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Organization Development

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Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
Lesson 37
Employee Involvement
Quality Circles:
Quality circles or "employee involvement teams" as they are often called in the United States, were at one
time the most popular parallel structure approach to EI. Originally developed in Japan in the mid-1950s,
quality circles consist of small groups of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity
problems. The group method of problem solving and the participative management philosophy associated
with it are natural outgrowths of Japanese managerial practices. The Japanese emphasize decentralized
decision making and use the small group as the organization unit to promote collective decision making
and responsibility. Various estimates once put the total circle membership at as many as ten million
Japanese workers.
Quality circles were introduced in the United States in the mid-1970s. Their growth through the early I
980s was nothing short of astounding, with some four thousand companies adopting some version of the
circles approach. The popularity of quality circles can be attributed in part to the widespread drive to
emulate Japanese management practices and to achieve the quality improvements and cost savings
associated with those methods. What may be overlooked, however, is the Japanese philosophy of
decentralized, collective decision making, which supports and nurtures the circles approach. Thus, quality
circles may be more difficult to implement in the more autocratic, individualistic situations that characterize
many American companies.
Although quality circles are implemented in different ways, a typical program is illustrated in Figure 49.
Circle programs generally are implemented with a parallel structure consisting of several circles, each having
three to fifteen members Membership is voluntary, and members of a circle share a common job or work
area. Circles meet once each week for about one hour on company tune, several consulting companies have
developed training packages as part of standardized programs for implementing quality circles. Members
are trained in different prob1cm identification and analysis techniques and they apply their training to
identify, analyze, and recommend solutions to work-related problems. When possible, they implement
solutions that affect only their work area and do not require higher management approval.
Each circle has a leader, who is typically the supervisor of the work area represented by circle membership.
The leader trains circle members and guides the weekly meetings, setting the agenda and facilitating the
problem-solving process.
Facilitators can be a key part of a quality circles program. They coordinate the activities of several circles
and may attend the meetings, especially during the early development stages. Facilitators train circle leaders
and help them start the circles. They also help circles obtain needed inputs from support groups and keep
upper management apprised of progress. Because facilitators are the most active promoters of the program,
their role may he full time.
A steering committee is the central coordinator of the quality circles program. Generally, it is composed of
the facilitators and representatives of the major functional departments in the organization. The steering
committee determines the policies and procedures of the program and the issues that tall outside of circle
attention, such as wages, fringe benefits, and other topics normally covered in union contracts. The
committee also coordinates training programs and guides program expansion. Large quality circles
programs might have several steering committees operating at different levels.
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
Figure 49
Application 8 presents a classic example of a quality circles program in the warehouse department of the
HEB Grocery Company. The study reports mixed results but identifies the organizational conditions
needed to implement effective quality circles.
Application 8: Quality Circles at H.E.B Grocery Company
A quality circles program was implemented as a pilot project at a large warehouse of the HE-B Grocery
Company in Texas. Department management of this eighty-person, two- shift warehousing operation
volunteered to adopt the program, which was part of a larger corporate strategy to increase employee
involvement. This choice emerged from a survey in which employees indicated a desire to be better
informed about department events and to have greater involvement in problem solving. All but four
workers volunteered to be part of the pilot circles.
The program consisted of four circles, each composed of ten people representing a cross section of
workers familiar with the warehousing operation. The circles met for two hours at two-week intervals.
Because of the large number of workers who wished to participate in the program, management held
periodic rotations, replacing some circle members with new volunteers. One rotation occurred after five
months: twelve workers dropped out, several more left the department, and twenty-nine employees joined
the circles.
Each circle had a worker-leader trained in communication techniques, group process, and problem-solving
skills. The leaders also formed a leader circle that met regularly to exchange ideas, concerns, and
information and to coordinate the four circles. Supervisors were trained and served as resources to the
circles. Similarly, members of the corporate human resources department served as facilitators. They helped
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
the leaders train circle members, attended the meetings, and provided process facilitation. The department
head and several top managers formed the steering committee to guide the project. Circle suggestions were
reported to department management, which worked closely with employees to implement the suggestions.
Researchers conducted a thorough evaluation of the quality circles program. They compared the warehouse
department with a similar control group that had not participated in the program. Comparison measures
included survey data at three points in time: five months before the program, three months after its
beginning, and ten months after the program started, Also included were unobtrusive measures of
productivity, absenteeism, and accidents collected at four- week intervals beginning one year before the
program. The researches also conducted formal, open-ended interviews with selected warehouse managers
and circle members and observed the circles in action once a month. All documentation that emerged from
the circles was examined.
In contrast to the control group, the warehouse department showed slightly more positive trends in
productivity during the course of the circles program. Specifically, the quantity of production increased
slightly, and small decreases were shown in costs, absenteeism, labor expense, overtime, and accidents. The
survey data showed that the attitudes of warehouse employees changed little during the program but,
unexpectedly, the attitudes of members of the control group suffered in regard to feeling informed, being
involved in decision making, and receiving feedback from super4sors. The researchers attributed this
deterioration in morale to the disruption caused by a rapid expansion in the workload of the comparison
unit. Because the expansion affected both the warehouse and the control group, the researchers concluded
that the circles program might have buffered warehouse employees during this disruption, accounting for
the stability of attitudes during the program.
Examination of the interview and observational data revealed a more negative assessment of the circles
program. Its initial months were marked by a flurry of activity and improvement suggestions. Among the
outcomes were efforts to improve equipment maintenance procedures, reduce warehouse congestion, and
prevent damage. After several months, attendance at the meetings began to wane, and the circle members
found it increasingly difficult to identify significant issues within their sphere of expertise and influence.
Supervisors also started to admit that the circles were draining time and energy from the department.
A second flurry of activity and enthusiasm for the program took place soon after the voluntary rotation of
members into and out of the program. With time, this energy also subsided as members became frustrated
with the difficulty of systematic problem solving, the slowness of any implementation of ideas, and the
failure of the program to affect their jobs. As the workload of the warehouse increased, management
allowed the circles to become inactive by neglecting the project.
Interview data showed that participants in the program felt they had accomplished something worthwhile,
had learned a lot, and had enjoyed the circles. Non-participants or those who dropped out of the circles felt
that the program never really dealt with significant issues, it is interesting that those who didn't participate
or dropped out showed a marked worsening of attitudes during the program, compared with active
participants. This unexpected downturn was attributed to disillusionment with the program and to feelings
that some participants were wasting time. Supervisors felt that the payback was not worth the time spent in
the meetings. The human resources personnel judged the program a successful step toward employee
involvement in H.E.B.
Observations and interviews suggested several reasons why the program gradually died. The level of group
functioning did not noticeably improve during the program, and there was no indication that systematic
problem-solving techniques were followed. implementation of several ideas was unduly delayed in
bureaucratic channels, resulting in member perceptions of low management commitment to the program-
Although many circle members reported satisfaction with the program, little indication was evident that
their enthusiasm translated into greater motivation on the job. Indeed, many of the most active participants
became disenchanted with their jobs and sought ways to enter the supervisory ranks. Some members also
felt that they were being inadequately compensated for generating moneysaving ideas for the company.
The researchers concluded that, as a pilot project, the quality circles program was successful. The company
learned about the level of commitment and energy required to sustain such programs and continued to
experiment with other approaches to employee involvement, holding more realistic expectations. The
rigorous and contradictory nature of the assessment measures strongly suggests that research on quality
circles must go beyond glowing testimonials and superficial reports of worker enthusiasm to include
whether such programs effect valued individual and organization outcomes.
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
High-Involvement Organizations:
Over the past several years, an increasing number of employee involvement projects have been aimed at
creating high-involvement organizations (HIOs). These interventions create organizational conditions that
support high levels of employee participation. What makes HIOs unique is the comprehensive nature of
their design process. Unlike parallel structures that do not alter the formal organization, in HIOs almost all
organization features are designed jointly by management and workers to promote high levels of
involvement and performance including structure, work design, information and control systems, physical
layout, personnel policies, and reward systems.
Features of High Involvement Organizations:
High-involvement organizations are designed with features congruent with one another. For example, in
HIOs employees have considerable influence over decisions. To support such a decentralized philosophy,
members receive extensive training in problem-solving techniques, plant operation, and organizational
policies; in addition, both operational and issue-oriented information is shared widely and is obtained easily
by employees. Finally, rewards are tied closely to unit performance, as well as to knowledge and skill levels.
These disparate aspects of the organization are mutually reinforcing and form a coherent pattern that
contributes to employee involvement. Table 18 presents a list of compatible design elements characterizing
HIOs and most such organizations include several if not all of the following features:
Flat, lean organization structures contribute to involvement by pushing the scheduling, planning, and
controlling functions typically performed by management and stall groups toward the shop floor. Similarly,
mini-enterprise, team-based structures that is oriented to a common purpose or Outcome help focus
employee participation on a shared objective. Participative structures, such as work councils and union--
management Committees, create conditions in which workers can influence the direction and policies of
the organization.
Table 18
Design Features for a participative System
Organization Structure
Job Design
Information System
Individually enriched
Self-managing teams
Tied to jobs
Decentralized; team-based
Anticipatively  set  goals  and
Participative council or structure
Career System
Tracks and counseling available
Realistic job preview
Heavy commitment
Open job posting
Peer training
process-skill Economic education
Interpersonal skills
Reward System
Personnel Policies
Physical Layout
Stability of employment
Around organizational structure
Anticipatively established through Egalitarian
Gain sharing or ownership
representative group
Safe and pleasant
Flexible benefits
All salaried workforce
Egalitarian perquisites
Job designs that provide employees with high levels of discretion, task variety, and meaningful feedback
can enhance evolvement. They enable workers to influence day-to-day workplace decisions and to receive
intrinsic satisfaction by performing work under enriched conditions. Self-managed trains encourage
employee responsibility by providing cross-training and job rotation, which give people a chance to learn
about the different functions contributing to organizational performance.
Open information systems that are tied to jobs or work teams provide the necessary information tar
employees to participate meaningfully in decision making. Goals and standards of performance that are set
participatively can provide employees with a sense of commitment arid motivation for achieving those
Career systems that provide different tracks for advancement and counseling to help people choose
appropriate paths can help employees plan and prepare for long-term development in the organization.
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
Open job posting, for example, makes employees aware of jobs that can further their development.
Selection of employees for high-involvement organizations can be improved through a realistic job
preview providing information about what it will be like to work in such situations. Team member
involvement in a selection process oriented to potential and process skills of recruits can facilitate a
participative climate.
Training employees for the necessary knowledge and skills to participate effectively in decision making is a
heavy commitment in HIOs. This effort includes education on the economic side of the enterprise, as well
as interpersonal skill development. Peer training is emphasized as a valuable adjunct to formal, expert
Reward systems can contribute to employee involvement when information about them is open and the
rewards are based on acquiring new skills, as well as sharing gains from improved performance. Similarly,
participation is enhanced when people can choose among different fringe benefits and when reward
distinctions among people from different hierarchical levels are minimized.
Personnel policies that are participatively set and encourage stability of employment provide employees
with a strong sense of commitment to the organization. People feel that the policies are reasonable and that
the firm is committed to their long-term development.
Physical layouts of organizations also can enhance employee involvement. Physical designs that support
team structures and reduce status differences among employees can reinforce the egalitarian climate needed
for employee participation. Safe and pleasant working conditions provide a physical environment
conducive to participation.
These HIO design features are mutually reinforcing. "They all send a message to people in the organization
that says they are important, respected, valued, capable of growing, and trusted and that their understanding
of and involvement in the total organization is desirable and expected." Moreover, these design
components tend to motivate and focus organizational behavior in a strategic direction, and thus can lead
to superior effectiveness and competitive advantage, particularly in contrast to inure traditionally designed
Total Quality Management:
Total quality management (TQM) is the most recent and, along with high-involvement organizations the
most comprehensive approach to employee involvement. Also known as "Continuous process
improvement" and "continuous quality," TQM grew out of a manufacturing emphasis on quality control
and represents a long- term effort to orient all of an organization's activities around the concept of quality.
Quality is achieved when organizational processes reliably produce products and services that meet or
exceed customer expectations.
Like high-involvement designs, TQM increases workers' knowledge and skills through extensive training,
provides relevant information to employees, pushes decision-making power downward in the organization
and ties rewards to performance. When implemented successfully. TQM also is aligned closely with a firm's
overall business strategy and attempts to change the entire organization toward continuous quality
Characteristics of TQM:
TQM is a philosophy and a set of guiding principles for continuous improvement based on customer
satisfaction, teamwork, and empowerment of individuals. TQM applies human resources and analytical
tools to focus on meeting or exceeding customer's current and future needs. There are a series of planned
improvements that will ultimately influence the quality and productivity of the organization.
Like high-involvement designs, TQM increases workers' knowledge and skills through extensive training,
provides relevant information to employees, pushes decision-making power downward in the organization
and ties rewards to performance.
When implemented successfully TQM also is aligned closely with a firm's overall business strategy and
attempts to change the entire organization toward continuous quality improvement.
TQM usually have several principles or components in common:
TQM is organization-wide. The production line is natural and obvious place to improve quality, but
TQM also takes place in the accounting, human resource management, house-keeping, marketing, sales,
and in other service and staff areas of an organization.
The CEO and other top managers support it. Everyone, from top managers to hourly employees,
operates under TQM. There is a reward system in place that ensures continual support.
Organization wide TQM generally takes three or more years. So allocation of significant resources for
training is a crucial aspect. Motorola company has developed a University, a training organization, that
teaches in twenty-seven languages. It allocates at least 1.5 percent of its budget to education, and every
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
employee must take a minimum of forty hours of training a year. This effort supports the Company's goals
of "six sigma" quality -a statistical measure of product quality that implies 99.9997 % perfection. Having a
work-force that is able to read, write, solve problems, and do math at the seventh-grade level or above.
TQM is an ingrained value in the corporate culture. Continuous improvement penetrates the culture
and values of the organization. Quality is seen as "how we do things around here."
Partnership with customers and suppliers. The organization encourages partnerships with suppliers and
customers. The product or service must meet or exceed the customer's expectations. Results ­ not slogans
­ represent quality.
For example, a leading garments company found that the retailers were out of stock on 30 percent of their
items 100 percent of the time. In response, the company revamped its systems to fill orders within twenty-
four hours 95 percent of the time.
Everyone in an organization has a customer. The customer may be internal or external. The next
person on the production line, another department, and someone outside the organization who purchases
the product are all seen as customers.
Reduced cycle time. Cycle times for products, services, as well as support functions, focus on doing the
job faster.
Techniques range in scope. The techniques used in TQM include statistical quality control, job design,
empowerment, and self-managed work teams.
Do it right the first time. Quality is not obtained by rejecting a product at the end of a production line;
rather it is built in at every stage of the production process.
Organization values and respects everyone. This includes customers, suppliers, employees, owners,
community, and the environment. These parties are often called stakeholders.
No single formula works fit everyone. Every organization is unique, and off-the-shelf programs tend not
to work. "What was successful at one company may not work in another."
Application 8: Total Quality Management at L.L. Bean
Customers of L.LBean know that they are the boss. They can order hunting equipment twenty-four hours a
day. They can request fishing poles to arrive, via Federal Express, within two days--at no extra charge. And
they can return broken car racks after years of use. To say that the Maine-based mail- order company has a
reputation for superior customer service is an understatement. The company's history is replete with stories
of employees who went out of their way for a customer. L.L.Bean has a reputation that dates back to 1912,
when founder Leon Leonwood Bean made good on nearly an entire shipment of hunting shoes that came
back to him with defective stitching.
That reputation prompted Leon Gorman, the grandson of Bean and current chairman of L.L.Bean, to
apply for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award in the service category in 1988, the first year the
award came out. Despite its reputation, L.L.Bean won no award that year, although it was one of two
companies that qualified for a site Visit. No award was given that year in the service category.
At the time, German noted that L.L.Bean "will be under a great deal of pressure to renew and enhance our
quality improvement efforts to make sure we live up to our reputation." Consequently, the company used
feedback from the Baldridge committee as diagnostic information to carry out Gorman's desire to renew
and enhance the company's quality improvement efforts. This resulted in a change program that focused
first on employee involvement and then on process improvement.
The Baldridge feedback prompted Bean to take a hard look at its quality culture, Although members of the
award committee had been impressed with Bean's customer service and cited it as "world class," they
thought that the firm was not achieving customer satisfaction in a productive way. Bean had been satisfying
customers through a guarantee-based approach to quality; in fact, they pioneered the "no-questions asked"
guarantee. The Baldridge committee members thought that Bean should not rely on a guarantee but should
ensure that things happen right the first time. A favorite company story illustrates the situation: A customer
service representative in Freeport, Maine, once strapped a canoe on his car and drove it to a customer in
New York, who was leaving the next morning for a hunting trip. Although this certainly demonstrated
exemplary customer service, the award committee noted that it also served as a sign that something was
wrong. The canoe had been ordered in plenty of time to be shipped; had the order been processed properly
in the first place, there would have been no need for heroics.
The diagnostic information also revealed that Bean needed to have more employee involvement. This came
as a surprise to management because the firm prided itself on a participative culture. L.L.Bean had been
one of the first organizations in the United States to implement quality circles ten years earlier. Certainly,
managers argued, the employee who delivered the canoe was involved. What members of L.L.Bean had
trouble understanding was the practice of letting people take responsibility for their work and the work
quality. In fact, decision making at L.L.Bean had usually taken place at a high level.
Based on the diagnostic feedback, the organization first developed a definition for what was referred to as
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
"total quality" (TQ). It proposed that "total quality involves managing an enterprise to maximize customer
satisfaction in the most efficient and effective way possible by totally involving people in improving the way
work is done." In short, the company defined TQ as the way to involve its people and to improve
customer-service processes.
Next, L.L.Bean focused on training. It spent approximately ten months familiarizing its three thousand
employees with TQ methods and what quality means to the firm. First, all salaried employees in the
organization received three days of TQ training, and then all hourly workers received one day. Senior
executives were trained first so that each level within the company was capable of supporting total quality
as the next level down learned about it.
During this training period, Bean's human resources department explored ways to change the infrastructure
of the company to support greater employee involvement in decisions that affect quality. It concluded that
because L.L.Bean is a service organization, decisions that influence quality occur every time a customer calls
one of its phone centers and talks to a customer service representative. Thus, frontline, customer-contact
employees needed to be knowledgeable and empowered. This would require a new managerial role aimed at
involving employees and helping them develop the necessary expertise.
Soon after the training, Bean enlisted seventy members to devise ways to put the knowledge into action and
to challenge the status quo. They formed seven cross-functional teams composed of both managers and
workers. One team defined the manager's role in a quality-oriented organization as that of coach and
developer, and created a program to help managers acquire the knowledge and skills to fill this new role.
Another team constructed a feedback instrument as part of a management development process. The tool
eventually became part of a performance management process that linked managers' compensation to
improvements in such behaviors as being "aspiring and focused, ethical and compassionate, customer
focused and aligned, effective and efficient, challenging and empowering, open and innovating, and
rewarding and developing."
Employee involvement also paid big dividends in L.L.Bean's process improvement efforts. At the
manufacturing division, a manager of footwear production shut down an entire work line, despite
tremendous productivity pressures, and spent the morning teaching workers how a shoe is costed out. He
explained each of the operations involved in making a shoe and described the cost of each task and of the
materials involved. He then took employees back to the production line and asked them to discover ways
that they could save money based on what they had learned in the morning. Employees found enough
savings that day to pay for all the training conducted in the department for the entire year. In another case,
stockers who replenish shelves in Bean's retail store swapped jobs temporarily with pickers who gather
store orders from inventory in the distribution center. They applied TQ methods, such as work-flow
mapping, to understand the work relationship between the store and the distribution center. In the old
process, retail workers placed orders with the distribution center for items running low in the store. Pickers
at the distribution center gathered those items on rolling carts, packed them in boxes, and loaded them
onto trucks. `When the items arrived at the store, stockers unloaded and unwrapped them and put them on
rolling carts for transportation to the shelves. When the employees saw both sides of the work process,
they realized that there was no reason for packaging the items. Now, the pickers simply roll the carts
holding items directly on to trucks so that stockers can roll them right off.
To support these process improvements, L.L.Bean's staff groups also changed. The human resources
department, for example, expanded its role to help employees understand and manage the TQ process. The
department reengineered itself from a functional structure to a customer-oriented organization. Now,
service teams made up of human resources specialists support each of LL.Bean's major divisions with
process improvement techniques, health and safety advice, employee relations help, and training.
Most gratifying to L.L.Bean is that through all the changes, customer satisfaction remained high and job
satisfaction among the workforce increased more than 12 percent. Although L.L.Bean is only halfway
through its TQ intervention, it has experienced increased profitability, return on sales, and return on equity.
TQM and OD have Similar Values:
TQM & OD share certain values. Both are system-wide, depend on planned change, believe in
empowerment and involvement, are self-renewing and continuous, base decision-making on data-based
activities, and view people as having inherent desire to contribute in meaningful ways.
There are differences, however, between OD and TQM. Some OD practitioners argue that their core
values differ, and they caution against OD practitioners assuming the role of "quality management expert."
The OD practitioner has to enter the organization as a neutral party and resists advocating any particular
method of change. OD practitioners view organization problems as having a variety of causes with no
predefined solutions. TQM consultant, on the other hand, views organization problems as having TQM
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
TQM can be applied as one change methodology along with an accompanying array of other interventions.
TQM is more likely to be successful when combined with employee involvement. The two are
complementary, and the impact of either is diminished by the absence of the other.
Table of Contents:
  1. The Challenge for Organizations:The Growth and Relevance of OD
  2. OD: A Unique Change Strategy:OD consultants utilize a behavioral science base
  3. What an “ideal” effective, healthy organization would look like?:
  4. The Evolution of OD:Laboratory Training, Likert Scale, Scoring and analysis,
  5. The Evolution of OD:Participative Management, Quality of Work Life, Strategic Change
  6. The Organization Culture:Adjustment to Cultural Norms, Psychological Contracts
  7. The Nature of Planned Change:Lewin’s Change Model, Case Example: British Airways
  8. Action Research Model:Termination of the OD Effort, Phases not Steps
  9. General Model of Planned Change:Entering and Contracting, Magnitude of Change
  10. The Organization Development Practitioner:External and Internal Practitioners
  11. Creating a Climate for Change:The Stabilizer Style, The Analyzer Style
  12. OD Practitioner Skills and Activities:Consultant’s Abilities, Marginality
  13. Professional Values:Professional Ethics, Ethical Dilemmas, Technical Ineptness
  14. Entering and Contracting:Clarifying the Organizational Issue, Selecting an OD Practitioner
  15. Diagnosing Organizations:The Process, The Performance Gap, The Interview Data
  16. Organization as Open Systems:Equifinality, Diagnosing Organizational Systems
  17. Diagnosing Organizations:Outputs, Alignment, Analysis
  18. Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Outputs
  19. Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Fits
  20. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Methods for Collecting Data, Observations
  21. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Sampling, The Analysis of Data
  22. Designing Interventions:Readiness for Change, Techno-structural Interventions
  23. Leading and Managing Change:Motivating Change, The Life Cycle of Resistance to Change
  24. Leading and managing change:Describing the Core Ideology, Commitment Planning
  25. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Measurement
  26. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Research Design
  27. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions
  28. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Group Process
  29. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Leadership and Authority, Group Interventions
  30. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Third-Party Interventions
  31. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Building, Team Building Process
  32. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Management Styles
  33. Organization Process Approaches:Application Stages, Microcosm Groups
  34. Restructuring Organizations:Structural Design, Process-Based Structures
  35. Restructuring Organizations:Downsizing, Application Stages, Reengineering
  36. Employee Involvement:Parallel Structures, Multiple-level committees
  37. Employee Involvement:Quality Circles, Total Quality Management
  38. Work Design:The Engineering Approach, Individual Differences, Vertical Loading
  39. Performance Management:Goal Setting, Management by Objectives, Criticism of MBO
  40. Developing and Assisting Members:Career Stages, Career Planning, Job Pathing
  41. Developing and Assisting Members:Culture and Values, Employee Assistance Programs
  42. Organization and Environment Relationships:Environmental Dimensions, Administrative Responses
  43. Organization Transformation:Sharing the Vision, Three kinds of Interventions
  44. The Behavioral Approach:The Deep Assumptions Approach
  45. Seven Practices of Successful Organizations:Training, Sharing Information