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Human Relations

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 12
Communication is a critical tool for holding people together in families and in organizations. Most job and
family disputes are the result of communication problems.
Process of communication
There are three technical steps for any communication to occur:
(1) Encoding (putting ideas into symbols)
The source initiates a message by encoding the idea (or a thought) in words or symbols send to the
(2) Communication media
The channel in the communication process is the medium that the sender uses to transmit the message
to the receiver. Although the message could be in either an oral or written form, the oral medium most
likely will be more effective because of the immediacy, if required.
(3) Decoding (understanding the message)
It is the act of understanding message (words or symbols).When the sound waves are translated into
ideas; we are taking them out of the ode they are in, hence decoding. Thus reader or listeners are often
regarded as decoders.
If decoding is successful, it leads to action.
Noise, or unwanted interference, can occur at any step in the communication process.
Difference between noise and voice
Nonverbal communication is used primarily to convey the feeling behind a message.
A substantial amount of communication on and off the job is nonverbal.
Factors of communication
A. Environment or Setting
The setting of the message often communicates something about the sender, such as seriousness of
B. Distance from the Other Person
The physical distance the sender places between himself or herself and the receiver may communicate a
message, such as the degree of liking or warmth.
Receivers generally note the sender's posture even without realizing it Good posture sends out positive
messages. Offing is less Intimate and inviting than standing.
D.Hand Gestures
Hand gestures are universally recognized as conveying specific information to others. An example is
that open-palm gestures toward the other person typically convey positive attitudes.
E.Facial Expression and Eye Contact
The most reliable nonverbal signals are emitted by the head, face, and eyes, as is well known;
maintaining eye contact with another person improves communication with him or her. A person's
current state of happiness is often reflected in his or her face.
F.Voice Quality
How things are said exerts a heavy influence on how the message is received, As a consequence, voice
training is important A forceful voice, which includes a consistent tone without vocalized pauses,
connotes power and control. Gesturing can be used to improve a monotonous voice quality because it
leads to a more forceful exhale.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
G. Personal Appearance
Among the many reasons that personal appearance is important is that people pay more respect and
grant more privileges to people they perceive as being well dressed and attractive. The meaning of being
well dressed depends heavily on the situation. Being perceived favorable, and as physically attractive.
H. Lying as Revealed by Nonverbal Communication
A person's nonverbal behavior is often used to gauge whether he or she is telling the truth. Highly
practiced liars are less revealing. Key facial clues of lying included a crocked smile, failure to look you in
the e forced eye contact, and frequent nose rubbing.
Interpersonal communication and IT
Advances in information technology had both positive and negative impacts on interpersonal
communicative- E-mail and tele-comrnunication are two key domains for changes in communication
created by information technology.
A. E-Mail and Communication among People
ˇ  E-mail has replaced many telephone and In-person exchanges. E-mail is likely to expand and
include photographs, audio, video, and chunks of voice mail.
ˇ  Instant Messaging (I. M.) is a fast-growing variety of e-mail. Instead of picking up messages at times
you choose, you are exposed to them whenever at the computer.
ˇ  E-mail encourages indiscriminate sanding of messages, including spamming, or flooding someone
with unwanted messages.
ˇ  Other problems include using e-mail fur political purposes, managers avoiding contact with group
members, and using e-mail to reprimand others impersonally.
ˇ  A recent study with 2,500 workers suggests that e-mail is being used wisely and is under control.
B. Telecommuting
A telecommuting is an employee who works at home full-time, and send out put or part-lime, and
sends output electronically to a central office. Nearly eight percent of the workforce telecommutes.
Telecommuters miss out on the face-to-face interactions so vital for dealing with complex problems.
Limited face-time can also limit promote-ability. Another communications problem with
telecommuting is that it lacks a solid human connection.
Barriers to communication:
Communication rarely proceeds as effectively as we would like. Barriers are most likely to occur when a
message is complex, emotionally arousing, or clashes with the receiver's mental set. If you are aware of
barriers, you will be better able to overcome them.
A. Limited Understanding of People
Communication will often break down if you misread people and their needs. Limited understanding
can also take the form of making false assumptions about the receiver, thus creating a communication
ˇ  Different Interpretation of Words
If the receiver makes another interpretation of a key word than intended, the message may not get
B. Creditability of the Sender and Mixed Signals
The more the sender of the message, the greater the probability that the message will get through
clearly. A disconnect can also occur from mixed signals--sending different messages about the same
topic to different audiences. A mixed signal also refers to sending one message to a person about
desired behavior, yet behaving in another way yourself.
C. One-Way Communication
Effective communication proceeds back and forth. Face-to-face communication helps to clarify
meanings. Instant messaging helps overcome the one-way barrier because the receiver reacts
immediately to your message.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
D. Emotions and Attitudes
When people are emotionally aroused they are not likely to receive messages clearly, and they may say
things they would not say if they were calm. It is best to calm down when sending and receiving
ˇ Communication Overload
Being bombarded with information is a major communication barrier. Communication overload occurs
when people are so overloaded with information that they cannot respond effectively to messages. As a
result, they experience work stress.
ˇ Improper timing
Many messages do not get through to people because they are poorly timed. You have to know how to
deliver a message, but you must also know when to deliver it.
E. Poor Communication Skills
Poor communication skills in both sending and receiving messages are a substantial communication
roadblock. A common deficiency in sending messages is to communicate with low conviction by suing
wimpy words, backpedaling, and qualifying. For example, "I think I might be able to finish this project
by the end of the week. A strong regional accent can create communication problems.
Improving communication skills
With determination and awareness that communication barriers exist, people can become more effective
A. Appeal to Human Needs and Time Your Messages
Effective communicators target their audiences by appealing to their needs. If your deliver a message at
the right time, you are taking into account the person's mental conditions at the moment. Wait for the
person to be in the right frame of mind to listen.
B. Repeat Your Message, Using More Than One channel
Repeating the message several times, but not necessarily in the same way, improves the chances of it
being received accurately. A generally effective way of repeating a message is to use more than one
communication channel.
C. Have an Empowered Attitude and Be Persuasive
A person's communication effectiveness is directly proportional to his or her attitude. Empowerment is
involved here because the person takes charge of his or her own attitude.
ˇ  Discuss Differences in Perspectives
A paradigm is a model, framework, viewpoint, or perspective. When two people look at a situation with
different perspectives, a communication problem may occur. Discussing the perspectives helps because
it may lead to an understanding of why and how people view the problem differently.
D. Check for Comprehension and Feelings
Ask receivers there understanding or interpretation of what you said. Also use nonverbal indicators to
gauge how well your message has been delivered. Another consideration is to check for feelings in
addition to conveying the facts.
E. Minimize Defensive Communication
ˇ  Defensive communication is used to receive messages in such a way that our self-esteem is
protected. It is also used to send message to make one feel good.
ˇ  Denial, the suppression of information we find uncomfortable, is behind defensive
Human Relations­ MGMT611
F. Combat Info Overload
You can decrease the chances of suffering from communication overload by such measures as carefully
organized and sorting information before plunging ahead with reading. Being selective about your e-
mail and Internet reading is a good technique.
G. Establishing Rapport
To build rapport you need to empathize and think from the mind of the other person.
H. Engage in Small Talk and constructive Gossip
The effective use of small talk and gossip can help a person melt communication barriers. Small talk
helps build rapport. A new perspective on gossip is that being a source of positive gossip brings a
person power and credibility. Workmates are eager to communicate with a person who is a sower of
not-yet-verified developments.
J. Improve Your Telephone and Voice-Mail and Speakerphone Communication Skills
A direct way of overcoming communication barriers is to use effective telephone and voice-mail
communication skills because these two communication media often create communication problems.
Many businesses attract and hold onto customers because their representatives interact positively with
people through the telephone and voice mail.
K. Use Presentation Technology to Your Advantage
ˇ  The communication challenge with presentation technology is that during an oral presentation the
predominant means of connection-between sender and receiver is eye contact. One of the biggest
challenges is to learn how to handle equipment and maintain frequent eye and voice contact at all
times. One suggestion is to talk to the audience and not the screen.
ˇ  Improving one's receiving of messages is another part of developing better communication skills.
Unless you receive messages as intended, you cannot perform your job properly or be a good
companion. Listening is a major communication activity. Insufficient listening is extraordinarily
costly, leading to such problems as re-shipping orders and recalling defective products. A major
component of effective listening is to be an active listener. The active listener listens intensely, with
the goal of empathizing with the speaker.
ˇ  Empathy simply understands another person's point of view. By listening actively, the listener can
feed back to the speaker what he or she thinks the speaker meant.
ˇ  To be an active listener, it is also important to paraphrase, or repeat in your own words what the
sender says, feels, and means.
ˇ  To help become an active listener, keep papers and your computer screen out of sight when
listening to somebody else. Be sure to let others speak until they have finished.
Improving gender barriers to communication
Another strategy for overcoming communication barriers is to deal effectively with cultural differences.
Two areas of cultural differences are those related to gender and geography. Gender differences in
communication style have amused considerable interest, but they must be regarded as cultural stereotypes.
Individual differences in communication style are usually more important than group (men versus women).
The major gender differences in communication patterns are as follows:
Women prefer to use conversation for rapport building.
Men prefer to use talk primarily as a means to preserve independence and status by displaying
knowledge and skill.
Women want empathy, not solutions when discussing problems.
Men prefer to work out their problems by themselves, whereas women prefer to talk out solutions
with another person.
Men tend to be more directive and less apologetic in their conversation, whereas women are more
polite and apologetic.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Women tend to be more conciliatory when facing differences, whereas men become more
Men are more interested than women in calling attention to their accomplishments and hogging
Men and women interrupt others for different reasons. (Men want to introduce a new topic
whereas women want clarification.)
During casual conversation, women focus more on other people, whereas men emphasize sports
and leisure activities.
10.  Women are more likely to use a gentle expletive, whereas men tend to be harsher.
Understanding these differences will help you interpret the communication behavior of people.As noted in
the chapter, how you combine verbal and nonverbal communication becomes part of your personal
communication style, or your unique approach to sending and receiving information. Hundreds of styles are
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People