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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture students will be able to:
-  Understand the process of communication;
Understand what is effective communication and
Understand barriers to communication in organization.
The Communication Process
In our every day life we are communicating or sharing information and ideas. Sometimes we
understand what the other person is saying sometimes we misunderstand. And misunderstanding can lead
to differences, conflict or grievances etc. How communication affects our life and working in organizations
is explained through example:
Example: Most of us are familiar with the game of "telephone," in which one person whispers a
message into the ear of another, who whispers the message to the next person, and so on. Inevitably, when
the last person says the message out loud, it is quite different from what was first whispered in the ear of
first person.
This example of "Telephone" illustrates numerous complexities in the communication process. We
will highlight three such complexities in the communications model which will be presented to you. In
figure 1 we have tried to show that (1) communication takes place in relationship between a sender and a
receiver, (2) communication can flow in one direction and end there and (3) message can elicit a response
which is formally known as feedback-from the receiver. What do we interpret from the figure? The figure is
explaining to us that in a simple flow (transmission) of information from one person to another person, it is
the feedback which tells us if message is correctly received or not .
A Model of Communication
Figure 1
We must remember we are being flooded with communication everyday, when we watch
advertisements on T.V., boards etc. All advertisement is sending out messages of different kinds and we are
being bombarded with information.
We will now see each component of the figure separately:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
The sender
The sender (source of the message) initiates the communication with some purpose. In an
organization, the sender will be a person with purpose for communicating message or instruction to one or
more people in organization.
The Receiver
The receiver is a person whose senses perceive the sender's message. The message can be in words
, symbol, gesture etc. There may be a large number of receivers, or there may be just one. The message must
be crafted or designed with receiver's background in mind.
Encoding takes place when the sender translates the information to be transmitted into a series of
words, symbols etc. Encoding is necessary because information can only be transferred from one person to
another through representations of words or symbols etc.
Decoding is the process by which the receiver interprets the message and translates it into
meaningful information. It is a two-step process. The receiver must first perceive the message and then
interpret it. Decoding is affected by the receiver's past experience, knowledge, position in organization etc.
Noise is any factor that disturbs, confuses, or otherwise interferes with communication. Noise can
arise along what is called the communications channel, or method of transmission (such as air for spoken
words or paper for letters) or external or internal (as when a receiver is not paying attention). Noise can
also be referred to as "barriers" to effective communication.
Feedback determines whether the message received by the receiver was understood in the manner
in which the sender wanted to convey the message. And that there is no misunderstanding and
misinterpretation of message.
Types of Communication
Communication can be following two types:
1. Formal (written): letters, memos, reports, any document in organization
2.  Informal: unwritten, word of mouth, gossip, exchange of information in the informal groups
Other Types
Other types of communication are:
1. Verbal: Instructions, discussions etc.
2. Non-verbal: gestures, dress, body language, a frown, smile, twitch nose etc.
Interpersonal Communication
We have to understand the difference between communication in general and interpersonal
communication. Interpersonal communication is the communication that takes place between and amongst
individuals. The process of communication in interpersonal communication is same i.e. sender,
transmission, receiver, feedback etc. The message must be understood clearly and without any
How to Improve Communication
Communication, whether interpersonal or general can be improved significantly, if barriers to
communication are understood well. How well, those communicating deal with four aspects of the
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
These following measures are also referred to as "barriers" to communication:
Differences in perception;
Emotional state;
Inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal communications, and
Trust (or distrust) between communicating parties.
Differences in Perceptions
This is one of the most common communication barriers. People who have different backgrounds
of knowledge and experience often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspectives. Suppose
that a new supervisor compliments a worker for his or her efficiency and high-quality of work. Some may
see this praise due to workers' "nice behaviour" to the supervisor. Language differences also are often
closely related to differences in individual perceptions.
Emotions all State
Emotional reactions like, anger, love, defensiveness, hate, jealousy, fear, embarrassment etc.
influence how we understand others' with our own messages. When we are in intense emotional state the
message can be mis-interpretation can misunderstood. If employees are behaving aggressively or sullenly,
managers should get them to talk about their concerns and pay careful attention to what they say.
Inconsistencies between Verbal and Non-verbal Communication
The messages we send and receive are strongly influenced by such nonverbal factors as body
movements, clothing, the distance we stand from the person we're talking to, our posture, gestures, facial
expressions, eye movements. Suppose while a manager is using word of praise but has frown on the face, a
confused message will be conveyed.
Trust (or Distrust)
A receiver's trust or distrust of a message is, to a large extent, a function of the credibility of the
sender in the mind of the receiver. A sender's credibility is affected by circumstances in the context in which
he or she sends the message. In here the history of a work relationship comes to bear on communication, in
terms of promises kept and broken. For example: a manager asks workers to complete certain task and
output in a given time frame and promises to pay bonus. But when the workers finish the task and output in
a given timeframe and are not paid bonus, distrust develops.
The Importance of Effective Communication
Effective communication provides a common link for the management processes of
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling and
Manager's time is spent largely in communication with employees, supervisors, suppliers,
or customers. There effective communication skills of managers are very essential to get
the work accomplished.
A person who sends message.
An idea, message etc. to be conveyed to the receiver is translated in
words, symbol, picture etc.
Deciphering or interpreting the message that is received in the form of
words, symbols or picture etc.
In communication "noise" is anything that leads to misinterpretation of
the original message.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management