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Leadership and Team Management

<<< Previous CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory Next >>>
 
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 10
CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
Both trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situations. By the
late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answer. Predicting leadership success
involved something more complex than isolating a few traits or preferable behaviors. It was one thing
to say that leadership effectiveness depended on the situation and another to be able to isolate
situational conditions.
Leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the:
·
Leader
·
Followers
·
Situational factors
During Last 5-6 decades, more than 65 leadership classification systems have been developed. Most
agree that leadership effectiveness depends on the leader, the followers, and situation variables. Leaders
in different situations need different interests, values, and skills. A leader in a bank differs from one in a
factory. Situational factors include the job performed, the workplace culture, and the overall
environment
Leadership results when... the ideas and deeds of the leader match the needs and expectations of the
follower in a particular situation e.g. Quaid-e-Azam, Nelson Mandela, Adolf Hitler, Sir Syed Ahmad
Khan. For leadership to take place, the leader, followers, and situation must match.
The Contingency Approach is based on four assumptions:
·  The appropriate leadership style depends on the requirements of the situation.
·  Leadership can be learned.
·  Successful leadership involves understanding situational contingencies.
·  The match between the leader's style, personality or behavior, and the situation leads to
effectiveness.
Leadership approaches
Contingency approach
Path-goal model
·Subordinate characteristics
·Task structure
·Leadership behaviour
·Performance satisfaction
Situational
leadership theory
·Subordinate readiness
·Delegating
Fielder LPC model
·Participating
·Leadership behaviour assessment
·Selling
·Situation favourability
·Telling
·Behaviour-situation match
The Fiedler Model
·
This is the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership.
·
Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style of
interaction and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
·  Fiedler developed an instrument, the Least-Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire that
measures the leader's behavioral orientation-- either task oriented or relationship oriented.
·  He isolated three situational criteria--leader-member relations, task structure, and position
power--that can be manipulated to create the proper match with the behavioral orientation
of the leader.
·  This contingency leadership model is an outgrowth of trait theory.
·  Fiedler, however, attempted to isolate situations, relating his personality measure to his
situational classification, and then predicting leadership effectiveness.
·  Fiedler believed that an individual's basic leadership style is a key factor.
·  The LPC questionnaire contains 16 contrasting adjectives, asks the respondent to think of
all the co-workers he or she has ever had, and rates that person on a scale of 1 to 8 for each
set of contrasting adjectives.
·  What you say about others tells more about you than it tells about the other person.
·  If the least-preferred co-worker was described in positive terms (a high LPC score), then the
respondent was primarily interested in good personal relations with co-workers.
·  If the least-preferred co-worker is seen in relatively unfavorable terms, the respondent is
primarily interested in productivity and thus would be labeled task oriented.
·  Fiedler argued that leadership style is innate to a person--you can't change your style.
·  It is necessary to match the leader with the situation based on three criteria.
·
Leader-member relations--The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates
have in their leader.
·
Task structure--The degree to which the job assignments of subordinates are structured
or unstructured.
·
Position power--The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring,
firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
·
The next step is to evaluate the situation in terms of these three contingency variables.
·
The better the leader-member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger
the position power, the more control or influence the leader has.
·
Fiedler concluded that task-oriented leaders perform best in situations that are very
favorable or very unfavorable to them.
·
A moderately favorable situation, however, is best handled through relationship-oriented
leadership.
Situational Leadership Theory:
·
Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard developed the leadership model.
·  Which is Called situational leadership; it shows how a leader should adjust leadership style
to reflect what followers need.
·
A contingency theory that focuses on the followers.
·  Successful leadership is contingent on the follower's level of readiness.
·
Why focus on the followers? And what do they mean by the term readiness?
o  This emphasis reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader.
o  Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of his or her
followers.
·
The term "readiness" refers to the extent that people have the ability and the willingness to
accomplish a specific task.
·
Hersey and Blanchard identify four specific behaviors.
Follower: unable and unwilling
­
Leader: needs to give clear and specific directions (Selling).
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Follower: unable but willing
­
Leader: needs to display high task orientation and high relationship orientation.
