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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lecture 32
CONFLICT IN TEAM
Conflict in Team: The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or
negatively affected by another party.
o  Perceived by the parties
o  Parties are in opposition to one another
o  At least one party is blocking the goal attainment of the other party
o  Goals can be tangible or psychological
o  Money
o  Task Achievement
o  Happiness
There are several common themes which underlie most definitions:
o  The parties to it must perceive conflict.
o  Commonalties in the definitions are opposition or incompatibility and some form of
interaction.
We define conflict as "a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively
affected, or is about to negatively affects, something that the first party cares about."
o  This describes that point when an interaction "crosses over" to become an inter-party
conflict.
o  It encompasses the wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations.
Sources of Conflict:
o  Goal Incompatibility
o  Different Values and Beliefs
o  Task Interdependence
o  Scarce Resources
o  Ambiguity
o  Communication Problems
o  Perceived personal threats
o  Perceived threat to the organization
o  Personal, social, cultural differences
o  Others...
The three major sources of interpersonal and inter group conflict are differentiation, task relationships,
and scarcity of resources.
Differentiation:
o  Differentiation in an organization occurs when people and tasks are grouped or split up into
functions and divisions to produce goods and services.
o  The splitting process produces conflict because it makes the differences in functional
orientations and status inconsistencies apparent.
o  Differences in Functional Orientations.
o  Different functions commonly develop different orientations toward the
Organization's major priorities.
o  Their views of what needs to be done to increase organizational
performance differ because their tasks, jobs, and goals differ.
o  Different views of priorities develop.
o  These differences can lead to conflict that can do considerable harm to the
organization's cohesiveness and functional integration performance is reduced.
Status Inconsistencies:
o
o  Over time, some functions or divisions come to see themselves as more vital
than others to an organization's operations and believe that they have higher
status or greater prestige in the organization.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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o  High-status functions make little attempt to adapt their behaviors to the needs
of other functions, thereby causing conflict.
Task Relationships:
o  Task relationships generate conflict between people and groups because organizational
tasks are interrelated and affect one another.
o  Overlapping Authority. If two different functions or divisions claim authority for the
same task, conflict may develop.
o  Task Interdependence.
o  The development of goods and services depends on the flow of work from
one function to another; each function builds on the contributions of other
functions.
o  If one function does not do its job well, the ability of the function next in
line to perform is compromised, and the outcome is likely to be conflict.
o  As task interdependence increases from pooled, to sequential, to reciprocal
interdependence, the potential for conflict among functions or divisions is
greater.
Incompatible Evaluation Systems.
o
o  Inequitable performance evaluation systems that reward some functions
but not others sometimes create conflict.
o  Complex task relationships increase this form of conflict.
Scarcity of Resources:
Competition for scarce resources produces conflict.
o
Budget fights can be fierce when resources are scarce.
o
Communication:
o  Communication as a source of conflict represents those opposing forces that arise
from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and "noise" in the communication
channels.
o  Differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and
noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential
antecedents to conflict.
o  Semantic difficulties are a result of differences in training, selective perception,
and inadequate information.
o  The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much
communication takes place.
o  The channel chosen for communicating can have an influence on stimulating
opposition.
Different Values and Beliefs:
o  Include individual value systems and personality characteristics.
Certain
personality types lead to potential conflict.
o  Most important is differing value systems. Value differences are the best
explanation for differences of opinion on various matters.
Types of Conflict:
o  Emotional ­ is personal, defensive, and resentful. Also known a A-type or affective.
o  Cognitive - is largely depersonalized, it consists of argumentation about the merits of
ideas, plans, and projects. Known as C-type. Often an effective stimulate to creativity.
We can have a different type of conflict classification with reference to organizational setup.
Task conflict: Conflict over content and goals of the work. Low to moderate levels can be
o
acceptable
Relationship conflict: Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Almost always
o
dysfunctional
Process conflict: Conflict over how work gets done. Low levels can be acceptable
o
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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We can also have relationship conflict (A-type conflict) and task conflict (C-type conflict). We need to
put efforts for transforming relationship into task conflict. This can be done through.
o  Agree on common goal or shared vision
o  Create a place for conflict and get it out in the open
o  Training in task conflict
We can also have conflicts known as;
Intrapersonal:
o  A person having tension or stress within...
o  Often due to over competing roles
Interpersonal:
o  Between 2 or more people,
o  Disagreement, values or styles don't match
o  Miscommunication occurs
Intra-group:
o  Arises within one group
Inter-group:
o  Arises between groups over issues/goals/solutions
The Conflict Process:
Four Stages
o  Potential opposition
o  Cognition and personalization
o  Behavior
o  Outcomes
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
Communication
o
o  Communication as a source of conflict represents those opposing forces that arise
from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and "noise" in the communication
channels.
o  Differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and
noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential
antecedents to conflict.
o  Semantic difficulties are a result of differences in training, selective perception,
and inadequate information.
o  The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much
communication takes place.
o  The channel chosen for communicating can have an influence on stimulating
opposition.
Structure
o
o  The term structure includes variables such as size, degree of specialization,
jurisdictional clarity, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward
systems, and the degree of dependence.
o  Size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. The larger the group and
more specialized its activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict.
o  The potential for conflict is greatest where group members are younger and
turnover is high.
o  The greater the ambiguity in responsibility for actions lies, the greater the potential
for conflict.
o  The diversity of goals among groups is a major source of conflict.
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o  A close style of leadership increases conflict potential.
o  Too much reliance on participation may also stimulate conflict.
o  Reward systems, too, are found to create conflict when one member's gain is at
another's expense.
o  Finally, if a group is dependent on another group, opposing forces are stimulated.
o  Personal Variables
o  Include individual value systems and personality characteristics.
Certain
personality types lead to potential conflict.
o  Most important is differing value systems. Value differences are the best
explanation for differences of opinion on various matters.
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization
o  Antecedent conditions lead to conflict only when the parties are affected by and
aware of it.
o  Conflict is personalized when it is felt and when individuals become emotionally
involved.
o  This stage is where conflict issues tend to be defined and this definition delineates
the possible settlements.
o  Second, emotions play a major role in shaping perceptions.
o  Negative emotions produce oversimplification of issues, reductions in
trust, and negative interpretations of the other party's behavior.
o  Positive feelings increase the tendency to see potential relationships
among the elements of a problem, to take a broader view of the situation,
and to develop more innovative solutions.
Stage III: Behavior
o  Stage IV is where conflicts become visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions,
and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempts to
implement each party's intentions.
o  Stage IV is a dynamic process of interaction; conflicts exist somewhere along a continuum
o  At the lower part of the continuum, conflicts are characterized by subtle, indirect, and highly
controlled forms of tension.
o  Conflict intensities escalate as they move upward along the continuum until they become highly
destructive.
o  Functional conflicts are typically confined to the lower range of the continuum.
Stage IV: Outcomes
Introduction
Outcomes may be functional--improving group performance, or dysfunctional in
o
hindering it.
Functional Outcomes
o  How might conflict act as a force to increase group performance?
o  Conflict is constructive when it:
o  Improves the quality of decisions.
o  Stimulates creativity and innovation.
o  Encourages interest and curiosity.
o  Provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions
released.
o  Fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change.
o  The evidence suggests that conflict can improve the quality of decision making.
o  Conflict is an antidote for groupthink.
o  Conflict challenges the status quo, furthers the creation of new ideas,
promotes reassessment of group goals and activities, and increases the
probability that the group will respond to change.
o  Research studies in diverse settings confirm the functionality of conflict.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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The comparison of six major decisions made during the
administration of four different U.S. presidents found that conflict
reduced the chance of groupthink.
When groups analyzed decisions that had been made by the
individual members of that group, the average improvement
among the high-conflict groups was 73 percent greater than was
that of those groups characterized by low-conflict conditions.
o  Increasing cultural diversity of the workforce should provide benefits to
organizations.
Heterogeneity among group and organization members can
increase creativity, improve the quality of decisions, and facilitate
change by enhancing member flexibility.
The ethnically diverse groups produced more effective and more
feasible ideas and higher quality, unique ideas than those produced
by the all-Anglo group.
o  Similarly, studies of professional systems analysts and research and development
scientists support the constructive value of conflict.
o  An investigation of 22 teams of systems analysts found that the more incompatible
groups were likely to be more productive.
o  Research and development scientists have been found to be most productive where
there is a certain amount of intellectual conflict.
Dysfunctional Outcomes
o  Uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and
eventually leads to the destruction of the group.
o  Undesirable consequences:
A retarding of communication
Reductions in group cohesiveness
Subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between
members
o  Conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group's
survival.
o  The demise of an organization as a result of too much conflict is not as unusual as
it might first appear.
Creating Functional Conflict
o  If managers accept the interactionist view toward conflict, they encourage
functional conflict.
o  Creating functional conflict is a tough job, particularly in large American
corporations.
o  A high proportion of people who get to the top are conflict avoiders.
o  At least seven out of ten people in American business hush up when their opinions
are at odds with those of their superiors, allowing bosses to make mistakes even
when they know better.
o  Such anti-conflict cultures are not tolerable in today's fiercely competitive global
economy.
o  This process frequently results in decisions and alternatives that previously had not
been considered.
o  One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional
conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders.
o  The real challenge for managers is when they hear news that they do not want to
hear.
People Factors That Affect the Development of the Conflict:
o  Needs and wants
o  Self-concept
o  Past experience
o  Health
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Other Factors That Affect the Development of the Conflict:
o  Management culture
o  Stage of development of the organization
o  Organizational structures
o  State of business
o  Weather
Consequences of Conflict
Positive Consequences
Negative Consequences
Leads to new ideas
Diverts energy from work
Stimulates creativity
Threatens psychological well-being
Motivates change
Wastes resources
Promotes organizational vitality
Creates a negative climate
Helps individuals & groups establish identities
Breaks down group cohesion
Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems
Can increase hostility & aggressive
behaviors
Is Conflict Bad? There are Different Views:
Traditional View
o  Conflict is bad
o  Same as violence, destruction, irrationality
Human Relations View
o  People work together, conflict is inevitable.
o  It's going to happen, so cope with it!
Interactionist View
o  Functional conflict is good for business and even encouraged
o  Functional vs. dysfunctional conflict
o  Functional conflict ­ that supports and improves the performance of a group.
o  Dysfunctional conflict ­ destructive forms of conflict that disrupt a group's performance.
Is Conflict Good or Bad?
Functions of Conflict
o
o  Synergy
o  Promotion of change
o  Promotes goal achievement
o  Dysfunctions of Conflict
o  Wasted time & energy
o  Stress
o  Detracts from the goal of the group
Organizational Conflict Outcomes
Dysfunctional outcomes
o
o  Diverts energy and resources
o  Encourages organizational politics
o  Encourages stereotyping
o  Weakens knowledge management
Potential benefits
o
o  Improves decision making
o  Strengthens team dynamics
Conflict Resolution Techniques:
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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o  Competing
o  Avoiding
o  Compromising
o  Withholding or withdrawing
o  Confronting
o  Smoothing over/reassuring
o  Collaborating
o  Accommodating
o  Bargaining/negotiating
o  Forcing
o  Problem-solving
Three Styles of Resolving Conflict:
Win-Lose: strategies used are power, dominance, forcing.
Lose-Lose: common strategy used is compromise.
Win-Win: strategies used are integration, collaboration, and problem-solving.
Characteristics of High Performing Teams:
o  Common Purpose
o  Crystal Clear Roles
o  Accepted Leadership
o  Effective Processes
o  Solid Relationships
o  Effective Communication
Strategies to Enhance Cooperation and Minimize Competition
o  Build team identity
o  Build Trust and Share Information
o  Ask Questions
o  Appeal to Norms of Justice
 Equity
 Equality
 Need
o  Fairness-Based Arguments
 Simple
 Clear
 Justifiable
 Popular
 General
Steps to Resolve Conflict:
o  Identify the Problem--separate it from the people involved--use cause and effect analysis
o  Gather and Analyze Data--fact-based management
o  Clarify the Interests of Parties--as opposed to the positions of parties
o  Determine Objective Criteria to Evaluate Fairness of Outcomes--boundary conditions
o  Identify New and Creative Options--to resolve the conflict
o  Choose an Option--using team decision-making tools.
The 3-Cs and 3-Rs of Conflict Resolution are-
o  Commitment
o  Cooperation
o  Compromise
o  Respect
o  Rights
o  Responsibility
Learn Cooperation from the Animals:
We can observe from animal behavior the cooperation, dedication, teamwork and concept of leadership.
I have dedicated the last lecture of our course on this very important aspect. That is learning from
nature.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature