL INFLUENCE:Attachment styles & Friendship, SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
  32. SOCIAL INFLUENCE (CONTINE………):Normative influence, Informational influence
  33. SOCIAL INFLUENCE (CONTINUE……):Crimes of Obedience, Predictions
  34. AGGRESSION:Identifying Aggression, Instrumental aggression
  35. AGGRESSION (CONTINUE……):The Cognitive-Neo-associationist Model
  36. REDUCING AGGRESSION:Punishment, Incompatible response strategy
  37. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR:Types of Helping, Reciprocal helping, Norm of responsibility
  38. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE………):Bystander Intervention, Diffusion of responsibility
  39. GROUP BEHAVIOR:Applied Social Psychology Lab, Basic Features of Groups
  40. GROUP BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE…………):Social Loafing, Deindividuation
  41. up Decision GROUP BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE……….):GroProcess, Group Polarization
  42. INTERPERSONAL POWER: LEADERSHIP, The Situational Perspective, Information power
  43. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN COURT
  44. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN CLINIC
  45. FINAL REVIEW:Social Psychology and related fields, History, Social cognition