(Telling)
Follower: able but unwilling
­
Leader: needs to use a supportive and participative style. (participating)
Follower: both able and willing
­
Leader: a lenient approach will work (Delegating)
The most effective behavior depends on a follower's ability and motivations.
·
If a follower is unable and unwilling, the leader needs to display high task orientation.
·
At the other end of the readiness spectrum, if followers are able and willing, the leader
doesn't need to do much.
·
Situational leadership has an intuitive appeal--it acknowledges the importance of followers and
builds on the idea that leaders can compensate for the lack of ability and motivation of their
followers.
·
Research efforts to test and support the theory have generally been mixed.
Path-Goal Theory:
1. One of the most respected approaches to leadership is path-goal theory.
2. Developed by Robert House, a contingency model of leadership that extracts key elements
from the Ohio State leadership research and the expectancy theory of motivation.
3.
The essence of the theory: the leader's job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and
to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or
organization.
4.
A leader's behavior is acceptable to employees to the degree that they view it as an
immediate source of satisfaction or as a means of future satisfaction.
5.
A leader's behavior is motivational to the degree that it
a) Makes employee need-satisfaction contingent on effective performance.
b) Provides the coaching, guidance, support, and reward necessary for effective
performance.
6.
House identified four leadership behaviors;
a) The directive leader tells employees what is expected of them, schedules work, and
gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. It parallels initiating structure.
b) The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of employees. It is
essentially synonymous with the dimension of consideration.
c) The participative leader consults with employees and uses their suggestions before
making a decision.
d) The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects employees to
perform at their highest levels.
7.
In contrast to Fiedler, House assumes that leaders are flexible.
a) Path-goal theory implies that the same leader can display any or all leadership styles,
depending on the situation.
8.
path-goal theory proposes two classes of contingency variables:;
a) Those in the environment that are outside the control of the employee (task structure,
the formal authority system, and the work group).
1) Environmental factors determine leader behavior required if employee outcomes
are to be maximized.
b) Those that are part of the personal characteristics of the employee (locus of control,
experience, and perceived ability).
1) Personal characteristics determine how the environment and leader behavior are
interpreted.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
c) The theory proposes that leader behavior will be ineffective when it is redundant to
sources of environmental structure or incongruent with subordinate characteristics.
9. Research to validate path-goal predictions is encouraging, although not all is found
positive.
The majority of the evidence supports the logic underlying the theory.
Path-Goal Leadership Model
Employee
Contingencies
Leader
Leader
Behaviors
Effectiveness
· Motivated
·
Directive
employees
·
Supportive
· Satisfied
·
Participative
employees
·
Achievement-
· Leader
oriented
acceptance
Environmental
Contingencies
A Brief History of Leadership Theory:
I.
A Trait Approach (1900-1950s): Leaders are born, not made.
·
The focus of early leadership research was to find personal traits that distinguished leaders
from followers.
·
The search was not successful--100s of studies lead to the conclusion that there was no such set
of personal characteristics that by themselves distinguished leaders from non-leaders. A few
traits such as above average intelligence, responsibility, self confidence, and persistence were
associated with leaders, but they are not sufficient explanations.
·
Later studies of leadership characteristics led to the conclusion that there were a few general
traits that were associated with effective leadership such as self-confidence, stress tolerance,
emotional maturity, and integrity--but again no trait or set of traits by itself guaranteed leader
effectiveness.
·
Both the situation and skill also have a lot to do with leadership effectiveness.
II.
A Situational Approach: Leaders are made, not born.
·
For a short time in the 1950s sociologists tried to demonstrate that the situation determined
leadership, but they too were unsuccessful.
·
Like the trait approach, the situational approach was doomed to failure because it was too
narrow in its view.
·
Most contemporary leadership theories now subscribe to the position that traits, behaviors, and
situation interact to determine the effectiveness of a leader.
III.
A Contingency Approach
Contemporary approaches to leadership acknowledge the importance of matching the traits and
leadership behavior to situations to maximize effectiveness.
But the thorny questions are what traits or styles with what situations.
What are the basic situations?
What are the basic styles?
What are the matches that lead to effectiveness?
The Struggle to Explain Leadership
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature