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Digital Logic Design

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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Lesson No. 27
DOWN COUNTERS
All the examples considered so far have used counters that count up from binary zero
to some maximum count value depending upon the Modulus value of the counter. When the
counter reaches its maximum count value it is reset to binary zero and continues with the
counting sequence. A down counter counts in a sequence which starts with some maximum
count value and counts down to binary zero. It is then reset to the maximum count value and
repeats the counting sequence. A Down-counter is implemented by connecting the Q output
instead of the Q output of all the flip-flops to the clock inputs of the next flip-flops. Figure 27.1
Figure 27.1a 3-bit Asynchronous Down-Counter
CLOCK
Input
F0
F0
F1
F1
F2
t9
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
t1
Figure 27.1b Timing diagram of a 3-bit Asynchronous Down-Counter
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Down Counter with truncated sequence
A down counter can be configured to count down a truncated sequence, similar to an
up-counter which can count up to any truncated sequence. A down counter counts down from
the maximum count value to some predefined count value which is the last count value in the
truncated sequence. On reaching the last count value the down-counter is preset to the
maximum count value instead of clearing the counter to zero count value as done in the case
of an up-counter. The circuit shows a 3-bit down-counter configured to count down a truncated
sequence from 111 to 011. On reaching the count value 011, the counter is preset to 111
when it is decremented to 010 on the negative clock transition. Figure 27.2
Figure 27.2a Down-counter configured to count a truncated sequence
F0
F0
F1
F1
F2
F2
Figure 27.2b Timing diagram of a counter configured to count a truncated sequence
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
The counter counts down from 111 to 011 from interval t1 to interval t5. At interval t6 the
counter counts down to 010, the F0 , F1 and F2 are set to logic 1, the output of the NAND gate
is set to logic 0 which presets all the three flip-flops to state 111. The counter continues with its
counting sequence and at the clock transition at interval t7 and t8 the counter count down to
110 and 101 respectively.
Synchronous Counters
Asynchronous counters due to the delayed outputs caused by the rippling clock signal
do not allow their operation with high frequency clock signals. Asynchronous counters having
multiple bits also cause timing problems due to the excessive propagation delays.
Applications requiring 8, 16 and 32 counters and operating at high clock frequencies
are implemented using Synchronous Counters. Synchronous counters use a common clock
signal connected to the clock inputs of all the counter flip-flops. Therefore, on a clock transition
all the flip-flops simultaneously change their output state. Figure 27.3.
Figure 27.3a 2-bit Synchronous Counter
CLOCK
Input
F0
Output
F1
Output
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
Figure 27.3b Timing diagram of a 2-bit Synchronous Counter
The 2-bit Synchronous counter has both its clock inputs connected to the clock signal.
Both the flip-flops are reset to logic low states respectively. On a high to low clock transition at
interval t1, the F0 output of the first flip-flop toggles to logic high. Since the clock transition on
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
the clock input of the second flip-flop also occurs at interval t1, the J-K inputs of the second flip-
flop are at interval t1 are at logic 0. The change at the inputs J-K to logic 1 of the second flip-
flop occurs after a propagation delay tPLH of the first flip-flop. Thus the output of the second flip-
flop remains unchanged due to the input condition at the J-K inputs (J=0, K=0). At interval t2
the output F0 is at logic high (1) along with the J-K inputs as the three are connected together.
On a clock transition at interval t2 the output F0 toggles to logic 0. At the very same instant the
output F1 also toggles to logic 1. The inputs J-K of the second flip-flop is set to logic 0 after a
propagation delay of tPHL of the first flip-flop. At interval t3, at the clock transition the output F0
toggles to logic 1. The inputs J-K of the second flip-flop at time interval t3 is logic 0 therefore at
the clock transition the output F1 remains unchanged. The inputs J-K of the second flip-flop
change after a propagation delay of tPLH. Finally, at time interval t4, the output F0 of the first flip-
flop toggles to logic 0. The J-K inputs of the second flip-flop are at logic 1, therefore the output
F1 of the second flip-flop is also set to logic 0.
