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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
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Lesson 5
FIVE FACTOR MODEL
IV.
Neuroticism
After extraversion and conscientiousness, neuroticism is the most researched personality trait from the Big Five
(Raja et al, 2002). They are emotionally unstable, with frequent mood swings, closely associated with negative
affectivity or NA (Watson & Tellegen, 1985). The element of NA tends to force neurotics with a negative
world view, to be anxious, sleepless and doubting. As a result they are less inclined to seek control of their life
and work environment. "At the core of neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative affects" (Bono &
Judge, 2004).
People high on neuroticism tend to be easily distracted as they are mostly preoccupied with their internal
worries, anxieties and, stresses. In short, neuroticism is the opposite of "emotional stability."
Positive Pole of Neuroticism (Characteristics of individuals high on neuroticism)
Distractible
Embarrassed
Unstable
Respond negatively to
Emotional
Fearful
environmental stresses
Worried
Instable
Negative world view
Insecure
Envious
Anxious
Self pitifying
Gullible
Depressed
Tense
Timid
Angry
Touchy
Immature
Negative Pole of Neuroticism
Placid
Brave
Independent
Confident
Emotionally stable
Secure
Strong willed
V.
Openness to Experience
Openness to experience is the least studied Big 5 personality dimension, especially in relation to job
performance. Individuals high on openness to experience tend to be highly sensitive to art, science, culture
(Clark & Robertson, 2005) and civilization. Since they are "open to experience", they are more effective at
managing change and this has been confirmed by studying their behavior during the transitional job stage
(Thoresen, Bradley & Bliese, 2004; Judge, Thoresen, Pucik, Welbourne, 1999).
Traditional conceptualization of openness includes affinity for culture and a liberal and critical attitude toward
societal values and intellect and, the ability to learn and reason (Bono & Judge, 2004).
Positive Pole of Openness to Experience
Unconventional
Flexibility of thought
Broad minded
Curious
Readiness to indulge in
Insightful
fantasy
Cultured
Artistic
Reflective
Intelligent
Wide interests
Imaginative
Openness to new ideas,
Political liberalism
feelings
Original
Negative Pole of Openness to Experience
Shallow
Unimaginative
Simple
Stupid
Dull
The Construct: INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
In English language the word "intrinsic" has synonyms like inherent, native, built-in, central and, natural,
whereas the synonymous for word "motivation" include incentive, inspiration, drive, enthusiasm, impetus,
stimulus, spur, impulse and, driving force. So in other words the phrase "intrinsic motivation" implies an in-
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built and naturally occurring inspiration or drive. A natural question arises here; what would this in-built drive
accomplish or do? Warner (1987, p. 38), while analyzing the philosophy of Kantian motivation, provides clues
to this question through defining motives as, "desire in general.......a state that plays a certain role in
commonsense psychological explanation and justification of thought and action." The in-built drive or desire,
therefore, accomplishes our thoughts and actions, or forms, the very bases of our volitional behavior. Warner
also notes that, "motives vary in intensity, and the greater the intensity, the more likely ­ as a rule ­ it is that the
motive will cause action." It implies therefore that stronger the motive or the in-built drive or intrinsic
motivation, stronger the likelihood of some action or at least thought leading up to action.
Literature identifies another form of motivation; extrinsic motivation, which also involves thought and action
but these thoughts and actions are not inherently based and are rather contingent upon rewards, either financial
or in the form of advancement in work, influence in organization or self enhancement. Baker (2004) captures
the two constructs beautifully when he says that, "intrinsic motivation refers to doing an activity or behavior
voluntarily for its own sake, and the inherent pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation, while
extrinsic motivation refers to activities engaged in as a means to an end such as, to gain reward or avoid
criticism, rather than for satisfaction of the activity itself."
The above mentioned definition of motivation mentions the notions of means and ends. These means and
ends are basically motives or the reasons people hold for initiating and performing voluntary behavior (Reiss,
2004). An example of an end motive would be a schoolboy playing guitar for the pleasure of it i.e. for no
apparent reason other than that is what the schoolboy of our example desires to do. In contrast mean or
instrumental motives are indicated when an act is performed for its instrumental value. For example, consider a
professional cricketer who plays at international level and gets paid for it. Here the end motive is probably
financial and status gains rather than a pure love for the game. Studies have also identified goals as forming the
basis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Mastery goals, for example, involve participation in a task to increase
competence, very similar to our example of schoolboy playing guitar for the sake of pleasure and gaining
mastery or competence in the process. By setting performance goals people want to demonstrate their
competence to others and then gain extrinsic rewards (Remedios, Ritchie and Lieberman, 2005). Literature also
speaks about conscious and sub conscious motivation (Locke & Latham, 2004) where conscious motivation
probably refers to the more manifested or extrinsic form of motivation and sub conscious to the more inherent
and natural, intrinsic form of motivation.
Intrinsic motivation (IM) or engaging in a task for its engagement value is one of the most powerful forms of
motivation. It is associated with enhanced performance, improved conceptual and creative thinking, superior
memory recall, positive affect, subsequent willingness to engage in other tasks, and better psychological and
physical health compared with other forms of motivation. (Bumpus, Olberter & Glover, 1998).
Up to this point it seems as if all IMs are pleasurable, a contention challenged by Reiss (2004) while presenting
his multifaceted theory of IM. He mentions that, "whereas IM theorists have said that psychological aim of
inquiry is intellectual pleasure........aims of inquiry are learning and knowledge......highly curious people
desire knowledge and understanding so strongly they pursue the inquiry process even when they must endure
anxieties, severe criticism, devastating failures, and other frustrations." This prerequisite for IM, the ability to
withstand anxiety and frustration, is also noted by other writers and it is said that, "intrinsic motivation is
inversely related to anxiety (Gottfried, 1990) and depression" (Boggiano & Barrett, 1992).
Another important distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is provided by Deci and Ryan (1991).
According to them, "motivated actions are self-determined to the extent that they are engaged in wholly
volitionally and endorsed by one's self, whereas actions are controlled if they are compelled by some
interpersonal or intra psychic force." The element of self-determination is at the heart of IM and again
represents an inherent or internal characteristic. When a behavior is self-determined, the regulatory process is
choice, but when it is controlled, the regulatory process is compliance (or in some cases defiance). The
important point to note is that both self-determined and controlled behaviors are motivated or intentional but
their regulatory processes are very different (Robert, Pelletier & Ryan, 1991). A feeling of personal causation or
free choice seems to be a crucial component of IM (Bumps, Olberter & Glover, 1998). In the case of IM the
motivational force is provided by the self whereas in extrinsic motivation the motivational force is controlled
through rewards or feedback.
It does not, automatically, imply form the above that IM necessarily decreases with rewards and feedback. The
Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) identifies two needs; autonomy and competence, and two types of
rewards; controlling and informational. People with high need for autonomy are more liable to have IM and
those high on competence believe them to be competent or at least capable of learning, so that the task will be
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a pleasant experience and again IM will be high. Controlling rewards are basically task contingent rewards i.e.
people have to work on the task to obtain the rewards so they (rewards) become controlling and in this case IM
will decrease. In the case of performance contingent rewards, rewards are again strongly controlled but IM will
decrease only if the cue value or feedback is also controlling (e.g. "you should keep up your work" or "you
have done as well as you should"). If the feedback is not controlling but informational, informing people why
they have performed well, then there will be a strong competence affirmation and IM will increase (Deci,
Koestner & Ryan, 1985 & 1999).
In their 1999 meta-analysis of 128 controlled experimental studies exploring the effects of extrinsic rewards on
IM, Deci, Koestner and Ryan conclude that "In general, tangible rewards had a significant negative effect on
intrinsic motivation for interesting tasks......verbal rewards ­ or what is usually labeled as positive feedback in
the motivation literature ­ has a significant positive effect on intrinsic motivation."
