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Organization Development

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Lesson 09
General Model of Planned Change
The three theories of planned change in organizations described above--Lewin's change model, the action
research model, and contemporary adaptations to the action research model--suggest a general framework
for planned change, as shown in Fig. 10. The framework describes the four basic activities that practitioners
and organization members jointly carry out in organization development. The arrows connecting the
different activities in the model show the typical sequence of events, from entering and contracting, to
diagnosing, to planning and implementing change, to evaluating and institutionalizing change. The lines
connecting the activities emphasize that organizational change is not a straightforward, linear process but
involves considerable overlap and feedback among the activities.
Figure: 08
Entering and Contracting:
The first set of activities in planned change concerns entering and contracting. Those events help managers
decide whether they want to engage further in a planned change program and to commit resources to such
a process. Entering an organization involves gathering initial data to understand the problems facing the
organization or the positive opportunities for inquiry. Once this information is collected, the problems or
opportunities are discussed with managers and other organization members to develop a contract or
agreement to engage in planned change. The contract spells out future change activities, the resources that
will be committed to the process, and how OD practitioners and organization members will be involved. In
many cases, organizations do not get beyond this early stage of planned change because disagreements
about the need for change surface, resource constraints are encountered, or other methods for change
appear more feasible. When OD is used in nontraditional and international settings, the entering and
contracting process must be sensitive to the context in which the change is taking place.
Diagnosing:
In this stage of planned change, the client system is carefully studied. Diagnoses can .focus on
understanding organizational problems, including their causes and consequences, or on identifying the
organization's positive attributes. The diagnostic process is one of the most important activities in OD. It
includes choosing an appropriate model for understanding the organization and gathering, analyzing, and
feeding back information to managers and organization members about the problems or opportunities that
exist.
Diagnostic models for analyzing problems explore three levels of activities. Organization issues represent
the most complex level of analysis and involve the total system. Group-level issues are associated with de-
partment and group effectiveness. Individual-level issues involve the way jobs are designed.
Gathering, analyzing, and feeding back data are the central change activities in diagnosis. Describes how
data can be gathered through interviews, observations, survey instruments, or such archival sources as
meeting minutes and organization charts. It also explains how data can be reviewed and analyzed.
Organization members, often in collaboration with an OD practitioner, jointly discuss the data and their
implications for change.
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Planning and Implementing Change:
In this stage, organization members and practitioners jointly plan and implement OD interventions. They
design interventions to achieve the organization's vision or goals and make action plans to implement them.
There are several criteria for designing interventions, including the organization's readiness for change, its
current change capability, its culture and power distributions, and the change agent's skills and abilities.
Depending on the outcomes of diagnosis, there are four major types of interventions in OD:
1.
Human process interventions at the individual, group, and total system levels.
2.
Interventions that modify an organization's structure and technology.
3.
Human resource interventions that seek to improve member performance and wellness.
4.
Strategic interventions that involve managing the organization's relationship to its external
environment and the internal structure and process necessary to support a business strategy.
Implementing interventions is concerned with managing the change process. It includes motivating change,
creating a desired future vision of the organization, developing political support, managing the transition
toward the vision, and sustaining momentum for change.
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change:
The final stage in planned change involves evaluating the effects of the intervention and managing the
institutionalization of successful change programs. Feedback to organization members about the
intervention's results provides information about whether the changes should be continued, modified, or
suspended. Institutionalizing successful changes involves reinforcing them through feedback, rewards, and
training. It demonstrates how traditional planned change activities, such as entry and contracting, survey
feedback, and change planning, can be combined with contemporary methods, such as large-group
interventions and high levels of participation.
Different types of Planned Change:
The general model of planned change describes how the OD process typically un-folds in organizations. In
actual practice, the different phases are not nearly as orderly as the model implies. OD practitioners tend to
modify or adjust the stages to fit the needs of the situation. Steps in planned change may be implemented
in a variety of ways, depending on the client's needs and goals, the change agent's skills and values, and the
organization's context. Thus, planned change can vary enormously from one situation to another.
To understand the differences better, planned change can be contrasted across situations on three key
dimensions: the magnitude of organizational change, the degree to which the client system is organized, and
whether the setting is domestic or international.
Magnitude of Change:
Planned change efforts can be characterized as falling along a continuum ranging from incremental changes
that involve fine-tuning the organization to quantum changes that entail fundamentally altering how it
operates. Incremental changes tend to involve limited dimensions and levels of the organization, such as
the decision-making processes of work groups. They occur within the context of the organization's existing
business strategy, structure, and culture and are aimed at improving the status quo. Quantum changes, on
the other hand, are directed at significantly altering how the organization operates. They tend to involve
several organizational dimensions, including structure, culture, reward systems, information processes, and
work design. They also involve changing multiple levels of the organization, from top-level management
through departments and work groups to individual jobs.
Planned change traditionally has been applied in situations involving incremental change. Organizations in
the 1960s and 1970s were concerned mainly with fine-tuning their bureaucratic structures by resolving
many, of the social problems that emerged with increasing size and complexity. In those situations, planned
change involves a relatively bounded set of problem-solving activities. OD practitioners are typically
contracted by managers to help solve specific problems in particular organizational systems, such as poor
communication among members of a work team or low customer satisfaction scores in a department store.
Diagnostic and change activities tend to be limited to the defined issues, although additional problems may
be uncovered and may need to be addressed. Similarly, the change process tends to focus on those
organizational systems having specific problems, and it generally terminates when the problems are
resolved. Of course, the change agent may contract to help solve additional problems.
In recent years, OD has been concerned increasingly with quantum change. The greater competitiveness
and uncertainty of today's environment have led a growing number of organizations to alter drastically the
way in which they operate. In such situations, planned change is more complex, extensive, and long term
than when applied to incremental change. Because quantum change involves most features and levels of the
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organization, it is typically driven from the top, where corporate strategy and values are set. Change agents
help senior managers create a vision of a desired future organization and energize movement in that
direction. They also help executives develop structures for managing the transition from the present to the
future organization and may include, for example, a variety of overlapping steering committees and
redesign teams. Staff experts also may redesign many features of the firm, such as performance measures,
rewards, planning processes, work designs, and information systems.
Because of the complexity and extensiveness of quantum change, OD professionals often work in teams
comprising members with different yet complementary areas of expertise. The consulting relationship
persists over relatively long time periods and includes a great deal of renegotiation and experimentation
among consultants and managers. The boundaries of the change effort are more uncertain and diffuse than
in incremental change, thus making diagnosis and change seem more like discovery than like problem
solving.
It is important to emphasize that quantum change may or may not be developmental in nature.
Organizations may drastically alter their strategic direction and way of operating without significantly
developing their capacity to solve problems and to achieve both high performance and quality of work life.
For example, firms may simply change their marketing mix, dropping or adding products, services, or
customers; they may drastically downsize by cutting out marginal businesses and laying off managers and
workers; or they may tighten managerial and financial controls and attempt to squeeze more out of the
labor force. On the other hand, organizations may undertake quantum change from a developmental
perspective. They may seek to make themselves more competitive by developing their human resources; by
getting managers and employees more involved in problem solving and innovation; and by promoting
flexibility and direct, open communication. That OD approach to quantum change is particularly relevant
in today's rapidly changing and competitive environment. To succeed in this setting, major multinational
organizations (firms such as General Electric, Kimberly-Clark, ABB, Hewlett-Packard, and Motorola) are
transforming themselves from control-oriented bureaucracies to high-involvement organizations capable of
changing and improving themselves continually.
Degree of Organization:
Planned change efforts also can vary depending on the degree to which the organization or client system is
organized. In over organized situations, such as in highly mechanistic, bureaucratic organizations, various
dimensions such as leadership styles, job designs, organization structure, and policies and procedures are
too rigid and overly defined for effective task performance. Communication between management and
employees is typically suppressed, conflicts are avoided, and employees are apathetic. In under organized
organizations, on the other hand, there is too little constraint or regulation for effective task performance.
Leadership, structure, job design, and policy are poorly defined and fail to control task behaviors effective-
ly. Communication is fragmented, job responsibilities are ambiguous, and employees' energies are
dissipated because they lack direction. Underorganized situations are typically found in such .areas as
product development, project management, and community development, where relationships among
diverse groups and participants must be coordinated around complex, uncertain tasks.
In over organized situations, where much of OD practice has historically taken place, planned change is
generally aimed at loosening constraints on behavior. Changes in leadership, job design, structure, and
other features are designed to liberate suppressed energy, to increase the flow of relevant information
between employees and managers, and to promote effective conflict resolution. The typical steps of
planned change -- entry, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation -- are intended to penetrate a relatively
closed organization or department and make it increasingly open to self-diagnosis and revitalization. The
relationship between the OD practitioner and the management team attempts to model this loosening
process. The consultant shares leadership of the change process with management, encourages open
communications and confrontation of conflict, and maintains flexibility in relating to the organization.
When applied to organizations facing problems in being under organized, planned change is aimed at
increasing organization by clarifying leadership rules, structuring communication between, managers and
employees, and specifying job and departmental responsibilities. These activities require a modification of
the traditional phases of planned change and include the following four steps.
1. Identification: This step identifies the relevant people or groups who need to be involved in the change
program. In many under organized situations, people and departments can be so disconnected that there is
ambiguity about who should be included in the problem-solving process. For example, when managers of
different departments have only limited interaction with each other, they may disagree or be confused
about which departments should be involved in developing a new product or service.
2. Convention: In this step the relevant people or departments in the company are brought together to
begin organizing for task performance. For example, department, managers might be asked to attend a
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series of organizing meetings to discuss the division of labor and the coordination required to introduce a
new product.
3. Organization: Different organizing mechanisms are created to structure the newly required interactions
among people and departments. This might include creating new leadership positions, establishing
communication channels, and specifying appropriate plans and policies.
4. Evaluation: In this final step the outcomes of the organization step are assessed. The evaluation might
signal the need for adjustments in the organizing process or for further identification, convention, and
organization activities.
In carrying out these four steps of planned change in under organized situations, the relationship between
the OD practitioner and the client system attempts to reinforce the organizing process. The consultant
develops a well-defined leadership role, which might be autocratic during the early stages of the change
program. Similarly, the consulting relationship is clearly defined and tightly specified. In effect, the
interaction between the consultant and the client system supports the larger process of bringing order to
the situation.
Domestic vs. International Settings:
Planned change efforts traditionally have been applied in North American and European settings but
increasingly are used outside of those cultures. Developed in western societies, the action research model
reflects the underlying values and assumptions of these geographic settings, including equality, involvement,
and short-term time horizons. Under such conditions, the action research model works quite well. In other
societies, however, a very different set of cultural values and assumptions may operate and make the
application of OD problematic. For example, the cultures of most Asian countries are more hierarchical
and status conscious, are less open to discussing personal issues, more concerned with saving "face," and
have a longer time horizon for results. Even when the consultant is aware of the cultural norms and values
that permeate the society; those cultural differences make the traditional action research steps more difficult
for a North American or European consultant to implement.
The cultural values that guide OD practice in the United States, for example, include a tolerance for
ambiguity, equality among people, individuality, and achievement motives. An OD process that encourages
openness among individuals, high levels of participation, and actions that promote increased effectiveness
are viewed favorably. The OD practitioner is also assumed to hold those values and to model them in the
conduct of planned change. Most reported cases of OD involve western-based organizations using
practitioners trained in the traditional model and raised and experienced in western society.
When OD is applied outside of the North American or European context (and sometimes even within
those settings), the action research process must be adapted to fit the cultural context. For example, the
diagnostic phase, which is aimed at understanding the current drivers of organization effectiveness, can be
modified in a variety of ways. Diagnosis can involve many organization members or include only senior
managers; be directed from the top, conducted by an outside consultant, or performed by internal
consultants; or involve face-to-face interviews or organization documents. Each step in the general model
of planned change must be carefully mapped against the cultural context.
Conducting OD in international settings is highly stressful on OD practitioners. To be successful, they
must develop a keen awareness of their own cultural biases, be open to seeing a variety of issues from
another perspective, be fluent in the values and assumptions of the host country, and understand the
economic and political context of business there. Most OD practitioners are not able to meet all of those
criteria and adopt a "cultural guide," often a member of the organization, to help navigate the cultural,
operational, and political nuances of change in that society.
Critique of Planned Change:
Despite their continued refinement, the models and practice of planned change are still in a formative stage
of development, and there is considerable room for improvement. Critics of OD have pointed out several
problems with the way planned change has been conceptualized and practiced.
Conceptualization of Planned Change:
Planned change has typically been characterized as involving a series of activities for carrying out effective
organization development. Although current models outline a general set of steps to be followed,
considerably more information is needed to guide how those steps should be performed in specific
situations. In an extensive review and critique of planned change theory, Porras and Robertson argued that
planned change activities should be guided by information about (1) the organizational features that can be
changed, (2) the intended outcomes from making those changes, (3) the causal mechanisms by which those
outcomes are achieved, and (4) the contingencies upon which successful change depends. In particular,
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they noted that the key to organizational change is change in the behavior of each member and that the
information available about the causal mechanisms that produce individual change is lacking. Overall,
Porras and Robertson concluded that the necessary information to guide change is only partially available
and that a good deal more research and thinking are needed to fill the gaps.
