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Digital Logic Design

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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Lesson No. 30
DIGITAL CLOCK
The timing diagram figure 30.1a shows the time interval t6 to t11 and t19 to t21. At time
interval t9 the units counter counts to 1001 (9) which is the terminal count of the 74x160
decade counter. The RCO signal is set to logic 1 to indicate the terminal count. The RCO
signal is connected to the ENP and ENT enable signals of the tens counter. At interval t10 the
tens counter is incremented by 1, the units counter recycles to 0000 (0) and the RCO signal is
deactivated inhibiting the tens counter from incrementing. At interval t19 the units counter once
again reaches its terminal count activating the RCO signal and enabling the tens counter to
increment its initial count 0001 to 0010. The counting sequence continues until the tens
counter increments to 0101 (5) and the units counter recycles to 0000 and continues with the
counting sequence on each positive clock transition.
Figure 30.1a Timing diagram of the divide by 60 minutes/seconds counter
The timing diagram fig 30.1b shows the timing sequence from interval t56 to t64. The unit
counter reaches its terminal count at interval t59. The output of the 3-input AND gate is set to
logic high. The output of the AND gate is connected to the ENP and ENT enable inputs of the
next counter, thus enabling the next counter. At interval t60, on a positive clock transition the
units counter recycles to 0000, the tens counter increments to 0110 (6) setting the output of
the NAND gate to logic 0 and the next counter increments its count. The NAND gate output is
connected tot the asynchronous active low clear input of the tens counter which is
asynchronously cleared to 0000.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
CLR
Figure 30.1b Timing diagram of the divide by 60 counter at time interval t56 to t64
The hours unit counter circuit is configured as a decade counter, counting from 0000 to
1001 when it is enabled by the Minutes counter circuit. The NOT gate connected to the clock
input of the J-K flip-flop allows the negative-edge triggered J-K flip-flop to trigger when the
units counter is triggered to count from 0000 to 1001. The terminal count 1001 is detected by
the NAND gate (1) at interval t9 which sets the J input of the flip-flop to logic 1. The K input of
the flip-flop is at Logic 0, therefore on a clock transition at interval t10 the J­K flip-flop output Q
is set to logic 1, the units counter recycles to 0000 resetting J input to logic 0. The unit counter
counts to 0001 and 0010 to represent hours 11 and 12 in interval t11 and t12 respectively. At
interval t12 as the unit counters count changes from 1011 (11) to 1100 (12), Q1 output is set to
logic 1, which sets the output of the NAND gate to logic 0 as the other input of the NAND is
already at logic 1 (Q). The NAND gate sets the K input to logic 1 and setting the active-low
LOAD signal to logic 0. At interval t13, at the positive clock transition the unit counter is
reloaded with the count 0001, the J-K flip-flop output toggles to logic 0 from logic 1. As the
units counter is reloaded with count 0001, the K input is set to logic 0. At intervals t14, t15 and
t16 the hours unit counter increments the hours count by 1.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
LD
Figure 30.2a Hours Counter Circuit
LOAD
Figure 30.2b Hours Counter timing diagram
3. Frequency Counter
A frequency counter is used to measure the frequency of an input signal. The basis for
the operation of a frequency counter is counting of the clock pulses in a predetermined time
interval. The frequency of periodic signal is the number of cycles in a time period of one
second. The frequency of the unknown signal can be calculated by counting the number of
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
clock pulses of the unknown signal and dividing the count number by the time interval in which
the clock pulses are counted, Figure 30.3
Clear
Input Signal with
unknown frequency
Counter
Sampling
BCD & Segment
Interval
Decoder
a
a
g
g
f
f
b
b
c
c
e
e
d
d
Figure 30.3a Frequency Counter Circuit
Input
signal
Counter
reset signal
Sampling
Interval
Counter
Input
t1
t2
t0
Figure 30.3b Timing diagram of the Frequency Counter Circuit
In the circuit shown, the input signal with unknown frequency is applied at the AND
gate input. The second input of the AND gate is connected to a signal which determines the
sampling interval. The signal is set to logic high at interval t1 to enable the AND gate allowing
the input signal to be connected to the clock input of the counter circuit. The sampling interval
signal is set to logic low at the end of the sampling interval t2 to disable the AND gate and
inhibit the counter from counting. Before the counter counts the clock pulses of the input signal
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
it is reset by activating the Asynchronous input to clear the counter. At the end of the sampling
interval the counter output is displayed on 7-segment displays.
The accuracy of the frequency counter depends on the duration of the timing sampling
interval, which must be very accurate. Consider that during a sampling interval of 1 second
4573 clock pulses of the input signal are measured. Thus, the frequency of the unknown signal
is 4573 Hz. If the same input signal is sampled using a 0.1 second sampling interval then
457.3 pulses are counted, which means that either 457 or 458 will be counted depending on
the start of the sampling interval at t1. Thus the frequency is determined to be either 4570 or
4580. Similarly, if the sampling interval is reduced to 0.01 seconds, the numbers of clock
pulses measured are 45.73, which means that either 45 or 46 will be read indicating a
frequency of 4500 or 4600.
100
100
KHz
KHz
Pulse
Crystal
Shaper
Oscillator
Div by 10
Div by 10
Div by 10
Div by 10
Div by 10
100
10
1
10
Hz
Hz
KHz
KHz
1
switch
1
Divide by
J
Q
Hz
2 output
K
Figure 30.4
Cascaded Counter circuit for obtaining accurate sampling intervals
Very accurate sampling intervals are implemented using cascaded counter which is
connected to a very accurate timing signal generated by a crystal controlled oscillator (Astable
multi-vibrator). The output timing signal of each cascade section is available at a switch which
is used to select the appropriate timing signal for controlling the sampling interval. The output
of the switch is connected to the clock input of a negative triggered J-K flip-flop, which divides
the input signal by 2. Thus, when the 1 Hz sampling interval is selected, the signal at the
output of the J-K flip-flop has a time period of 2 seconds. Figure 30.4.
The detailed circuit diagram and the timing diagram of the frequency diagram are
shown in figure 30.5. In the timing diagram the Sampling Interval pulse is obtained from the
output of the J-K flip-flop shown in figure 30.4. The duration of the Sampling interval pulse can
be selected through the switch. The sampling interval signal is connected to the input of the 3-
input AND gate and the clock input of the second J-K flip-flop which toggles its output at each
negative transition of the clock. When the output of the second flip-flop changes to logic 1
(interval t1) it triggers the One-Shot which generates a short output pulse which clears the
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Counter circuit. At interval t2 during the positive half of the sampling interval when the output of
the second J-K flip-flop is high the 3-input AND gate is enabled and the input signal with
unknown frequency is applied at the input of the counter, which count the input signal pulses.
At interval t3 there is negative transition of the sampling signal, which triggers the second flip-
flop changing its output to logic 0. Logic 0 output of the flip-flop disables the 3-input AND gate
inhibiting the counter from counting. The pulses counted by the counter during interval t2 to t3
are directly displayed.
Input Signal with
unknown frequency
Counter
Sampling
Clear
Interval
BCD & Segment
Decoder
Q
Q
J
One
Flip-flop
Shot
2
a
a
K
g
g
f
f
b
b
1
c
c
e
e
d
d
Figure 30.5a Detailed circuit diagram of a frequency counter
Input
signal
Sampling
Interval
Output of
flip-flop 2
Counter
reset signal
Counter
Input
t0
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
t9
Figure 30.5b Timing diagram of the frequency counter circuit
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Design of Synchronous Counters
The counters that have been discussed are binary counters that count in a sequence
either upwards or downwards. The count start and end sequence of a counter can also be set
arbitrarily and the counter can then count up or down with in the terminal count limits.
Counters can also be designed that do not count in a sequence, instead they sequence
through a set of predefined arbitrary values. Counters can also be implemented using D flip-
flops instead of J-K flip-flops. No formal method of designing Counters has been discussed;
however during the study of synchronous counters a general procedure was discussed which
helps in the implementation of the counters. The procedure requires listing of the binary
counting sequence and then determining the input condition for each flip-flop which promotes
a change in their output state. The input conditions are dependent on the previous start
outputs of the flip-flops and are implemented by using logic gates. The method does help in
implementing counters but it is not a comprehensive method for the design and
implementation of different types of counters.
Clocked Synchronous State Machines
The Synchronous Counters are the simplest forms of Clocked Synchronous State
Machines. State Machine is a generic name given to Sequential circuits. The Sequential
circuits use a clock signal to change from one state to the other and all the flip-flops are
connected to a single clock signal, therefore it is a Clocked Synchronous State Machine.
A general Sequential circuit consists of a combinational circuit and a memory element. The
memory element is made of a set of n flip-flops all connected to a a common clock. The n flip-
flops store 2n states. The flip-flops change their current state to the next state on each clock
transition. The next state is determined by the current state and the external input. The output
of the State Machine is determined by the current state and external input. The inputs to the
memory which allow the memory to change its state on a clock transition are known as
excitation inputs or excitation variables. The present state of the memory is represented by
state variables. The state variables and the inputs to the sequential circuit determine the
sequential circuit output. The Sequential circuit whose output depends on the current state and
the input is known as Mealy Machine. Figure 30.6a.
Sequential circuits whose output is
determined by the current state only is known as Moore Machine. Figure 30.6b.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Figure 30.6a Clocked Sequential State Machine (Mealy Machine)
Figure 30.6b Clocked Sequential State Machine (Moore Machine)
Design Procedure
The design and implementation of Synchronous Counters follows an
established set of steps and rules which start from defining the state diagram and end at the
implementation of State machine.
7. State Diagram
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
A sequential circuit (state machine) is described by a state diagram, which shows the
sequence of state through which the sequential circuit progresses when it is clocked. The state
diagram of a 3-bit Synchronous Up-Counter (sequential circuit) is shown in the figure. 30.7
Figure 30.7
State diagram of a 3-bit Up-Counter
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Table of Contents:
  1. AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
  2. Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s & 2’s complement
  3. Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
  4. Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
  5. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
  6. AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
  7. DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
  8. Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorgan’s Theorems
  9. Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
  10. KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
  11. Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
  12. COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
  13. ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
  15. BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
  16. 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
  17. BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
  18. 2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
  19. Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
  20. OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
  21. OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
  22. Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
  23. APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
  24. Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
  25. Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
  26. THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
  27. Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
  28. Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
  29. Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
  30. DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
  31. NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
  32. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
  33. Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
  34. SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
  35. APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
  36. Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
  37. Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
  38. Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
  39. Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
  40. Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
  41. Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
  42. First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
  43. LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
  44. THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
  45. SUCCESSIVE –APPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER