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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:
1. The concept of civil service
2. The structure of civil service in Pakistan at the time of independence.
What is Civil Service?
Civil service has he defined in the Civil Servant Act 1973. But this word also has general meaning as
well, which are that civil means "public" and public are the citizens of a country. By this connotation it
means that civil servants are a group of people who serve public and in that sense civil service is different
from military service.
Words like Public, Civil, and Government are used interchangeably. Officers and officials working
in government organization are all public servants because they draw their salaries from public exchequer.
Recruitment of Public Servants:
The recruitment of civil servants takes place by the following two methods:
1. Public Service Commissions (Federal & Provincial) are constitutionally Grade 15 and above
2. The autonomous organization recruit people directly (test & interview by the organization)
The structure of Federal and provincial Government is as under:-
Provincial Government
Federal Government
Attached Department
Autonomous Bodies
Autonomous Bodies
Example: Development Authorities
Public Enterprises
District/Tehsil Office
At the federal level the apex organization is `ministry', for example Ministry of Health and
Population. The ministry is headed by Minister each ministry may have two or more than two divisions.
Divisions are usually also located in Islamabad. Below Division is "attached department". The
administrative control of the department is with the Division which is controlling it. Autonomous bodies
are much independent because, these have their Board of Governors who makes policy decision for the
organization. In this way these are independent administratively.
What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
The government performs these functions:
Maintains Peace
Provides Defence
It collects Revenues and
It Maintains currency
How does it perform these functions? It performs these functions through its representatives i.e.
public servants or civil servant who are paid salary from the government treasury (exchequer). In addition to
these traditional functions modern governments perform many additional functions. These are:
- It provides Utilities (electricity, telephone, gas)
- It maintain Government Accounts
- It maintains Foreign Relations
- It maintains Cantonments
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
It regulates, distributes and allocates goods and services in the society.
The functions of today's government have increased because of following reasons:-
Population that is provided services has increased manifold and hence the nature of problems
social, economic, political and global problems have changed. In fact these have become complex.
The territory of the government has increased in size
Technological improvement and advancement
Because of technological improvement the nature specialization/division of labour has changed
and become more complex
Therefore, in order to perform new functions the governments changed the structure and added
more functions. At the time of independence Pakistan inherited the civil service structure which was laid
out by the East India Company and subsequently modified by the British government to its own
requirement. The structure of the services existing in Pre-partition sub-continent was adopted in Pakistan
with little modifications. The following two categories of the services were maintained.
1. All-Pakistan Services
2. Central Services
All Pakistan Services
Civil Service of Pakistan
Police Service of Pakistan (IPS)
(Descendent of ICS)
1. The All Pakistan Services: The all Pakistan Service was descendent of All-India Services. The All
Pakistan Service was created in Pakistan. It comprised Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) and the
Police Service of Pakistan (PSP). Officers of these services served under central as well as the
provincial governments. Officers when served under the Provincial Government were controlled
by Provincial Government concerned but the basic control remained with centre.
2. Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP): The CSP in Pakistan was the descendent of the Indian Civil
Service (ICS) in India. At the time of independence It consisted of: Former ICS officers, Officers
who served in World War 2, and Finance service officers and Officers selected by Competitive
Examination held in 1949 & 1950
3. Police Service of Pakistan (PSP): The PSP in Pakistan was the same as Indian Police Service
(IPS) in sub-continent. At the time of partition it consisted of those officers who opted for
Pakistan. The posts held by PSP officers included Inspectors-Generals, Superintendents, Deputy
Superintendents, Assistant Superintendents etc. Most of the PSP officers served under Provincial
4. Central Services: Like the Central Services before partition the Central Services in Pakistan were
controlled by Central government. Before the Administrative Reforms (1973), there were 13
Central Services which are discussed below:-
i. Pakistan Foreign Services (PFS): The PFS offices are officers working diplomatic
missions abroad. In the beginning, specialized duties were also performed by PFS officers.
But separate services were constituted which met the requirements for specialized jobs in
foreign missions.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
ii. Accounts Services: These services included the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service
(PAAS), Pakistan Military Accounts Service (PMAS) and Pakistan Railway Accounts Service
The officers belonging to the services held post pertaining to finance and accounts ministries. The
offices included ministries, attached departments, subordinate offices, corporations etc. As financial
advisors, accountant-general, auditors-general etc
iii. Pakistan Customs and Excise Services (PCES): These were formally formed in 1959. It
was the combination of Sea Customs Service and Central Land Customs and Excise Services.
The posts included Assistant Collector, Deputy Collector and the posts with corresponding
status in CBR.
iv. Pakistan Taxation Service: It consisted of junior officers promoted from provincial and
class II services on ad-hoc basis. In 1957, it was upgraded to class I status. It held posts of
commissioner of income tax, deputy commissioner of income tax, income tax officer etc.
v. Pakistan Military & Land Cantonment Service: Officers of this service were appointed as
cantonment Executive offices and were in-charge of maintenance and control of lands within
the cantonment areas as well as the local governments.
vi. Pakistan Postal Service: It was constituted by combining: Pakistan Postal Service and
Telegraph Traffic Service. Telegraph Engineering Service. In 1965, the Telegraph Service was
vii. Trade Service of Pakistan: It was created to meet the requirements in commercial fields in
Pakistan and in missions abroad. This cadre was formally constituted in 1970.
viii. Information Service of Pakistan (ISP): It was formed in 1963 for posts requiring
journalistic qualifications for appointments in Pakistan and in foreign missions.
ix. Economic Pool: In 1950, an economic pool was constituted. Its officers were drawn from
CSP and from accounts and finance services. However, it was not made a regularly
constituted service. The other services were:
x. Central Secretariat Services.
xi. General Administrative Service.
What we conclude is that the service structure of the colonial period was adopted. The political
situation of the country did not permit to review the structure. The structure that was inherited more biased
towards maintaining law and order, the structure was not geared towards the development of the new
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management