A related area where current thinking about planned change is deficient is knowledge about how the stages
of planned change differ across situations. Most models specify a general set of steps that are intended to
be applicable to most change efforts. We already know, however, how change activities can vary depending
on such factors as the magnitude of change, the degree to which the client system is organized, and
whether change is being conducted in a domestic or an international setting. Considerably more effort
needs to be expended identifying situational factors that may require modifying the general stages of
planned change. That would likely lead to a rich array of planned change models, each geared to a specific
set of situational conditions. Such contingency thinking is sorely needed in planned change.
Planned change also tends to be described as a rationally controlled, orderly process. Critics have argued
that although this view may be comforting, it is seriously misleading. They point out that planned change
has a more chaotic quality, often involving shifting goals, discontinuous activities, surprising events, and
unexpected combinations of changes. For example, managers often initiate changes without clear plans that
clarify their strategies and goals. As change unfolds, new stakeholders may emerge and demand
modifications reflecting previously unknown or unvoiced needs. Those emergent conditions make planned
change a far more disorderly and dynamic process than is customarily portrayed, and conceptions need to
capture that reality.
Finally, the relationship between planned change and organizational performance and effectiveness is not
well understood. OD traditionally has had problems assessing whether interventions are producing
observed results. The complexity of the change situation, the lack of sophisticated analyses, and the long
time periods for producing results have contributed to weak evaluation of OD efforts. Moreover, managers
have often accounted for OD efforts with post hoc testimonials, reports of possible future benefits, and
calls to support OD as the right thing to do. In the absence of rigorous assessment and measurement, it is
difficult to make resource allocation decisions about change programs and to know which interventions are
most effective in certain situations.
Practice of Planned Change:
Critics have suggested several problems with the way planned change is carried out. Their concerns are not
with the planned change model itself but with how change takes place and with the qualifications and
activities of OD practitioners.
A growing number of OD practitioners have acquired skills in a specific technique, such as team building,
total quality management, large-group interventions, or gain sharing and have chosen to specialize in that
method. Although such specialization may be necessary, it can lead to a certain myopia given the complex
array of techniques that make up modern OD. Some OD practitioners favor particular techniques and
ignore other strategies that might be more appropriate, tending to interpret organizational problems as
requiring the favored technique. Thus, for example, it is not unusual to see consultants pushing such
methods as diversity training, reengineering, organization learning, or self-managing work teams as so-
lutions to most organizational problems.
Effective change depends on a careful diagnosis of how the organization is functioning. Diagnosis
identifies the underlying causes of organizational problems, such as poor product quality and employee
dissatisfaction. It requires both time and money, and some organizations are not willing to make the
necessary investment. Rather, they rely on preconceptions about what the problem is and hire consultants
with skills appropriate to solve that problem. Managers may think, for example, that work design is the
problem, so they hire an expert in job enrichment to implement a change program. The problem may be
caused by other factors such as poor reward practices, however, and job enrichment would be
inappropriate. Careful diagnosis can help to avoid such mistakes.
In situations requiring complex organizational changes, planned change is a long-term process involving
considerable innovation and learning on site. It requires a good deal of time and commitment and a
willingness to modify and refine changes as the circumstances require. Some organizations demand more
rapid solutions to their problems and seek quick fixes from experts. Unfortunately, some OD consultants
are more than willing to provide quick solutions. They sell prepackaged programs for organizations to
adopt. Those programs appeal to managers because they typically include an explicit recipe to be followed,
standard training materials, and clear time and cost boundaries. The quick fixes have trouble gaining wide
organizational support and commitment, however, and they seldom produce the positive results that have
been advertised.
Other organizations have not recognized the systemic nature of change. Too often they believe that
intervention into one aspect or subpart of the organization will be sufficient to ameliorate the problems,
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and are unprepared for the other changes that may be necessary to support a particular intervention. For
example, at GTE of California, the positive benefits of an employee involvement program did not begin to
appear until after the organization redesigned its reward system to support the cross-functional
collaboration necessary to solve highly complex problems. Changing any one part or feature of an
organization often requires adjustments in the other parts to maintain an appropriate alignment. Thus,
although quick fixes and change programs that focus on only one part or aspect of the organization may
resolve some specific problems, they generally do not lead to complex organizational change or increase
members' capacity to carry out change.