The effects of controlling rewards and feedback on IM are also highlighted by a recent study in Northern
Ireland where effects of sitting a transfer test were studied on the IM of school pupils. The study showed that
after sitting the test, motivation of test pupils decreased significantly relative to no-test pupils despite the fact
that most of the pupils achieved grades they needed for admission to grammar school (Remedios, Ritchie &
Lieberman, 2005).
Literature thus explores and confirms the over justification theory according to which providing external
rewards decreases IM (Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999; Dev 1998; Edwards 1994; Fair & Silvestri, 1992; Kohn,
1993; Lapper et al. 1973) and reports that "an intrinsically motivated person acts out of an internalized desire to
self-actualize" (Watts, Randolph, Cashwell and Schweiger, 2004).
The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior
Why certain people seem content and happy with life while others don't? Why certain people don't let their
motivation decrease in the face of failure and frustrations? These are difficult questions to answer but in light
of the literature review, one is tempted to suggest that three factors (apart from a possible role of genetics and
inheritance) explain the determination of intrinsically motivated behavior. One is the element of cognition and
the other two are affect or emotions and values (in this paper, my focus would be entirely on work values).
Intrinsic Motivation and Cognition
We have already seen that CET defines two basic elements of motivational behavior; free choice and evaluation
of competence through positive and informational feedback. According to Barrick, Stewart and Piotroweski
(2002), "one theme that continually emerges in discussions of motivational models is the importance of
cognitive processes" and they also quote Locke and Latham (1990) as saying that, "although cognition and
motivation can be separated by abstraction for the purpose of scientific study, in reality they are virtually never
separate." Barrick et al (2002) also mention the centrality of cognition as captured by Mitchell's (1997)
definition of motivation as "those psychological processes involved with the arousal, direction, intensity, and
persistence of voluntary actions that are goals directed." And in a search of a broad set of such cognitive goals,
Barrick et al (2002) "building on the concepts from evolutionary biology, anthropology, and sociology, as well
as socio analytic theory" find that "individuals strive for communion and for agency and status".
Intrinsic Motivation and Affect
Literature also demonstrates a link between affect and IM and Reene & Cole (1987) mention that, "the
experience of feeling active, alive (i.e. excitement) and joyful are fundamentally associated with activity
interest.........The excitement and joy formulation of IM emphasizes the important role of affect factors in
IM.....Intrinsically motivated behavior is a consequence of excitement (& joy to a lesser extent) via curiosity
and exploration".
A study examining the relationship between exercise motives and psychological well-being also points to the
possible role of affectivity in the causation of intrinsic exercise motives or IM for exercise, "in the short term,
extrinsic exercise motives for exercise are significantly related to poorer psychological well-being, whereas in
the long term, intrinsic exercise motives for exercise are related to aspects of better psychological well-
being.........It is perhaps more likely that a more integrated relationship occurs whereby exercise motives and
psychological well-being interact, through reinforcement of positive feelings, and exercise becomes more
rewarding" (Maltby & Day, 2001).
Other researchers like Judge & Llies (2003) report that "NA (negative affectivity) reflects individual tendencies
to experience aversive emotional states, such as fear, hostility, and anger, whereas PA (positive affectivity)
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reflects the propensity to experience positive states such as enthusiasm, confidence and cheerfulness. The
emotional states associated with PA are the ones that form the basis of an intrinsically motivated behavior.
Intrinsic Motivation and Values
Work values are a class of motives that serve as standards or criteria to engender thought and action. People
are motivated to find work environment that are congruent with their values (Furnham, Petrides, Tsaousis,
Pappas and Garrod, 2005). Values are also defined as "cognitive constructs that explain individual differences
in regard to aims in life and behavior principles and priorities" (Renner, 2003). Work values are of two types;
extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic work values include money, prestige, way of life, security, economic return
(reward oriented) plus those independent of content of work like surroundings, associates, supervisory
relationships, etc. whereas intrinsic work values are manifested through activity pleasure, goal accomplishment,
creativity, management, achievement, altruism, independence, intellectual stimulation, and aesthetics. Table 1
outlines ten categories of values identified by Schwartz (1992) along with their description and the type to
which they belong (Aluja & Garcia, 2004).
Table 1
Value
Description
Value Type
Power
social status & prestige, dominance over people
Extrinsic
Achievement
personal success, capable, ambitious, influential
Intrinsic
Hedonism
pleasure gratification for self, enjoying life
Extrinsic
Stimulation
excitement, novelty, and challenge in life, daring
Extrinsic
Self-direction
independent thought, exploring, curious, freedom, creativity
Intrinsic
Universalism
understanding, tolerance, social justice, broadminded
Intrinsic
Benevolence
welfare of others, honest, helpful, forgiving
Intrinsic
Tradition
respect for traditional culture and religion, humble, moderate
Extrinsic
Conformity
honoring parents and elders, polite, obedient
Extrinsic
Security
safety and stability of society and of self and relationships
Intrinsic
It almost seems obvious that those individuals with strong intrinsic work values will be high on IM whereas
those having stronger preference for extrinsic values will be more motivated extrinsically. Researchers have
explored similar links between values and personality and it is reported that extraverts seek jobs with variety
and neurotics seek jobs with stability (Furnham et al, 2005).
We can, therefore, conclude from the literature that IM is based on three elements of cognition, affect and
values. This is a crucial understanding and I will come back to it in more detail while exploring the linking
mechanism between IM and personality.
The Outcome: A Trait-Like Orientation for Intrinsic Motivation
Motivational orientation is not solely a function of personal characteristics, on the other hand it arises from the
interaction of task features, individual characteristics, and situational aspects (Bumpus, Olberter & Glover,
1998), yet for the purpose of clarity and, developing link with personality later on, we now turn to a trait-like
profile of an individual high on IM.
For the purpose of developing such a profile, Pinder's definition of motivation should serve as a good start.
His definition reveals two important features; (1) motivation as energizing force or inducer of actions and (2)
this force has implications for form, direction, intensity and duration of behavior. In other words what they
(employees) are motivated to achieve? How will they achieve it? And when will they stop? (Meyer, Becker &
Vandenberghe, 2004). This revelation gives us a broad idea that an intrinsically motivated individual is goal-
oriented, achievement oriented and, is wise and well organized. And our profile of a high IM individual is based
on this broad idea and our earlier discussions on motivation literature.
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A person high on IM is suggested to have the following characteristics:
 Challenge seeker
 Appreciative
Achievement oriented
 Hard worker
 Sympathetic
Persevering
 Learning oriented
 Pleasant
Planner
 Curious
 Not defensive
Reliable
 Competent
 Tactful
Industrious
 Enthusiastic
 Altruistic
Evangelists (zealous)
 Confident
 Moral
Mature
 Cheerful
 Thoroughness in decision
Precise
 Assertive
making
Independent
 Feeling of well being
 Energetic
Emotionally stable
 Perception of good health
 Experiencing positive
Brave
 Willful
emotions (PA)
Secure
 Spirit
 Dependable
Intelligent
 Flexible
 Thorough
Open to new ideas,
 Trusting
 Responsible
feelings
 Tolerant
 Organized
Insightful
A comparison of these traits with the multifaceted theory of intrinsic motivation (Reiss, 2004) and the sixteen
desires of Power, curiosity, independence, status, social contact, vengeance, honor, idealism, physical exercise,
romance, family, order, eating, acceptance, tranquility, and saving quite clearly shows that optimal fulfillment of
these desires is only possible by individuals who have the above mentioned characteristics ingrained in their
personalities.
Link Between Personality and Intrinsic Motivation: The Model
Our model in Figure 1 shows how personality can have impact on the levels of IM in an individual through the
agency of cognition, affect and values. Figure 1 is shown on next page:
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs