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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 17
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:
-
The Process of delegation
-
Personal attitude towards delegation
-
Guidelines to overcome weak delegation and effective decentralization
How is Authority Delegated?
First we will see how authority is delegated. The process of delegation involves following steps:
1. Determining the results expected from a position: from each position in the organization
the results that are expected are delineated.
2. Assigning tasks to the position: each position is assigned tasks and activities to be
accomplished.
3. Delegating authority to accomplish the tasks: then each position is delegated authority to
accomplish assigned task.
4. Holding the person responsible for task completion: and finally the completion of task is
the responsibility of the person holding the position.
The Art of Delegation
Effective delegation does not occur in certain cases because managers are unwilling or unable
to apply the principles of delegation.
Much of the reason not to delegate is personal attitude towards delegation. The personal
attitude is that help towards Delegation are:
1.
Receptiveness: It is the willingness of manager to give subordinates chance to make
decision
2.
Willingness to let go: Those managers who have risen up in position do not want to
part with the decision that they made at lower level
3.
Willingness to let others make mistakes: Although no responsible managers would sit
idle and watch the subordinates make mistakes. But if the cost of mistakes is not high
it should be considered as investment in personal development
4.
Willingness to trust subordinates: Superiors should trust subordinates that they can
make decisions
Guides to Overcoming Weak Delegation
There are certain ways by which weak delegation can be overcome. These are as follows:
1.
Define assignments and delegate authority in light of results expected or give sufficient
authority to make possible the achievement of assigned goals
2.
Select the person suitable to do the job
3.
Maintain open lines of communication with subordinate so that you are able to tell
them as well as listen to them.
4.
Establish proper control by establishing standards of work
5.
Reward effective delegation and successful assumption of authority
Determinants of Degree of Delegation of Authority
Managers cannot be for and against delegation of authority. They may prefer to delegate
authority or they may like to make all decisions. Following are the factors that determine delegation:
1.
Cost of the decision: As a general rule costly actions will be decided at the upper level of
management. Cost may be in terms of money and such intangibles as the good will of
63
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
the organization E.G. the decision of the airline company to buy airplanes will be made
at first or second level.
2.
Desire of uniformity of policy: Those who value consistency above all favour centralized
authority. Uniform policy has certain advantages. E.G. standardized accounting
procedures as a uniform policy is desirable
3.
Size and character of organization: The larger the organization the more  decisions will
be made and the decision will be made at different levels in the hierarchy. This makes
decision making slow. Therefore, delegation may be preferred.
4.
History and culture of the enterprise: It is the culture and history of organization that
determines whether the organization should decentralize decision
5.
Management philosophy: The thinking of top management will influence that why
should be the degree of delegation
6.
Desire for independence: Offices operating in the far flung area need to be delegated
authority. Long lines of communication cause frustration. Therefore, authority should
be delegated.
7.
Availability of managers: Shortage of well trained managers may lead to
centralized
decision making
8.
Control techniques: Effective delegation means that managers develop good system of
controlling
Coordination
Coordination is a process of integrating activities of the separate departments in order to achieve
organizational goals effectively and efficiently
Without coordination people will loose sight of their roles within the total organization and
tempted to pursue their own departmental interests
The importance of coordination is due to the high degree of specialization or division of work.
Because when people are doing their own specialized work they tend to develop narrow view. Therefore,
coordination of different specialized areas is very essential.
Specialization leads to four types of effect on people:
1.
Own perception on organizational goals: E.G. accountant just sees cost control as most
important. There is a narrow view of thing.
2.
Time orientation is different: People in production are use to handling crises that need to
be dealt immediately. People working in Research & development handle things in
relaxed way.
3.
The above two affect the interpersonal styles. People in production may need clear cut
answers. People in research and marketing see relationship are more important.
4.
Degree of formality: clear standards performance are required in production
Conclusions
We have seen the principles of delegating authority
The personal attitude towards delegation is important and what determines that how
much authority should be delegated
Introduced the topic of planning
Concepts
The art of delegation:
the method by which authority is delegated.
Coordination:
the process of integrating activities
Specialization:
also referred to as division of labour.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management