ZeePedia buy college essays online

Information Systems

<<< Previous Elements of Environment: Legal, Economic, Social, Technological, Corporate social responsibility, Ethics Next >>>
Information System (CS507)
Effect of Changes in Environment
Business Environment is defined as "all elements that exist outside the boundary of the business
(Organization) and have the potential to affect all or part of the organization
5.1 Elements of Environment
It is a collective reference made to the following factors
5.1.1 Legal
Rules and Policies and Legal Laws established by government effect the Business Environment
Change in tariff rate may increase or decrease operation of the business.
Laws imposed to regulate business
o  Companies Ordinance 1984: It is the Law under which a company performs its business
o  Import Export regulations: Government announces Import & Export Policy at the time of
annual budget. Goods which are manufactured in the country is encouraged by levying high
duties on imported goods and encouraged export.
o  International trade agreements e.g.
o  European Union (EU): A number of regional agreements have been signed by the EC and
Pakistan such as:
o  World Trade Organization (WTO): The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an
international, multilateral organization, which was created as a result of the Uruguay round of
discussion in 1994 to harmonic world trade. Various agreements between member countries
has resulted in lowering import tariffs, bringing down protective trade barriers setting up anti
dumping procedures and settlement methods. However it has failed to achieve any headway in
getting member countries to eliminate subsidies provided t other agriculture sector by nearly all
member states. As a result the WTO is currently faced with the threat of failure. The WTO
trade and services arrangements effectively replaced the general Agreement on Trade Tariffs
South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA): The South Asia Free Trade Agreement
(SAFTA) was agreed to among the seven South Asia countries that form the South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal,
Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAFTA came into effect on 1 January 2006, with the aim of reducing
tariffs for intraregional trade among the seven SAARC members. Pakistan and India are to
complete implementation by 2012, Sri Lanka by 2013 and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and
Nepal by 2015.
To make a profit without raising prices, the company turned to making simpler furniture
designs and increasing its technological efficiency.Developments within the economy which
may affect the business environment
Inflation rates:
Information System (CS507)
Inflation rate is an indicator of economic growth of a country. Inflation rate in Pakistan is 6.1
Bank Interest Rate:
Availability of capital in the capital, in the capital/money markets
Capital/ Money market is access able for an Entrepreneur who starts business with his savings and
with equity from capital/ money markets on favourable interest rate.
Foreign Exchange rates between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms
of the other. For example an exchange rate of 120 Japanese Yen to the Dollar means that 120 is
worth the same as $1. An exchange rate is also known as a foreign exchange rate, or FX rate.
Consumer spending: Patterns of spending give a good picture of consumer behavior, showing
various social, economic and marketplace trends at the household level. Consumer behavior is also
revealed by decisions not to spend. For example, if enough people are involved, boycotting a
company or a product (or even the threat of it) can be an effective way for consumers to make their
opinions felt. Boycotting has brought about a number of changes in companies' social and business
behavior, such as the development of certain voluntary codes. In fact, any consumer decision to
stop buying a product can ultimately and substantially influence corporate strategies. New trends in
the fast food industry's offerings are one example of the marketplace's responsiveness to
consumers' willingness to walk away.
Employment opportunities: Information Technology offers a variety of jobs. In the present era
information technology is used in every field like, Banking, Medicine, Laboratories, Textiles,
Scientific research etc.
5.1.3 Social
Changing demographic and social needs are impacting the business world. Corporations must address
the issues pertaining to the changing needs and requirements to retain and enhance market positions.
The internationalization of business brings greater pressure as variety of cultures, customs and practices
need to be taken into account whilst conducting business. The employees are today more aware of their
social needs whether these related to the work environment, behaviour, children education health,
compensation or work hours. National interests and culture have to be considered while offering a
particular product or service or exploiting the natural resources of a particular country.
This includes
o  Demographic changes leading to changes in needs:
o  Age Composition:
o  Gender:
o  Occupations
o  Social norms
o  Changing attitudes and perceptions
o  Lifestyle
o  Prosperity
o  Availability of foreign brands/products
5.1.4 Technological
The most overwhelming change in the technology sector is rapid expansion of the internet as a place
for doing business. The World Wide Web and other advances in information technology have changed
the whole face of business.
Information System (CS507)
To produce desired products, It is necessary for a business to stay in market to produce the
goods according to the desire of the consumers. Due to the change in technology day by day
innovations has been taken place. Competitors by using the technology reducing the cost and
improving the quality.
To solve a problem,: There are varieties of problems facing a business in the contemporary world.
Information technology is being used to overcome the business issues like, Marketing, Brand of the
product, Quality of the product, Cost control, Organizational internal and external issues etc.
To fulfill a need: Information system must fulfill the needs of the business. An organization
needs information of its customers, product, market trend, employee information, payroll,
manufacturing cost etc. In time information helps the organization launch its product in time to
maximize profit.
The way products are developed and offered to the customers keeps changing thus affecting the
business environment in which the organization works
The changes in business environment pose challenges on the organizations which need to be responded
to. Following are the pressures
Competition for cheaper factors of production
Cheaper factor of production is a challenge for the survival of a company in competitive market.
Factors of production are basic elements of reducing manufacturing cost. Cheap and skilled labour
Availability of raw material, infrastructure.
Changing workforces
Lack of availability of skilled and experience force in market is a challenge for an organization.
Continue change in work force is harmful for an organization.
Enhanced customer quality
For the enhancement customer quality consistently provide innovative products, with outstanding
customer service and help their customers achieve operational excellence. An Organization ability to
provide outstanding product quality, service support, and their ability to enhance product quality,
achieve shorter delivery times, reduce scrap, rework and reduced life cycle costs
 Technological Obsolescence
Technological obsolescence is the result of the evolution of technology: as newer technologies appear,
older ones cease to be used. For example, new media for storing digital information rapidly replace older
media and reading devices for these older media become no longer available. Newer versions of software
constantly render older versions obsolete and the hardware required by this software also changes over
time. Consequently, information which relies on obsolete technologies becomes inaccessible. Currently, it
seems that the lifetime of digital storage media generally exceeds the life of the technology that supports
 Information overload
In recent decades, technology has so enhanced our ability to gather data that the sheer volume of data
now outstrips our capacity to deal with it. Informatics is taking this seemingly unmanageable flood of data
and transforming it into information that helps solve key problems in fields like medicine, genetics,
chemistry, Internet security and engineering
Information System (CS507)
5.1.5 Corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an expression used to describe what some see as a company's
obligation to be sensitive to the needs of not only all of the stakeholders in its business operations but
more importantly the community at large. It has been defined as:
"The continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development
while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and
society as large."
Businesses are now seen as partners of the communities in which they may be located rather than simply
as a profit making set up serving the needs of their stake holders.
Corporate social responsibility incorporates the principle of sustainable development along with "triple
bottom line reporting" reflecting not only financial results but also social and environmental impact of
the business.
The CSR may be looked after by an independent department reporting directly to the board or may be a
part of the business development or human resource department.
5.1.6 Ethics
Corporate or business ethics have attained vital importance in today's world. The issue not only
addresses matters such as how those charged with governance and managing businesses take decisions
but importantly the employee conduct and behaviour the corporations responsibility in terms of its
image, product, branding, trade, business practices and compliance with not only national and regional
but also international laws.
The huge number of financial and corporate scandals has moved the regulators to take suitable action. In
Pakistan all listed companies particularly are required to follow the code of corporate governance.
Table of Contents:
  1. Need for information, Sources of Information: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sources
  2. Data vs. Information, Information Quality Checklist
  3. Size of the Organization and Information Requirements
  4. Hierarchical organization, Organizational Structure, Culture of the Organization
  5. Elements of Environment: Legal, Economic, Social, Technological, Corporate social responsibility, Ethics
  6. Manual Vs Computerised Information Systems, Emerging Digital Firms
  7. Open-Loop System, Closed Loop System, Open Systems, Closed Systems, Level of Planning
  8. Components of a system, Types of Systems, Attributes of an IS/CBIS
  9. Infrastructure: Transaction Processing System, Management Information System
  10. Support Systems: Office Automation Systems, Decision Support Systems, Types of DSS
  11. Data Mart: Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Types of Models Used in DSS
  12. Organizational Information Systems, Marketing Information Systems, Key CRM Tasks
  13. Manufacturing Information System, Inventory Sub System, Production Sub System, Quality Sub system
  14. Accounting & Financial Information Systems, Human Resource Information Systems
  15. Decision Making: Types of Problems, Type of Decisions
  16. Phases of decision-making: Intelligence Phase, Design Phase, Choice Phase, Implementation Phase
  17. Planning for System Development: Models Used for and Types of System Development Life-Cycle
  18. Project lifecycle vs. SDLC, Costs of Proposed System, Classic lifecycle Model
  19. Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), Design of the information flow, data base, User Interface
  20. Incremental Model: Evaluation, Incremental vs. Iterative
  21. Spiral Model: Determine Objectives, Alternatives and Constraints, Prototyping
  22. System Analysis: Systems Analyst, System Design, Designing user interface
  23. System Analysis & Design Methods, Structured Analysis and Design, Flow Chart
  24. Symbols used for flow charts: Good Practices, Data Flow Diagram
  25. Rules for DFDs: Entity Relationship Diagram
  26. Symbols: Object-Orientation, Object Oriented Analysis
  27. Object Oriented Analysis and Design: Object, Classes, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism
  28. Critical Success Factors (CSF): CSF vs. Key Performance Indicator, Centralized vs. Distributed Processing
  29. Security of Information System: Security Issues, Objective, Scope, Policy, Program
  30. Threat Identification: Types of Threats, Control Analysis, Impact analysis, Occurrence of threat
  31. Control Adjustment: cost effective Security, Roles & Responsibility, Report Preparation
  32. Physical vs. Logical access, Viruses, Sources of Transmissions, Technical controls
  33. Antivirus software: Scanners, Active monitors, Behavior blockers, Logical intrusion, Best Password practices, Firewall
  34. Types of Controls: Access Controls, Cryptography, Biometrics
  35. Audit trails and logs: Audit trails and types of errors, IS audit, Parameters of IS audit
  36. Risk Management: Phases, focal Point, System Characterization, Vulnerability Assessment
  37. Control Analysis: Likelihood Determination, Impact Analysis, Risk Determination, Results Documentation
  38. Risk Management: Business Continuity Planning, Components, Phases of BCP, Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
  39. Web Security: Passive attacks, Active Attacks, Methods to avoid internet attacks
  40. Internet Security Controls, Firewall Security SystemsIntrusion Detection Systems, Components of IDS, Digital Certificates
  41. Commerce vs. E-Business, Business to Consumer (B2C), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), E-Government
  42. Supply Chain Management: Integrating systems, Methods, Using SCM Software
  43. Using ERP Software, Evolution of ERP, Business Objectives and IT
  44. ERP & E-commerce, ERP & CRM, ERP Ownership and sponsor ship
  45. Ethics in IS: Threats to Privacy, Electronic Surveillance, Data Profiling, TRIPS, Workplace Monitoring