ZeePedia Add to Favourites   |   Contact us


Database Management Systems

<<< Previous Functional Dependency, Inference Rules, Normal Forms Next >>>
 
img
Database Management System (CS403)
VU
Lecture No. 19
Reading Material
"Database Systems Principles, Design and Implementation"
Section 7.1 ­ 7.7
written by Catherine Ricardo, Maxwell Macmillan.
"Database Management Systems", 2nd edition, Raghu Ramakrishnan, Johannes Gehrke,
McGraw-Hill
Overview of Lecture:
o Functional Dependency
o Inference Rules
o Normal Forms
In the previous lecture we have studied different types of joins, which are used to
connect two different tables and give different output relations. We also started the
basics of normalization. From this lecture we will study in length different aspects of
normalization.
Functional Dependency
Normalization is based on the concept of functional dependency. A functional
dependency is a type of relationship between attributes.
164
img
Database Management System (CS403)
VU
Definition of Functional Dependency
If  A and B are attributes or sets of attributes of relation R, we say that B is
functionally dependent on A if each value of A in R has associated with it exactly one
value of B in R.
We write this as A
B, read as "A functionally determines B" or " A determines B".
This does not mean that A causes B or that the value of B can be calculated from the
value of A by a formula, although sometimes that is the case. It simply means that if
we know the value of A and we examine the table of relation R, we will find only one
value of B in all the rows that have the given value of A at any one time. Thus then
the two rows have the same A value, they must also have the same B value. However,
for a given B value, there may be several different A values. When a functional
dependency exits, the attributes or set of attributes on the left side of the arrow is
called a determinant. Attribute of set of attributes on left side are called determinant
and on right are called dependants. If there is a relation R with attributes (a,b,c,d,e)
a
b,c,d
d
e
For Example there is a relation of student with following attributes. We will establish
the functional dependency of different attributes: -
STD (stId,stName,stAdr,prName,credits)
stId
stName,stAdr,prName,credits
prName
credits
Now in this example if we know the stID we can tell the complete information about
that student. Similarly if we know the prName , we can tell the credit hours for any
particular subject.
Functional Dependencies and Keys:
We can determine the keys of a relation after seeing its functional dependencies. The
determinant of functional dependency that determines all attributes of that table is the
super key. Super key is an attribute or a set of attributes that identifies an entity
uniquely. In a table, a super key is any column or set of columns whose values can be
used to distinguish one row from another. A minimal super key is the candidate key ,
so if a determinant of functional dependency determines all attributes of that relation
then it is definitely a super key and if there is no other functional dependency whereas
a subset of this determinant is a super key then it is a candidate key. So the functional
dependencies help to identify keys. We have an example as under: -
EMP (eId,eName,eAdr,eDept,prId,prSal)
eId
(eName,eAdr,eDept)
eId,prId
prSal
Now in this example in the employee relation eId is the key from which we can
uniquely determine the employee name address and department . Similarly if we
know the employee ID and project ID we can find the project salary as well. So FDs
help in finding out the keys and their relation as well.
165
img
Database Management System (CS403)
VU
Inference Rules
Rules of Inference for functional dependencies, called inference axioms or Armstrong
axioms, after their developer, can be used to find all the FDs logically implied by a set
of FDs.These rules are sound , meaning that they are an immediate consequence of
the definition of functional dependency and that any FD that can be derived from a
given set of FDs using them is true. They are also complete, meaning they can be used
to derive every valid reference about dependencies .Let A,B,C and D be subsets of
attributes of a relation R then following are the different inference rules: -
Reflexivity:
If B is a subset of A, then A
B. This also implies that A
A always holds.
Functional dependencies of this type are called trivial dependencies. For Example
StName,stAdr
stName
stName
stName
Augmentation:
If we have A
B then AC.
BC. For Example
If stId
stName then
StId,stAdr
stName,stadr
Transitivity:
If A
B and B
C, then A
C
If stId
prName and prName
credits then
stId
credits
Additivity or Union:
If A
B and A
C, then A
BC
If empId
eName and empId
qual Then we can write it as
empId
qual
Projectivity or Decomposition
If A
BC then A
B and A
C
If empId
eName,qual Then we can write it as
empId
eName and empID
qual
Pseudo transitivity:
If A
B and CB
D, then AC
D
If stID
stName and stName,fName
stAdr Then we can write it as
StId,fName
stAdr
Normal Forms
Normalization is basically; a process of efficiently organizing data in a database.
There are two goals of the normalization process: eliminate redundant data (for
example, storing the same data in more than one table) and ensure data dependencies
make sense (only storing related data in a table). Both of these are worthy goals as
they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically
stored. We will now study the first normal form
166
img
Database Management System (CS403)
VU
First Normal Form:
A relation is in first normal form if and only if every attribute is single valued for each
tuple. This means that each attribute in each row , or each cell of the table, contains
only one value. No repeating fields or groups are allowed. An alternative way of
describing first normal form is to say that the domains of attributes of a relation are
atomic, that is they consist of single units that cannot be broken down further. There
is no multivalued (repeating group) in the relation multiple values create problems in
performing operations like select or join. For Example there is a relation of Student
STD(stIdstName,stAdr,prName,bkId)
stId
stName
stAdr
prName
bkId
S1020
Sohail Dar
I-8 Islamabad
MCS
B00129
S1038
Shoaib Ali
G-6 Islamabad
BCS
B00327
S1015
Tahira Ejaz
L Rukh Wah
MCS
B08945,
B06352
S1018
Arif Zia
E-8,
BIT
B08474
Islamabad.
Now in this table there is no unique value for every tuple, like for S1015 there are two
values for bookId. So to bring it in the first normal form.
stId
stName
stAdr
prName
bkId
S1020
Sohail Dar
I-8 Islamabad
MCS
B00129
S1038
Shoaib Ali
G-6 Islamabad  BCS
B00327
S1015
Tahira Ejaz
L Rukh Wah
MCS
B08945
S1015
Tahira Ejaz
L Rukh Wah
MCS
B06352
S1018
Arif Zia
E-8,
BIT
B08474
Islamabad.
Now this table is in first normal form and for every tuple there is a unique value.
Second Normal Form:
A relation is in second normal form (2NF) if and only if it is in first normal form and
all the nonkey attributes are fully functionally dependent on the key. Clearly, if a
relation is in 1NF and the key consists of a single attribute, the relation is
automatically in 2NF. The only time we have to be concerned about 2NF is when the
key is composite. Second normal form (2NF) addresses the concept of removing
duplicative data. It remove subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and
place them in separate tables. It creates relationships between these new tables and
their predecessors through the use of foreign keys.
Summary
Normalization is the process of structuring relational database schema such that most
ambiguity is removed. The stages of normalization are referred to as normal forms
and progress from the least restrictive (First Normal Form) through the most
restrictive (Fifth Normal Form). Generally, most database designers do not attempt to
implement anything higher than Third Normal Form or Boyce-Codd Normal Form.
167
img
Database Management System (CS403)
VU
We have started the process of normalization in this lecture. We will cover this topic
in detail in the coming lectures.
Exercise:
Draw the tables of an examination system along with attributes and bring those
relations in First Normal Form.
168
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction to Databases and Traditional File Processing Systems
  2. Advantages, Cost, Importance, Levels, Users of Database Systems
  3. Database Architecture: Level, Schema, Model, Conceptual or Logical View:
  4. Internal or Physical View of Schema, Data Independence, Funct ions of DBMS
  5. Database Development Process, Tools, Data Flow Diagrams, Types of DFD
  6. Data Flow Diagram, Data Dictionary, Database Design, Data Model
  7. Entity-Relationship Data Model, Classification of entity types, Attributes
  8. Attributes, The Keys
  9. Relationships:Types of Relationships in databases
  10. Dependencies, Enhancements in E-R Data Model. Super-type and Subtypes
  11. Inheritance Is, Super types and Subtypes, Constraints, Completeness Constraint, Disjointness Constraint, Subtype Discriminator
  12. Steps in the Study of system
  13. Conceptual, Logical Database Design, Relationships and Cardinalities in between Entities
  14. Relational Data Model, Mathematical Relations, Database Relations
  15. Database and Math Relations, Degree of a Relation
  16. Mapping Relationships, Binary, Unary Relationship, Data Manipulation Languages, Relational Algebra
  17. The Project Operator
  18. Types of Joins: Theta Join, Equi–Join, Natural Join, Outer Join, Semi Join
  19. Functional Dependency, Inference Rules, Normal Forms
  20. Second, Third Normal Form, Boyce - Codd Normal Form, Higher Normal Forms
  21. Normalization Summary, Example, Physical Database Design
  22. Physical Database Design: DESIGNING FIELDS, CODING AND COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
  23. Physical Record and De-normalization, Partitioning
  24. Vertical Partitioning, Replication, MS SQL Server
  25. Rules of SQL Format, Data Types in SQL Server
  26. Categories of SQL Commands,
  27. Alter Table Statement
  28. Select Statement, Attribute Allias
  29. Data Manipulation Language
  30. ORDER BY Clause, Functions in SQL, GROUP BY Clause, HAVING Clause, Cartesian Product
  31. Inner Join, Outer Join, Semi Join, Self Join, Subquery,
  32. Application Programs, User Interface, Forms, Tips for User Friendly Interface
  33. Designing Input Form, Arranging Form, Adding Command Buttons
  34. Data Storage Concepts, Physical Storage Media, Memory Hierarchy
  35. File Organizations: Hashing Algorithm, Collision Handling
  36. Hashing, Hash Functions, Hashed Access Characteristics, Mapping functions, Open addressing
  37. Index Classification
  38. Ordered, Dense, Sparse, Multi-Level Indices, Clustered, Non-clustered Indexes
  39. Views, Data Independence, Security, Vertical and Horizontal Subset of a Table
  40. Materialized View, Simple Views, Complex View, Dynamic Views
  41. Updating Multiple Tables, Transaction Management
  42. Transactions and Schedules, Concurrent Execution, Serializability, Lock-Based Concurrency Control, Deadlocks
  43. Incremental Log with Deferred, Immediate Updates, Concurrency Control
  44. Serial Execution, Serializability, Locking, Inconsistent Analysis
  45. Locking Idea, DeadLock Handling, Deadlock Resolution, Timestamping rules