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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of lecture the students will be able to understand:
1. The need for reforms in civil service
2. Understand the structure of civil service and the need for training in civil service
Reforms of the Civil Service
Soon after the independence, the government decided to review the system of administration and
some foreign experts were invited to study and make recommendation in this connection. The famous
among those expert reports were the two Reports on administrative reforms. These were:
1. Egger Report 1953
2. Gladieux Report
In 1953 Rowland Egger of USA made following observations about the civil service of Pakistan:
1. It is oriented towards academic notion of intelligence and ability. It is obsessed with interests of
those already in service.
2. Recruitment standards are out-dated and recruitment techniques are far removed from currently
accepted good practices.
3. The selection system is self-perpetuating and tends to repeat its own type, as though civil service
drew most of its inspiration from looking in the mirror.
4. Members of civil service are supposed to be like a box of interchangeable part in assembly line.
Rowland Egger recommended the following to improve civil service working:
Unification of the entire group of employees into Civil Service of Pakistan with internal grouping
for administrative purpose e.g. Administration, Foreign Service, Accounts etc.
b. Standardized pay scales based on comprehensive job analysis
c.  The generalists should not dominate other services.
d. There is need to have specialization in the civil service.
In 1955 Mr. Bernard Gladieux also from USA was engaged by government as consultant on Public
Administration. He was strongly critical of the superiority of the generalists over the specialists. He said that
technical and professional civil servants also possessed administrative skills and should be encouraged to
hold higher positions.
In 1955 the First Five Year Plan of the Government of Pakistan also took note of dominance of
the generalists cadre of civil service over other cadres.
It was recommended in the plan that non-technical Central Superior Services should be converted
into branches of this combined civil services all having identical pay scales, prospects of promotion and
leave. These should be treated as if they were the branches of a single central service.
Pay and Service Commission (1962)
In 1962 the Pay and Service Commission also criticized the reservation of the senior posts for the
CSP especially at the centre. This report recommended that the entire public service should be build up in
seven tiers of groups. These are as following:
Group F
4 Grades
Unskilled workers
Group E
4 Grades
Semi-skilled workers
Group D
5 Grades
Skilled workers and rank and file staff
Group C
5 Grades
Lower inspectional and middle supervisory staff
Group B
4 Grades
Basic officer class
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Group A
4 Grades
Managerial class, District level upto
Divisional level
4 Grades
Top directly and higher
PAS (Pakistan
administrative post.
Administrative Service)
Working Group (1969)
A Working Group which comprised of CSP as well as non-CSP officers was appointed by the
Government to study the structure of the civil service. The Working Group gave the following
All branches of civil service should have same status, though they should retain their individuality
For ex-cadre positions, same criteria should be used as for the cadre services
There should be no difference of pay scales of the provincial and central civil servants.
Administrative Reforms Committee (1972)
This committee was appointed to study all aspects of the civil service and made the following
recommendations based on careful observations:
All services and cadres should be merged into a unified graded structure with equality of
opportunity for all who enter service at any stage based on the required professional and specialized
competence necessary for job.
All "classes" among government servants would be abolished and replaced by a unified graded
structure: a peon at the bottom and Secretary at the top.
The correct grading of each post will be determined by job evaluation.
There should be provision for entry into government service of talented individuals from private
sector in such fields as banking, insurance etc.
Implementation of the Reforms
In the light of directives the measures taken for implementation the reforms included:
The head of Ministry was Secretary who was in Grade 22, the Additional Secretary was in 21. There
were lower grades for junior executive.
There were about 600 grades or scale of pay of the government which were reduced to 22 grades.
These were applicable to all government organizations and professions.
Grade 1 was the lowest and Grade 23 was highest grade. Grade 23 was the post of Secretary
General and there were only 2-3 positions in government.
Technical posts were integrated into unified system.
In order to emphasis professionalism in field of administration the following "Occupational
Groups" were formed:
1. District Management Group
2. Police Group
3. Income Tax Group
4. Customs and Excise Group
5. Accounts Group
6. Information Group
7. Postal Group
8. Commerce Group
9. Foreign Affairs Group
10. Office Management Group
11. Military Land and Cantonment Group
12. Railways Group
13. Secretariat Group
14. Tribal Areas Group
15. Economists and Planners Group
In addition age limit for competitive examination held was raised from 28 to 30 years:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Promotion was made purely on the basis of merit and performance.
The concept of "lateral entry" was introduced.
Common training was given to all the officers in Academy for administrative training, at Lahore.
Rules and regulations were framed for the implementation of these reforms.
The Civil Service Today
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973 gives the:
"Executive Authority of federation which is exercised by the Government in the name of
President. The PM is the Chief Executive of the Federation and the Federal Cabinet exercises its authority
to him". According to the 4th schedule, there is Federal and concurrent list of areas/responsibility of
Federal Government. The concurrent list gives responsibilities of both the government (Federal &
Categories of the Civil Service
The services and posts under the government of Pakistan whether under Federal or Provincial can
be classified in the following 3 categories:
Generalist Services: recruitment is based on the basis of general education of candidate
Semi-Technical Specialized Services: recruitment is based on advanced academic attainment in
University without formal education or tracing in professional institution.
Purely Technical Services: recruitment on technical qualification like doctor, engineers.
Civil Service Recruitment in Pakistan
The criteria of recruitment to civil service are:
Based on pure merit.
All posts must be advertised before selection.
Assessment is based on selection boards, selection committees etc.
Due representation to every province is given.
Appointing Authority
The appointing authority for various grades is also follows:
Grade 20 and Above
Grade 17 to 19
Grade 3 to 16
Grade 1 and 2
Head Office
Main Recruiting Agencies
The main recruiting agencies are: prepared
Federal Public Service Commission at the federal level
Provincial Public Service Commission at the provincial level
Departmental Selection/Promotion Committees
Training of civil servants is divided into the following.
Pre-Service Training: This training is given before entry to service.
In-Service Training: This training is given during the service.
Pre-service Training: It is imparted to the candidates duly selected by the FPSC before they are
posted to their duties in the respective occupational groups.
In-Service Training: It is imparted to the currently serving civil Servants of the government.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
The Major Training Institutions are:-
National Institute of Public Administration
Pakistan Academy for Rural Development
Pakistan Administrative Staff College
improvement in the civil service structure according to the
changing social, political and economic needs.
Cadre post:
post or position that belongs to one of the occupational group.
Ex-cadre post:
post that does not belong to the occupational groups but is a
managerial post.
non-technical position. A person who is a generalist can be
posted any where, in government on positions that do not require
special technical expertise.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management