Case: The Dim Lighting Co.
The Dim Lighting Company is a subsidiary of a major producer of electrical products. Each subsidiary
division operates as a profit center and reports to regional, group, and product vice presidents at corporate
headquarters. The Dim Lighting subsidiary produces electric lamps and employs about 2,000 workers. The
general manager is Jim West, an MBA from Wharton, who has been running this subsidiary successfully for
the past five years. However, last year the division failed to realize its operating targets, and profit margins
dropped by 15 percent. In developing next year's budget and profit plan, Jim West feels that he is under
pressure to have a good year because two bad years in a row might hit his long-term potential for
advancement.
Mr. Spinks, Director of R&D
Robert Spinks, director of R&D, was hired by West three years ago, after resigning from a major
competitor. Mr. Spinks has received a number of awards from scientific societies. The scientists and
engineers in his group respect his technical competence and have a high level of morale.
Although Spinks is recognized as a talented scientist, other managers feel that he is often autocratic, strong-
willed, and impatient. Spins left his former company because management lacked creativity and innovation
in R&D.
The Proposal
Spinks has submitted a budget request for a major research project, the micro-miniaturization of lighting
sources so as to greatly reduce energy requirements. He sees this as the Lamp of the Future. The proposed
budget requires $250,000 per year for two years, plus another $300,000 to begin production. Jim West
immediately contacted corporate headquarters, and although top management praised the idea, they were
reluctant to spend on the proposed project. Spinks feels the project has a 70 percent chance of success, and
will develop a net cash flow of $1 million by the third year.
The Budget Meeting
West called a meeting of his management group to discuss the proposed budget. Spinks presented a well-
reasoned and high-powered sales pitch for his project. He suggested that the energy crunch had long-term
implications, and if they failed to move into new technologies, the firm would be competitively obsolete.
Carol Preston, accountant, presented a financial analysis of the proposed project, noting the high risk, the
uncertain results, the length of time before it would contribute to operating profits. "These scientists are
prima donnas, who can afford to wait for long-term results. Unfortunately, if we don't do something about
the bottom line right now, we may not be here to enjoy it," she noted.
Bill Boswell, production manager, agreed with Preston: "We need new machinery for our production line
also, and that has a very direct payback."
Pete Newell, marketing, agreed with Spinks: "I don't feel we can put our heads in the sand. If we don't
keep up competitively, how will our salespeople be able to keep selling obsolete lighting products? Besides,
I'm not sure that Carol's figures are completely accurate in measuring the actual return on this low-energy
project." A stormy debate followed, with heated arguments both for and against the project, until West
called the meeting to a halt.
Later, thinking it over in his office, West considered the situation. Going ahead with the micro-
miniaturization project was a big gamble. But if he decided against it, it was quite possible that .Spinks
would resign, which would shatter the R&D department he had worked so hard to assemble.
Case Analysis Form
Name: ____________________________________________
I. Problems
A. Macro
1. ____________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________
B. Micro
1. _____________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________
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II. Causes
1. _____________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________
III. Systems affected
1.
Structural ____________________________________________
2.
Psychosocial __________________________________________.
3.
Technical ______________________________________________
4.
Managerial _____________________________________________
5.
Goals and values __________________________________________
IV. Alternatives
1. _________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________
V. Recommendations
1. _________________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________
Case Solution: The Dim Lighting Co.
I. Problems:
A. Macro
1.
Will Dim Lighting be reactive?
2.
Will Dim Lighting be proactive?
B. Micro
1.
Will Jim West be influenced by thoughts of what a second year of un-obtained targets will
do to
his career in making this budget decision?
2.
West feels threatened every time Spinks does not receive his demands or "wish list."
II. Causes:
1.
Previous unprofitable year.
2.
Spinks' past history of leaving a company that "lacked creativity and innovation".
III. Systems affected:
1.
Structural ­ the structure is a traditional functional structure. This may not encourage the
development of new products and ideas.
2.
Psychosocial ­ other departments feel threatened by Spinks. Also, Jim West feels he is
under
pressure to improve the profit margins immediately.
3.
Technical ­ both the production manager and Spinks want money to upgrade technical
aspects of the company.
4.
Managerial ­ West feels caught between being innovative and trying to improve the bottom  line
immediately.
5.
Goals and values ­ corporate headquarters does not seem to value risk taking and moving  into
new projects. If their rejection of the lighting proposal is indicative of their decisions,
the company
as a whole may become entrenched in old technology.
IV. Alternatives:
1.
Before making a budget decision, West should contact corporate offices to see if
additional
funds are available for R&D. Spinks' project would have a long-term effect on
entire  industry  and
possibly the parent company would contribute to the R&D project.
2.
If additional funds are unavailable, the budget committee needs to make some
compromises
and come to a consensus-it should not be an all-or-nothing proposition.
Funds should be allocated for
both R&D and for upgrading essential equipment.
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3.
West should also ask the accountant, Preston, to make a three-tiered analysis of the project:
(1)
best-case scenario, (2) worst-case scenario, and (3) probable scenario.
4.
West also needs to resolve his mixed feelings about the possibility of Spinks leaving. West  needs
to approach Spinks, praising him for what he has accomplished in the R&D
department and asking
him to help spread that high degree of morale across the company. West needs to make Spinks an ally
rather than a potential deserter.
V. Recommendations:
1.
First try to obtain additional funds from parent company.
2.
If additions are not available, obtain a consensus from the budget committee. Compromises will
have to be made on length of time for R&D projects, what equipment is needed, etc.
Table of Contents:
  1. The Challenge for Organizations:The Growth and Relevance of OD
  2. OD: A Unique Change Strategy:OD consultants utilize a behavioral science base
  3. What an “ideal” effective, healthy organization would look like?:
  4. The Evolution of OD:Laboratory Training, Likert Scale, Scoring and analysis,
  5. The Evolution of OD:Participative Management, Quality of Work Life, Strategic Change
  6. The Organization Culture:Adjustment to Cultural Norms, Psychological Contracts
  7. The Nature of Planned Change:Lewin’s Change Model, Case Example: British Airways
  8. Action Research Model:Termination of the OD Effort, Phases not Steps
  9. General Model of Planned Change:Entering and Contracting, Magnitude of Change
  10. The Organization Development Practitioner:External and Internal Practitioners
  11. Creating a Climate for Change:The Stabilizer Style, The Analyzer Style
  12. OD Practitioner Skills and Activities:Consultant’s Abilities, Marginality
  13. Professional Values:Professional Ethics, Ethical Dilemmas, Technical Ineptness
  14. Entering and Contracting:Clarifying the Organizational Issue, Selecting an OD Practitioner
  15. Diagnosing Organizations:The Process, The Performance Gap, The Interview Data
  16. Organization as Open Systems:Equifinality, Diagnosing Organizational Systems
  17. Diagnosing Organizations:Outputs, Alignment, Analysis
  18. Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Outputs
  19. Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Fits
  20. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Methods for Collecting Data, Observations
  21. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Sampling, The Analysis of Data
  22. Designing Interventions:Readiness for Change, Techno-structural Interventions
  23. Leading and Managing Change:Motivating Change, The Life Cycle of Resistance to Change
  24. Leading and managing change:Describing the Core Ideology, Commitment Planning
  25. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Measurement
  26. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Research Design
  27. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions
  28. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Group Process
  29. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Leadership and Authority, Group Interventions
  30. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Third-Party Interventions
  31. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Building, Team Building Process
  32. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Management Styles
  33. Organization Process Approaches:Application Stages, Microcosm Groups
  34. Restructuring Organizations:Structural Design, Process-Based Structures
  35. Restructuring Organizations:Downsizing, Application Stages, Reengineering
  36. Employee Involvement:Parallel Structures, Multiple-level committees
  37. Employee Involvement:Quality Circles, Total Quality Management
  38. Work Design:The Engineering Approach, Individual Differences, Vertical Loading
  39. Performance Management:Goal Setting, Management by Objectives, Criticism of MBO
  40. Developing and Assisting Members:Career Stages, Career Planning, Job Pathing
  41. Developing and Assisting Members:Culture and Values, Employee Assistance Programs
  42. Organization and Environment Relationships:Environmental Dimensions, Administrative Responses
  43. Organization Transformation:Sharing the Vision, Three kinds of Interventions
  44. The Behavioral Approach:The Deep Assumptions Approach
  45. Seven Practices of Successful Organizations:Training, Sharing Information