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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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LESSON 02
EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
At the end of the lecture students should be able to understand:
Relationship between public administration, democracy and rights (Constitution of Islamic
Republic of Pakistan 1973)
Evolution of Public administration/ management and
The work of the contributors of the Classical School
In the last lecture we talked about democracy and democratic values. Why did we mention these
two concepts in the context of public administration/management? The mention was made because we
would like to know about the rights of citizens and the response of government toward democratic values.
These values and how people should respond to the work of public organizations is important. But we
know people differ over the degree to which they influence day-to-day operation of public agencies because
they do not know their rights and the procedures of government agencies. The 1973 Constitution contains
Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policies which give basic rights to citizens. Some of the articles
pertaining to human dignity and respect given in constitution are as follows:-
(1)
Security of persons: No person shall be deprived of life or liberty saves in accordance with law.
(2)
Safeguards as to arrest and detention: No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody
without being informed, as soon as many are not, of the grounds for such arrest, nor shall he be
denied the right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice.
(3)
Slavery, forced labor, etc., prohibited: slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall
permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form.
(4)
Inviolability of dignity of man, etc.: The dignity of man and, subject to law, the privacy of home,
shall be inviolable.
(5)
Freedom of movement, etc.: Every citizen shall have the right to remain in, and subject to any
reasonable restriction imposed by law in the public interest, enter and move freely throughout
Pakistan and to reside and settle in any part thereof.
(6)
Freedom of assembly: Every citizen shall have the right to assemble peacefully and without arms,
subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of public order.
(7)
Freedom of association: Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject
to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of (sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan,
public order or morality.)
(8)
Freedom of trade, business or profession: Subject to such qualifications, if any, as may be
prescribed by law, every citizen shall have the right to enter upon any lawful profession or
occupation, and to conduct any lawful trade or business:
(9)
Freedom of speech, etc Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression,
and there shall be freedom to the Press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the
interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense or Pakistan or any part thereof,
friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt
of Court, (commission of) or incitement to an offence.
(10)
Freedom to profess religion and to manage religious institution: Subject to law, public order
and morality:-
(a)
every citizen shall have the right to profess, practice and propagate his religion; and
(b)
Every religious denomination and every sect thereof shall have the right to establish,
maintain and manage its religious institutions.
(11)
Safeguard against taxation for purposes of any particular religion: No. person shall be
compelled to pay any special tax the proceeds of which are to be spent on the propagation or
maintenance of any religion other than his own.
(12)
Safeguard as to educational institution in respect of religion, etc.: No person attending any
educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or take part in any religious
ceremony, or attend religious worship, if such instruction, ceremony of worship relates to a religion
other than his own.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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(13)
Equality of citizens: (1) All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of
law. (2) There shall be no discrimination based on sex alone. (3) Nothing in this Article shall
prevent the State from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.
(14)
Non-discrimination in respect of access to public places: (1) In respect of access to places of
public entertainment or resort, not intended for religious purposes only, there shall be no
discrimination against any citizen on the ground only of race, religion, caste, sex, residence or place
of birth.
The way democracy functions in the political tradition of a country have important influence on the
working of public organization. This is illustrated in Figure which shows the international, social, economic,
political system influence on public administration. The figure shows public administration in the centre and
all other systems influencing it. Thus public administration exists and functions under these influences and
is driven by these systems.
Factors Affecting Public Agencies
Public administration
Political System
Social
Economic
International
Evolution of Public Administration
One of the definitions of Public Administration is that public administration is about management
of public programmes. As we have learnt that during the period of Indus Valley civilization cities were well
constructed and planned and that the practice of public administration is old. But as a subject it is new. We
would now see the development of this practice as a subject.
The evolution of public administration/ management is discussed in following paragraphs. The
study of public administration is divided in following Schools:
1. The Classical School
2. Human Relations School
3. Behavioural School
4. System School
5. Management Science School
6. Power and Politics School
Classical School
We will examine the work of Classical School and see the theory presented by this school. We will
review the work of the main contributors of this school. The main contributors of this school are:
Woodrow Wilson
Leonard D. White
W. F. Willoughby
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Fredrick Winslow Taylor
Henry L. Gantt
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Max Weber
Henri Fayol
The growth of public administration has to do with the growth of markets and the fall out of
market imperfection. Example of market imperfection is pollution, i.e., markets produce goods and the
markets would not care if in the production of goods, they pollute environment. For example a
manufacturer who emits smoke will pollute the environment. Environment if gets polluted will effect the
health of people. Who is responsible for this situation? Governments intervene to correct market
imperfection and may tax the polluter.
The institutions of government therefore should be effective to control market imperfections.
Similarly if private schools charge more fees then government should open schools for those who cannot
pay high fee. How to make government institutions effective?
To answer this question we need to look at the works of those who contributed to the efficient
working of organizations. Those studying work in the organization developed theories and concepts for
increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of organization
In USA the study of government began in late 19th century. The first Essay was on `The Study of
`Administration' 1887 written by Woodrow Wilson (American Scholar and late President of USA) His essay
was of very practical nature. In his essay he pointed out following things:-
It addressed the inefficiency and corruption in USA government in late 1880's
He said that political scientist had given little attention to how government operates
He was impressed by the business, industry and technology
He believed that the work of government should be accomplished with the efficiency of private
sector.
He believed that there should be separation of politics from administration
Another article that appeared was on `Introduction to the Study of Public Administration' (1926) by
Leonard D. White. In his paper:
He commented that government should function in the context of democratic values (role of states
in human affairs). According to him there are 2 concerns in public administration:
1. Efficiency: to improve the functioning of organization.
2. Democratic values: that the organizations should keep in view the democratic values when
providing services.
W. F Willoughby in his article `Principles of Public Administration' (1927) emphasized the idea of
`value free' science of management. By value free service he meant that those executing public programmes
should be neutral unbiased and provide services without discrimination.
F. W Taylor
Fredrick Winslow Taylor is called the `father of scientific management'. He worked as machine
operator in Midvale Steel Company in USA. He observed the workers using shovels for unloading coal and
iron ore what he observed was that when workers shovel rice coal they can lift 3.75 lbs. And when they
shoveled iron ore they could lift 38 lbs.
His question was which is the right load?
In order to find the answer he thought that he should inquire and he thought should ask people.
But then he thought he should conduct experiment to find the right answer. He thought the experiment will
give the right output.
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The Shovelling Experiment
In order to conduct the experiment he selected 2 best shovelers and told them that they will be paid
double wages if they did what was told to them. The two selected men were the best in the company. They
had reputation of working hard and honestly. The two men shovelled the whole day, in two different places
until they were tired but not over-tired (a good day's work). Their supervisor noted down the following:
1. What was the number of shovelful in a day by each worker?
2. Weight of load in shovel (38-39 lbs) by each worker
His experiment gave him results that if different kinds of shovels were used, the shoveller can lift
load between 21.5 lbs to 38 lbs. But this was possible if the worker was well trained and worked
consistently.
Results of the Experiment
o  There is scientific way of doing things and he called it `one best way'
o  Replace rule of thumb with science
o  Obtain harmony in group action rather than discord
o  Achieving cooperation of human beings rather than chaotic individualism
o  Working for maximum output rather than restricted output (productivity)
o  Developing all workers to the fullest extent for their own and company's prosperity
o  Workers should be carefully selected
We must remember that the time period of Taylor was mid 19th century, and the impact of
industrial revolution on organizations were imminent. The organizations were demanding more output
from labour. This demand led to dissatisfaction in the labour because the labour thought that if they gave
more output more will be expected.
Concepts
Classical School of Management:
They believe the efficiency of organizations can be
increased
by
following
standards
(scientific
management).
Value free:
without bias.
Theory:
set of assumptions based on observation or experiment
which explain phenomenon or situation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management