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Corporate Finance

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Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
Lesson 23
The following topics will be discussed in this lecture.
Dividend and value of firm
Dividend relevance
Residual dividend policy
Financial planning process and control
Dividend and Value of Firm
A taxable payment declared by a company's board of directors and given to its shareholders out of the
company's current or retained earnings, usually quarterly. Dividends are usually given as cash (cash
dividend), but they can also take the form of stock (stock dividend) or other property. Dividends provide an
incentive to own stock in stable companies even if they are not experiencing much growth. Companies are
not required to pay dividends. The companies that offer dividends are most often companies that have
progressed beyond the growth phase, and no longer benefit sufficiently by reinvesting their profits, so they
usually choose to pay them out to their shareholders also called payout.
Value of firm
The term `valuation' implies the task of estimating the worth / value of an asset, a security or a business /
firm. The price an investor or a firm is willing to pay to purchase a specific asset/security would be related
to this value. Obviously, two different buyers may not have the same valuation for an asset/ security as their
perception regarding its worth/value may vary; one may perceive the asset/business to be the higher worth
(for whatever reason) and hence may be willing to pay a higher price than the other. A seller would consider
the negotiated selling price of the asset/business to be greater than the value of the
Asset / business/firm he is selling.
1. Dividend relevance
A. Preference for Dividends
·  Uncertainty surrounding future company profitability leads certain investors to prefer the certainty
of current dividends.
·  Investors prefer "large" dividends.
·  Investors do not like to manufacture "homemade" dividends, but prefer the company to distribute
them directly.
·  As a mean of resolving the uncertainty early, investors prefer dividend paying stock rather than
non-dividend paying.
·  taxation: individual bracket, on capital gains vs. dividends
·  liquidity preference
·  Financial signaling: Dividends have impact on share prices because it indicates the firm's
profitability as well. Accounting earnings may not be a influencing factor as compared to
increase in dividend.
B. Taxes on the Investor
·  Capital gains taxes are deferred until the actual sale of stock. This creates a timing option.
·  Capital gains are preferred to dividends, everything else equal. Thus, high dividend-yielding
stocks should sell at a discount to generate a higher before-tax rate of return.
·  Certain institutional investors pay no tax.
·  Corporations can typically exclude 70% of dividend income from taxation. Thus, corporations
generally prefer to receive dividends rather than capital gains.
·  The result is clienteles of investors with different dividend preferences. In equilibrium, there
will be the proper distribution of firms with differing dividend policies to exactly meet the
needs of investors.
·  Thus, dividend-payout decisions are irrelevant.
Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
Residual Dividend Policy
If a company does not pay all the profit to shareholders in the form of dividend then the debt equity ratio
will change. In this section we will assume that company do have some potential opportunities and will
finance these opportunities first and any remainder profit will be paid as dividend and the debt equity ratio
will be held constant.
An approach that suggests that a firm pay dividends only if there are no potential opportunities for
expansion or there's some profit left after financing the potential opportunities, represents residual dividend
Sr #
After Tax
Additional Retained
Additional Dividends
The main objective to present this table is to aid your understanding that how debt equity ratio is held
constant under residual dividend policy. This table complies with the definition of the policy presented
above, which state that first acceptable opportunities will be financed and if there's any profit left that will
be distributed as dividend.
The first column refers to various situations and we will discuss couple of such scenarios.
Taking the 2nd scenario, if the profit is Rs. 2000 and a potential opportunity exists which needs Rs 6000.
This 6000 shall be financed by three items: 2000 from loan, 2000 from additional equity and 2000 profit.
This is because we need to keep the debt equity ratio at 0.50. You can see in this case we don't have
anything left to pay as dividend to shareholders. Now coming to case # 6 where we have 2000 profit and
investment 1000 is needed for a potential project. So we have 1000 remaining profit but we are not going to
distribute 1000 as dividend. Why?
The answer to the question is pretty simple: if we pay out 1000 as dividend then the debt equity ratio of 0.50
is no longer there. (Try it yourself by changing the above table).
The company needs to seek an amount of loan that could ensure desired D/E ratio. In this case, this can be
ensured by taking a loan of 1/3rd* of the remainder profit of 1000 ­ Rs.333/-. Now consider here the after
financing the potential opportunity of Rs 1000, and obtaining loan of Rs 333, we have now Rs. 1,333/- left
which can be paid as dividend and this will ensure that debt equity ratio is same.
(* D/E ratio of 0.50 means that debt is 1/3rd and equity is 2/3rd)
Dividend payments may increase or reduce shareholder wealth. The dividend policy adopted should be
aimed at maximizing shareholder wealth in line with corporate objectives, and we need to examine whether
there is any particular dividend policy which maximizes shareholder wealth. Is a high dividend payment
policy better than a low payment policy?
Dividend policy research is being done in the world for a long time, but practical issues in dividend policy is
poorly investigated in a company. The purpose of this paper is to investigate dividend policy in few
Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
companies and to estimate its impact on share market price. Dividend policy in practice in foreign
countries, its necessities and shortcomings are investigated in the paper. During the research dividend policy
in practice is determined in Lithuanian companies; the impact of net profit changes on dividends is
investigated; the correlation between dividends payments and share market price is determined.
There are four kinds of dividend policy in practice:
· residual dividend policy;
· stable or dividend growth policy;
· stable net profit/dividend payment ratio dividend policy;
· Premium dividend policy.
The investigation which has been carried out in few companies reveals the impact of dividends payments on
share market price. However, it is necessary not to forget that capital market is at the forming stage and
most companies put into practice residual dividend policy in order to strengthen their position in the
To wrap up this topic we need to consider the following factors when we are confronted with dividend
·  A firm must endeavor to establish a dividend policy that maximizes shareholders wealth.
·  Mostly it is believed that if a firm does not have investment opportunities on its plate, it should
return / distribute funds to shareholders.
·  It is not necessary to pay out everything but firm may wish to stabilize the dividends.
·  There must be preference for dividend.
·  It appears realistic to have some value associated with modest dividend as compared to nothing.
·  The value of firm's stock is unchanged. Whatever the pattern of dividend payout, the value of stock
will be the same. the reason is simple:
·  The increase in dividend in one year is exactly offset by the decrease in later year, so the net effect
is nil.
·  Dividends are relevant because investors like to have higher dividends. if there's one higher
dividend and other dividends are constant, the stock price will rise.
Financial Planning Process and Control
Financial planning is often thought of as a way to manage debt, but a good financial plan really is a way to
make certain that you have financial security throughout your life. Many small business owners consider
their business as their investment in their future, but that is a huge risk to take. As any economist will tell
you, diversification is the only sure way to create security in the long run. Your business is one stream of
income. Putting together a financial plan that allows for multiple streams of income is what provides you
security in the longer term.
The essential components of a good financial plan are investing, retirement planning, insurance, borrowing
and using credit, tax planning, having a will, and ensuring the right people receive your assets. Financial
planning is the process of meeting your life goals through the proper management of your finances. Life
goals can include buying a home, saving for your child's education or planning for retirement.
The financial planning process involves gathering relevant financial information, setting life goals,
examining your current financial status and coming up with a plan for how you can meet your goals given
your current situation and future plans.
There are personal finance software packages, magazines and self-help books to help you do your own
financial planning. However, you may decide to seek help from a professional financial planner if:
·  You need expertise you don't possess in certain areas of your finances. For example, a planner can
help you evaluate the level of risk in your investment portfolio or adjust your retirement plan due
to changing family circumstances.
·  You want to get a professional opinion about the financial plan you developed for yourself.
·  You don't feel you have the time to spare to do your own financial planning.
·  You have an immediate need or unexpected life event such as a birth, inheritance or major illness.
·  You feel that a professional adviser could help you improve on how you are currently managing
your finances.
·  You know that you need to improve your current financial situation but don't know where to start.
Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
A financial planner is someone who uses the financial planning process to help you figure out how to meet
your life goals. The planner can take a "big picture" view of your financial situation and make financial
planning recommendations that are right for you. The planner can look at all of your needs including
budgeting and saving, taxes, investments, insurance and retirement planning.
In addition to providing you with general financial planning services, many financial planners are also
registered as investment advisers or hold insurance or securities licenses that allow them to buy or sell
products. Other planners may have you use more specialized financial advisers to help you implement their
recommendations. With the right education and experience, each of the following advisers could take you
through the financial planning process. Ethical financial planners will refer you to one of these professionals
for services that they cannot provide and disclose any referral fees they may receive in the process. Similarly,
these advisers should refer you to a planner if they cannot meet your financial planning needs.
The Financial Planning Process consists of the Following five Steps
1. Establishing and defining the client-planner relationship.
The financial planner should clearly explain or document the services to be provided to you and define
both his and your responsibilities. The planner should explain fully how he will be paid and by whom.
You and the planner should agree on how long the professional relationship should last and on how
decisions will be made.
2. Gathering client data, including goals.
The financial planner should ask for information about your financial situation. You and the planner
should mutually define your personal and financial goals, understand your time frame for results and
discuss, if relevant, how you feel about risk. The financial planner should gather all the necessary
documents before giving you the advice you need.
3. Analyzing and evaluating your financial status.
The financial planner should analyze your information to assess your current situation and determine
what you must do to meet your goals. Depending on what services you have asked for, this could
include analyzing your assets, liabilities and cash flow, current insurance coverage, investments or tax
4. Developing and presenting financial planning recommendations and/or alternatives.
The financial planner should offer financial planning recommendations that address your goals, based
on the information you provide. The planner should go over the recommendations with you to help
you understand them so that you can make informed decisions. The planner should also listen to your
concerns and revise the recommendations as appropriate.
5. Implementing the financial planning recommendations.
You and the planner should agree on how the recommendations will be carried out. The planner may
carry out the recommendations or serve as your "coach," coordinating the whole process with you and
other professionals such as attorneys or stockbrokers.
The Control Process:
When plans are finalized and put to action or implemented, then the actual performance is compared with
the budgeted numbers. The difference between the actual and budgeted numbers is called variance. This
variance is investigated as to know the real causes of the difference. The investigation leads to initiate the
corrective action and to adjust the budget of future periods. The investigation result is known as feedback.
There are three types of feedback emerging from investigation of variance.
1. Change The Strategy or Course of Action ­ If something went wrong with strategy, the course
of action is fine tuned or changed to ensure future actual results conform to original plan. For
example, if sales was less than the budgeted and variance investigation revealed that sales force
could not be motivated then some incentives and bonuses can be offered to motivate the sales
force. The future period budgets will be adjusted for the proposed incentive expenses.
2. Do Nothing ­ if the results are in line with the planned, no action is required.
3. Change The Plan ­ Targets or plan itself is revised rather than changing strategy. For example the
targeted profit is scaled down.
For example we continue the example in 1 above, if sales were less than budgeted and investigation revealed
that the sales target was not realistic, then the sales targets will be adjusted for future period.
Table of Contents:
  4. Discounted Cash Flow, Effective Annual Interest Bond Valuation - introduction
  5. Features of Bond, Coupon Interest, Face value, Coupon rate, Duration or maturity date
  8. Capital Budgeting Definition and Process
  9. METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS, Net present value, Weighted Average Cost of Capital
  12. ADVANCE EVALUATION METHODS: Sensitivity analysis, Profitability analysis, Break even accounting, Break even - economic
  13. Economic Break Even, Operating Leverage, Capital Rationing, Hard & Soft Rationing, Single & Multi Period Rationing
  14. Single period, Multi-period capital rationing, Linear programming
  15. Risk and Uncertainty, Measuring risk, Variability of return–Historical Return, Variance of return, Standard Deviation
  16. Portfolio and Diversification, Portfolio and Variance, Risk–Systematic & Unsystematic, Beta – Measure of systematic risk, Aggressive & defensive stocks
  17. Security Market Line, Capital Asset Pricing Model – CAPM Calculating Over, Under valued stocks
  18. Cost of Capital & Capital Structure, Components of Capital, Cost of Equity, Estimating g or growth rate, Dividend growth model, Cost of Debt, Bonds, Cost of Preferred Stocks
  19. Venture Capital, Cost of Debt & Bond, Weighted average cost of debt, Tax and cost of debt, Cost of Loans & Leases, Overall cost of capital – WACC, WACC & Capital Budgeting
  20. When to use WACC, Pure Play, Capital Structure and Financial Leverage
  21. Home made leverage, Modigliani & Miller Model, How WACC remains constant, Business & Financial Risk, M & M model with taxes
  22. Problems associated with high gearing, Bankruptcy costs, Optimal capital structure, Dividend policy
  23. Dividend and value of firm, Dividend relevance, Residual dividend policy, Financial planning process and control
  24. Budgeting process, Purpose, functions of budgets, Cash budgets–Preparation & interpretation
  25. Cash flow statement Direct method Indirect method, Working capital management, Cash and operating cycle
  26. Working capital management, Risk, Profitability and Liquidity - Working capital policies, Conservative, Aggressive, Moderate
  27. Classification of working capital, Current Assets Financing – Hedging approach, Short term Vs long term financing
  28. Overtrading – Indications & remedies, Cash management, Motives for Cash holding, Cash flow problems and remedies, Investing surplus cash
  29. Miller-Orr Model of cash management, Inventory management, Inventory costs, Economic order quantity, Reorder level, Discounts and EOQ
  30. Inventory cost – Stock out cost, Economic Order Point, Just in time (JIT), Debtors Management, Credit Control Policy
  31. Cash discounts, Cost of discount, Shortening average collection period, Credit instrument, Analyzing credit policy, Revenue effect, Cost effect, Cost of debt o Probability of default
  32. Effects of discounts–Not effecting volume, Extension of credit, Factoring, Management of creditors, Mergers & Acquisitions
  33. Synergies, Types of mergers, Why mergers fail, Merger process, Acquisition consideration
  34. Acquisition Consideration, Valuation of shares
  35. Assets Based Share Valuations, Hybrid Valuation methods, Procedure for public, private takeover
  36. Corporate Restructuring, Divestment, Purpose of divestment, Buyouts, Types of buyouts, Financial distress
  37. Sources of financial distress, Effects of financial distress, Reorganization
  38. Currency Risks, Transaction exposure, Translation exposure, Economic exposure
  39. Future payment situation – hedging, Currency futures – features, CF – future payment in FCY
  40. CF–future receipt in FCY, Forward contract vs. currency futures, Interest rate risk, Hedging against interest rate, Forward rate agreements, Decision rule
  41. Interest rate future, Prices in futures, Hedging–short term interest rate (STIR), Scenario–Borrowing in ST and risk of rising interest, Scenario–deposit and risk of lowering interest rates on deposits, Options and Swaps, Features of opti
  43. Calculating financial benefit–Interest rate Option, Interest rate caps and floor, Swaps, Interest rate swaps, Currency swaps
  44. Exchange rate determination, Purchasing power parity theory, PPP model, International fisher effect, Exchange rate system, Fixed, Floating
  45. FOREIGN INVESTMENT: Motives, International operations, Export, Branch, Subsidiary, Joint venture, Licensing agreements, Political risk