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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 34
COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Burnout
B. Describe Communication in Organization
LESSON OVERVIEW
This chapter also presents a model of how communication works. Moreover, it explores specific policies
that give employees access to important company information as well as those which provide feedback to
top managers.
A. Burnout
Burnout is a pattern of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion in response to chronic job stressors. It is
an incapacitating condition in which individuals lose a sense of the basic purpose and fulfillment of their
work
Burnout has been described as a state of fatigue or frustration that stems from devotion to a cause, way of
life, or relationship that did not provide the expected reward. It is often found in a midlife or mid-career
crisis, but it can happen at different times to different people. Individuals in the helping professions such as
teachers and counselors seem to be susceptible to burnout, whereas others may be vulnerable because of
their upbringing, expectations, or their personalities. Burnout is frequently associated with people whose
jobs require close relationships with others under stressful and tension-filled conditions. The dangerous part
of burnout is that it is contagious. A highly cynical and pessimistic burnout victim can quickly transform an
entire group into burnouts. It is important to deal with it quickly; once it has begun, it is difficult to stop.
I. Symptoms of Burn-Out
Following symptoms indicate that a person is suffering through burnout
 A feeling of lack-of-control over commitments
 A belief (incorrect) that you are accomplishing less
 A growing tendency to think negatively
 Loss of a sense of purpose and energy
Family
Organizational
 Increased detachment from relationships
Spouse, Children
Supervisor
Parents, In-laws
Colleagues
II. Avoiding Burn-Out
Subordinates
Burnout can be avoided by taking the following steps
Clients
 Re-evaluate goals
Religion
Individual
 Reduce unnecessary commitments
Alams, Teachers
Friends
 Learn stress management skills
Support groups
 Find out where the stress is coming  Professional
from (family, job, etc.)
Physicians
 Follow a healthy lifestyle
Clubs
Psychologists
Counselors
 Get adequate rest
Business associations
Lawyers
Social clubs
 Eat a balanced diet
Athletic groups
 Get regular exercise
 Limit caffeine and alcohol
 Develop other interests (hobbies)
 Acknowledge your humanity--you have a right to pleasure and relaxation
Social Support at Work & Home:
Social support at home by friends family members and at workplace by supervisor, colleagues subordinates
etc can be used to avoid the burnout in the organizations.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
B. Communication in organization
The transmission of information and understanding through the use of common symbols is termed as
communication. Communication is the exchange of information between people; it occurs when one
person understands the meaning of a message sent by another person, and responds to it. Two forms of
information are sent and received in communications: facts and feelings. Facts are pieces of information
that can be objectively measured or described. Examples are the cost of a computer, the daily defect rate in
a manufacturing plant, and the size of the deductible payment of the company-sponsored health insurance
policy. Feelings are employees' emotional responses to the decisions made or actions taken by managers or
other employees. Organizations need to design communication channels that allow employees to
communicate facts and feelings about specific aspects of their jobs.
I. The Communication Process
Communication, a continuous process, is the exchange of information and meaning between people. It
occurs when one person understands and responds to the meaning of a message sent by someone else. The
communication process includes five
main components: the information
source, the signal, the transmission, the
The Communication Process
destination or receiver, and the noise.
within an Organization
Communication starts with a sender
who has a message to send to the
receiver. The sender must encode the
Noi se
Communication
message and select a communication
Channel
channel that will deliver it to the
receiver. In communicating facts, the
Sender
Receiver
message may be encoded with words,
(Encode s Me ssage)
(Decode s Me ssage)
numbers,  or  digital  symbols;  in
communicating feelings, it may be
encoded as body language or tone of
Feedback
voice.
Noi se
Communications  that  provide  for
feedback
are
called
two-way
communications because they allow the
sender and receiver to interact with each other. Communications that provide no opportunity for feedback
are one-way. Noise means barriers to effective Communication. Potential barriers include: ambiguous,
muddled messages; semantics; physical barriers; loss of transmission; failing to communicate; competition
barriers; cultural, linguistic, and diversity barriers; and not listening.
II. Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the non-spoken aspects of communication, such as a person's manner of
speaking, facial expressions, or body posture, that express meaning to others. The nonverbal aspects of
communication can especially complicate the task of communicating internationally. Nonverbal
communication is communication that is sent without the use of the written or spoken word. This type of
communication is quite powerful because people can communicate without speaking through the use of
facial expression, body posture, tone of voice, use of space, and touching. Occulesics are facial expressions
and eye contact that people use to communicate. Kinesics is the study of bodies through posture, gesture,
head movements, and similar actions. Use of and reaction to facial expressions and body movement vary
from culture to culture.
III. Barriers to Effective Communication and ways to remove these barriers
The complex factors in the communication pose barriers to effective communication. Individual barriers
include perceptual biases, which function as noise by affecting how the receiver gathers, organizes, and
interprets information. Organizational barriers to effective communication include organizational culture
and structure, status differences, and time.
Active listening is a good way to minimize both individual and organizational barriers to effective
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communication. In active listening, the receiver assumes a conscious and dynamic role in the
communication process through a variety of behaviors and actions. Both the sender and the message are
targets for the active listener. Cultural differences can influence active listening.
Feedback is information about some behavior and its effect. Managers need to provide feedback to
employees about their job performance; they also give feedback to suppliers and customers about various
matters. Managers often have difficulty giving negative feedback--just as employees tend to stop actively
listening to negative feedback. Therefore, effective feedback should be fact-based, timely, and focused on
behaviors. Feedback is another part of communication that is affected by cultural differences. Supportive
communication is honest, accurate interpersonal communication that focuses on building and enhancing
relationships. There are number of attributes of supportive communication, which aims to create an
environment in which people can openly exchange information about issues.
A number of interpersonal and intrapersonal barriers effect the decoding of a message.
Filtering refers to manipulating information so that it will be received more favorably.
Filtering is most likely to occur where there is emphasis on status differences and among
employees with strong career mobility aspirations.
Expect more filtering taking place in large corporations than in small business firms.
With selective perception, receivers see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background,
and other personal characteristics.
Information overload happens when individuals have more information than they can sort out and use; they
tend to select out, ignore, pass over, or forget information, etc.
Emotions. When people feel that they're being threatened, they tend to react in ways that reduce their ability
to achieve mutual understanding.
Language. The meanings of words are not in the words; they are in us.
Employees come from diverse backgrounds and have different patterns of speech.
Grouping of employees into departments creates specialists who develop their own jargon
or technical language.
While we speak a common language--English-our usage of that language is far from uniform.
The problem is that members in an organization usually don't know how others with
whom they interact have modified the language.
An estimated 5 to 20 percent of the population suffer from debilitating communication apprehension or
anxiety.
People who suffer from it experience undue tension and anxiety in oral communication,
written communication, or both.
Studies demonstrate that oral-communication apprehensives avoid situations that require them to engage in
oral communication.
Of greater concern is the evidence that high-oral-communication apprehensives distort the communication
demands of their jobs in order to minimize the need for communication.
IV. Improving Communication in Organizations
Working with supervisors and managers, employee relations representatives can facilitate effective
communications by developing and maintaining three types of programs: information dissemination,
employee feedback, and employee assistance.
a. Information Dissemination Programs
Information dissemination involves making information available to decision makers, wherever they are
located.  The employee handbook is probably the most important source of information the HR
department can provide and sets the tone for the company's overall employee relations philosophy. There
are many other forms of written communication besides the employee handbook that can be used to alert
employees to important information. These include memos and newsletters.
1.
The employee handbook
2.
Written communications: memos, financial statements, newsletters, and bulletin boards
3.
Audiovisual communications
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b. Electronic Communications
New technologies have made it possible to disseminate information that goes beyond the printed word.
Visual images and audio information are powerful communication tools. A recent technological advance,
teleconferencing, allows people with busy schedules to participate in meetings even when they are a great
distance away from the conference location (or each other). Advances in electronic communications (voice
mail and e-mail) have made interactive communications between sender and receiver possible even when
they are separated by physical distance and busy schedules.
c. Meetings
Formal meetings are opportunities for face-to-face communication between two or more employees and are
guided by a specific agenda. Formal meetings facilitate dialogue and promote the nurturing of personal
relationships, particularly among employees who may not interact frequently because they are separated by
organizational or geographic barriers.
Retreats
Informal communications
d. Employee Feedback Programs
To provide upward communications channels between employees and management, many organizations
offer employee feedback programs. These programs are designed to improve management-employee
relations by giving employees a voice in decision making and policy formulation and by making sure that
they receive due process on any complaints they lodge against managers. The most common employee
feedback programs are employee attitude surveys, appeals procedures, and employee assistance programs.
Employee attitude surveys
Appeals procedures
e. Employee Assistance Programs
EAPs help employees cope with personal problems that are interfering with their job performance. These
problems may include alcohol or drug abuse, domestic violence, elder care, AIDS and other diseases, eating
disorders, and compulsive gambling. Confidentiality is an important component of these programs.
V. The Formal and Informal Communication
a. Formal communication networks - Networks that are designated by the organizational
structure, charts, or other official documents.
b. Informal Communications
Informal communication flows outside of the firm's chain of command.
How Excellent Companies Foster Informal Communications
The following techniques have been found to encourage informal communication:  1) emphasizing
informality; 2) maintaining an extraordinary level of communication intensity; and 3) giving communication
the physical support. Management by Wandering around: The communication skill here is not in the
wandering around the office, but in the interpersonal communication skills you can bring to bear when
you're speaking with the employees. These skills include paying attention, making yourself clear, listening
actively, and listening sympathetically.
VI. Levels of Communication
a. Upward Communication
Upward communication from subordinates to superiors provides management with valuable insight into
how the organization is functioning, and provides superiors with feedback about whether subordinates
understand orders and instructions. It gives employees an opportunity to vent their feelings. Upward
communication can be encouraged by social gatherings, union publications, regular meetings, performance
appraisal meetings, grievances, attitude surveys, a suggestion system, and open door policy, indirect
measures, and email. Formal, comprehensive programs and upward appraisals also encourage upward
communication.
When communicating with a supervisor, avoid phrases that may inadvertently signal a lack of responsibility
on your part. Avoid counterproductive body language and nonverbal mannerisms.
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b. Downward Communication
Downward communication is transmitted from superior to subordinate on subjects like corporate vision
and mission, what the job consists of, performance evaluations, job instruction, and organizational policies
and practices. This format can help build commitment by keeping employees informed about what the
organization plans to do. Some firms install open-book management programs that manage without
concealment, and motivate all employees to focus on helping the business grow profitable and increasing
the return on it human capital. Open-book management fosters trust and commitment among employees
by treating them more like partners.
When communicating with subordinates, remember that fairness and the appearance of fairness are key.
Make sure your body language comes across as open and receptive.
c. Horizontal Communication
Horizontal or lateral communications are messages between departments or people in the same department.
Managers use individuals or committees to bridge departments and improve the flow of communication
between them by using liaison personnel, committees and task forces, and independent integrators.
VII. Communications and HRM
HRM depends upon the effective communications systems in the organization for its success because all its
functions like staffing , compensating , performance appraisal, training and development , etc require
communication system for their executions basic purposes that are served through communication systems
are keeping employees informed using it a s a tool to bring about positive change and to Influence culture.
Bulletin board, newsletter and gossip are different sources that are used to disseminate information in the
organizations.
Employees are provided with the Employee Handbook which serves many purposes like (1) it helps
employees learn about company at their own pace. (2) Provides references regarding policies, rules, and
benefits. (3) Ensures HRM policies will be consistently applied. (4) Creates sense of security and
commitment for employees. (5) Provides information to recruits. (6) May be interpreted as implied contract.
(7)Should be updated continually but the important thing is that these purposes can be achieved only if the
employee handbook is Well Organized, Clearly Written and legally limited. Employee handbook mainly
includes the information both about the employee and employer for employee it provides information
regarding the job description and for employer it provides information about the rules regulations of the
organization and different compensation benefits etc related information to the employees.
VIII. Communication Methods
Inside the organization Employee handbook, Bulletin board, Company newsletter, Company-wide
meetings, Digital Media etc are used as source or method to communicate while for the offsite employees
facsimile machine, E-mails, and Internet Phone are used as tools for communication of information,
Key Terms
Burnout: An incapacitating condition in which individuals lose a sense of the basic purpose and fulfillment
of their work
Communication Exchange of information between people; it occurs when one person understands the
meaning of a message sent by another person, and responds to it.
Noise: All factors that interfere with and distort communication.
Encoding: Process by which sender puts a message in a certain format to send to the receiver.
Feedback:: Information about some behavior and its effect.
Decoding: Process by which the receiver translates the sender's message into an understandable form.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System