3-bit & 4-bit Synchronous Counters
Multi-bit Synchronous Counters can easily be implemented by connecting together
appropriate number of flip-flops together. The clock inputs of all the flip-flops are directly
connected to a common clock signal. Implementing of Synchronous Counters larger than 2-
bits requires the use of an AND gate. Figure 27.4
F0
F1
F2
1
SET
SET
SET
Q
Q
Q
flip-flop 1
flip-flop 2
flip-flop 3
Q
Q
Q
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLK
Figure 27.4a
A 3-bit Synchronous Counter
The operation of the 3-bit Synchronous Counter and the need for the AND gate can be
understood by studying the timing diagram of the 3-bit counter. The timing of the first two flip-
flops is identical to the timings of the 2-bit counter discussed earlier. The timing diagram
shows that at interval t4, the 3-bit counter should count from state 011 to 100. Similarly, at
interval t8 the counter should count from state 111 to 000. At both the intervals the F2 output of
the third flip-flop toggles to logic 1 and logic 0 respectively when the outputs F0 and F1 are both
at logic 1. This is implemented by connecting the two outputs F0 and F1 to the inputs of a 2-
input AND gate. The output of the AND gate is logic 1 when both its inputs (F0 and F1) are at
logic 1. The output of the AND gate is connect to the J-K inputs of the third flip-flop. If the AND
gate is not used and the J-K inputs of the third flip-flop are directly connected to the output F1
of the second flip-flop, the third flip-flop will change its state and set its output F2 to logic 1 at
the time interval t3. The count sequence is thus disturbed.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Figure 27.4b
Timing diagram of a 3-bit Synchronous Counter
Figure 27.5
4-bit Synchronous Binary Counter
Larger counters can be implemented using similar AND gates. For example, a 4-bit
counter uses four flip-flops. The counter circuit for the first three flip-flops is identical to the 3-
bit counter circuit. The input of the fourth flip-flop is connected through a 3-input AND gate with
inputs F0, F1 and F2. The fourth flip-flop changes its state when the outputs of the first three
flip-flops are at logic 1. That is, the when the 4-bit counter is counting from 0111 to 1000 and
1111 to 0000. Figure 27.5
4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
Earlier, an Asynchronous Decade counter has been discussed, which counts from
state 0000 to 1001. The Asynchronous counter is cleared to state 0000 when the counter
counts from 1001 to 1010. Synchronous counter can be implemented which counts from 0000
to 1001. In the synchronous counter, all the four flip-flops are connected to a common clock
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and are triggered simultaneously. However, instead of using the clear asynchronous inputs to
clear the counter to the initial state, logic gates are used to reset the decade counter to state
0000 after it reaches state 1001. The implementation of the Synchronous Decade counter can
be understood with the help of a function table that represents the operation of the Decade
Counter. Table 27.1.
Input
Output
Clock
F3
F2
F1
F0
Pulses
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
1
1
5
0
1
0
0
6
0
1
0
1
7
0
1
1
0
8
0
1
1
1
9
1
0
0
0
10
1
0
0
1
Table 27.1
Output of a Synchronous Decade Counter
The output state of the first flip-flop F0 is shown to toggle between 1 and 0 on each
clock transition. Therefore, the inputs J-K of the first flip-flop are connected to logic high. The
output state of the second flip-flop F1 changes from logic 0 to logic 1 and vice- verse when F0
output is logic 1 and F3 output is logic 0. Therefore, the inputs J-K of the second flip-flop are
connected to a function determined by the Boolean expression F0 F3 . The output state of the
third flip-flop F2 changes from logic 0 to logic 1 and vice-versa when F0 and F1 outputs are both
at logic 1. Therefore, the inputs J-K of the third flip-flop are connected to a function determined
by the Boolean expression F0F1 . The output of the fourth flip-flop F3 changes its output state
when outputs F0, F1 and F2 are at logic 1 or when outputs F0 and F3 are at logic 1. Therefore,
the J-K inputs of the fourth flip-flop are connected to a function determined by a Boolean
expression F0F1F2 + F0F3 . The decade counter is shown in figure 27.6
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Figure 27.6
Synchronous Decade Counter
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Table of Contents:
  1. AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
  2. Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s & 2’s complement
  3. Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
  4. Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
  5. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
  6. AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
  7. DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
  8. Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorgan’s Theorems
  9. Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
  10. KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
  11. Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
  12. COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
  13. ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
  15. BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
  16. 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
  17. BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
  18. 2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
  19. Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
  20. OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
  21. OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
  22. Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
  23. APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
  24. Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
  25. Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
  26. THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
  27. Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
  28. Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
  29. Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
  30. DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
  31. NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
  32. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
  33. Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
  34. SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
  35. APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
  36. Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
  37. Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
  38. Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
  39. Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
  40. Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
  41. Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
  42. First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
  43. LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
  44. THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
  45. SUCCESSIVE –APPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER