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Principles of Marketing

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Principles of Marketing ­ MGT301
VU
Lesson ­ 38
Lesson overview and learning objectives:
Explain how companies use public relations to communicate with their publics. Public relations,
the final mass communication tool described in this chapter, is an attempt to build good relations
with the company's various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good "corporate
image," and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories, or events. The organization has a
variety of tools at their disposal for accomplishing this feat. One of the overriding tasks of public
relations is to control the exposure and relationship with the mass media. By focusing on
consumer attitudes, awareness, and knowledge of the organization, the company is better prepared
to succeed. Public relations have even been extended to the Internet and companies are beginning
to explore ways to increase their effects on the newly emerging world of e-commerce.
A. DIRECT MARKETING
B. PUBLIC RELATIONS
A. Direct Marketing
a. Other Marketing Applications through Databases
Some of the important uses or advantages of using database market are as following:
 Match profiles to cross-sell other products to customers
 Modify marketing messages based on customer profiles
 Reach out to customers to reinforce the purchase decision
 Find new customers
 Gain insight into who is purchasing products
 Improve customer service
Beside uses database marketing also has some disadvantages like
Marketing databases can be costly and time consuming,
Databases need to be carefully planned
Consumer privacy issues.
b. Integrated Direct Marketing
Too often, a company's individual direct marketing efforts are not well integrated with one another
or with other elements in its marketing and promotional mixes. A more powerful approach is
integrated direct marketing, which involves using multiple-vehicle, multiple-stage campaigns.
c. Public Policy and Ethical Issues in Direct Marketing
Direct marketers and their customers usually enjoy mutually rewarding relation-ships, however,
occasionally, a darker side emerges. Irritation, unfairness, deception, and fraud are common
complaints. Many consumers perceive that an innocent desire to become "close" to the customer
really is an invasion of privacy (this is the toughest issues facing the industry).
1). Consumers can benefit from database marketing, but at what cost to privacy?
2). in a company's desire to build a database, they often get carried away.
3). in a recent survey, 79 percent of consumers expressed concern about their privacy. In
reality, direct marketing is just too expensive to waste on consumers who don't want it.
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Principles of Marketing ­ MGT301
VU
B. Public Relations
Public relations are very believable--news stories, features, and events seem more real and
believable to readers than ads do. Public relations can also reach many prospects who avoid
salespeople and advertisements--the message gets to the buyers as "news" rather than as a sales-
directed communication. As with advertising, public relations can dramatize a company or product.
Marketers tend to underused public relations or to use it as an afterthought. Yet a well-thought-out
public relations campaign used with other promotion mix elements can be very effective and
economical.
a. Public Relations
Public relations involves building good relations with the company's various publics by obtaining
favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling or heading off unfavorable
rumors, stories, and events. Major functions are:
1). Press relations or press gentry.
2). Product publicity.
3). Public affairs.
4). Lobbying.
5). Investor relations.
6). Development.
Public relations are used to promote products, places, ideas, activities, organizations, even nations.
b. The Role and Impact of Public
Relations
The Rolle of
The Ro e of
Public relations can have a strong impact on
Publliic
Pub c
public awareness at a much lower cost than
Rellatiions
Re at ons
advertising. Despite its potential strengths,
public relations are often described as a
Executes
Executes
marketing stepchild because of its limited and
Ev alluattes
programs tto
Ev a ua es
programs o
scattered use. This may be changing, however.  publliic attttiittudes
gaiin publliic
ga n pub c
pub c a  udes
accepttance
accep ance
Many companies today are looking for public
IIdenttiifiies
den f es
iissues off publliic
ssues o pub c
relations to take a more active role in
concern
concern
marketing
and
promotion
planning.
Marketing public relations departments are
being formed. Public relation tools are being used by the companies in evaluating public attitudes,
identifying the issues of public concern and to execute the different programs that can gain public
acceptance. It means that the public relations is that marketing function which evaluates public
attitudes, identifies areas within the organization that the public may be interested in, and executes
a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
c.
Major Public Relations Tools
Major tools include:
1). News.
2). Speeches.
W eb Siite
W eb Ste
3).  Special  events  (mobile
Publlic
Pubic
Serrviice
Se vce
News
News
marketing).
Actt ivit ies
Ac ivit ies
4).Written materials (such as
Corrporate
Co porate
annual reports, brochures, articles,
IIdentity
dentity
Speeches
Matterials
Maerials
Speeches
and company newsletters).
5). Audiovisual materials (such
Speciial
Specal
Audiiovisual
Audovisual
as films, slide-and-sound programs,
Eventts
Even s
Matterrials
Ma e ials
W rritten
W itten
video and audio cassettes).
Matterrials
Ma e ials
196
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Principles of Marketing ­ MGT301
VU
6) Corporate identity materials (such as logos, stationery, brochures, signs, business forms,
business cards, buildings, uniforms, and company cars and trucks).
Companies also improve public relations by contributing time and money to public service
activities. A company's Web site can be a good public relations vehicle. Consumer and members of
other publics can visit the site for information and entertainment. Major public relations decisions
include:
1). Setting public relations objectives.
2). Choosing public relations messages and
Setttiing Publliic Re llattiions Ob jjecttiiv es
Se ng Pub c Re a ons Ob ec v es
vehicles.
3). Implementing the public relations plan.
4). Evaluating the results.
d. Major Public Relations Decisions
Choosiing tthe Publliic Re llattiions Messages
Choos ng he Pub c Re a ons Messages
As shown in the fig major public relation decisions
and Vehiic lles
and Veh c es
are:
Setting Public relations objective that means deciding
what are the results that the companies want to
achieve by using public relation tools, than second
IImpllementtiing tthe Publliic Rellattiions Pllan
mp emen ng he Pub c Re a ons P an
step is choosing the message that companies can
communicate to public to fulfill the role of public
relation, next step of this system is implementation of
the program and finally evaluation of the program in
Ev alluattiing Pub lliic Re llattiions Resulltts
Ev a ua ng Pub c Re a ons Resu s
order to judge the success level of public relations
tools used.
e. Publicity
Public information is information about a company's goods or services appearing in the mass
media as a news item. Stimulation of demand for a good, service, place, idea, person, or
organization by unpaid placement of commercially significant news or favorable media
presentations. Publicity is more credible to consumers than any other promotional mix element
Although publicity is generally thought of as not paid for, firms incur publicity-related expenses
that include the cost of employing marketing personnel assigned to create and submit publicity
releases, printing and mailing costs, and related expenses.
197
Table of Contents:
  1. PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING:Introduction of Marketing, How is Marketing Done?
  2. ROAD MAP:UNDERSTANDING MARKETING AND MARKETING PROCESS
  3. MARKETING FUNCTIONS:CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
  4. MARKETING IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND EVOLUTION OF MARKETING:End of the Mass Market
  5. MARKETING CHALLENGES IN THE 21st CENTURY:Connections with Customers
  6. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND MARKETING PROCESS:Setting Company Objectives and Goals
  7. PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS:MARKETING PROCESS,Marketing Strategy Planning Process
  8. MARKETING PROCESS:Analyzing marketing opportunities, Contents of Marketing Plan
  9. MARKETING ENVIRONMENT:The Companyís Microenvironment, Customers
  10. MARKETING MACRO ENVIRONMENT:Demographic Environment, Cultural Environment
  11. ANALYZING MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING STRATEGIES:MIS, Marketing Research
  12. THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Developing the Research Plan, Research Approaches
  13. THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS (Continued):CONSUMER MARKET
  14. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR:Model of consumer behavior, Cultural Factors
  15. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR (CONTINUED):Personal Factors, Psychological Factors
  16. BUSINESS MARKETS AND BUYING BEHAVIOR:Market structure and demand
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION:Steps in Target Marketing, Mass Marketing
  18. MARKET SEGMENTATION (CONTINUED):Market Targeting, How Many Differences to Promote
  19. Product:Marketing Mix, Levels of Product and Services, Consumer Products
  20. PRODUCT:Individual product decisions, Product Attributes, Branding
  21. PRODUCT:NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS, Idea generation, Test Marketing
  22. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:PRODUCT LIFE- CYCLE STAGES AND STRATEGIES
  23. KEY TERMS:New-product development, Idea generation, Product development
  24. Price the 2nd P of Marketing Mix:Marketing Objectives, Costs, The Market and Demand
  25. PRICE THE 2ND P OF MARKETING MIX:General Pricing Approaches, Fixed Cost
  26. PRICE THE 2ND P OF MARKETING MIX:Discount and Allowance Pricing, Segmented Pricing
  27. PRICE THE 2ND P OF MARKETING MIX:Price Changes, Initiating Price Increases
  28. PLACE- THE 3RD P OF MARKETING MIX:Marketing Channel, Channel Behavior
  29. LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT:Push Versus Pull Strategy, Goals of the Logistics System
  30. RETAILING AND WHOLESALING:Customer Service, Product Line, Discount Stores
  31. KEY TERMS:Distribution channel, Franchise organization, Distribution center
  32. PROMOTION THE 4TH P OF MARKETING MIX:Integrated Marketing Communications
  33. ADVERTISING:The Five Mís of Advertising, Advertising decisions
  34. ADVERTISING:SALES PROMOTION, Evaluating Advertising, Sales Promotion
  35. PERSONAL SELLING:The Role of the Sales Force, Builds Relationships
  36. SALES FORCE MANAGEMENT:Managing the Sales Force, Compensating Salespeople
  37. SALES FORCE MANAGEMENT:DIRECT MARKETING, Forms of Direct Marketing
  38. DIRECT MARKETING:PUBLIC RELATIONS, Major Public Relations Decisions
  39. KEY TERMS:Public relations, Advertising, Catalog Marketing
  40. CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE:Competitor Analysis, Competitive Strategies
  41. GLOBAL MARKETING:International Trade System, Economic Environment
  42. E-MARKETING:Internet Marketing, Electronic Commerce, Basic-Forms
  43. MARKETING AND SOCIETY:Social Criticisms of Marketing, Marketing Ethics
  44. MARKETING:BCG MATRIX, CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, PRODUCT AND SERVICES
  45. A NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:PRICING STRATEGIES, GLOBAL MARKET PLACE