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Abnormal Psychology

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LESSON 12
THE STRUCTURE OF BRAIN
Neuro-anatomists divide the brain into threesubdivisions: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain.
Basicbodily functions areregulated by the structures of the hindbrain, which include the medulla, pons,
andcerebellum. The medullacontrols various bodily functionsinvolved in sustaining life,including heart
rate,blood pressure, and respiration. The ponsservesvarious functions in regulating stages of sleep. The
cerebellumserves as a control center in helping to coordinate physical movements.
Themidbrainalso is involved in the control of somemotor activities, especiallythose related to fighting
andsex.
Theforebrainevolvedmore recently than the hindbrain and midbrain and, therefore, forebrain is the site
of most sensory, emotional, andcognitive processes. These higher mental processes of the forebrainare
linkedwith the midbrain andhindbrain by the limbic system.
Thelimbic system is made up of a variety of different brain structuresthat are central to the regulation of
emotionand basic learning processes.
Two of the most important components of the limbic system are the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
Thethalamusis involved in receiving and integrating sensory information fromboth the sense organsand
higher brain structures. Thehypothalamuscontrols basic biological urges, such as eating, drinking,and
sexualactivity.
Most of the forebrain is composed of the twocerebralhemispheres. In general, the leftcerebral hemisphere is
involved in language and related functions, and the rightcerebral hemisphere is involved in spatial organization
andanalysis. The two cerebralhemispheres are connected by the corpuscallosum, which is involved in
coordinating the different functions thatare performed by the leftand the right hemispheres of the brain.
Thecerebralcortex is the uneven surface area of the brain that lies just underneath the skull. It is the site
of the control and integration of sophisticated memory, sensory, andmotor functions. The cerebral cortex
is divided into fourlobes.
Thefrontal lobe is involved in controlling a number of complex functions, including reasoning,planning,
emotion,speech, and movement. Theparietal lobe receivesand integrates sensoryinformation and also
plays a role in spatial reasoning.The temporal lobe processessound and smell, regulatesemotions, and is
involved in some aspects of learning, memory, andlanguage. The occipital lobe receivesand interprets
visualinformation.
Thebrain has three sections, the fore brain, the mid brainand the hind brain. It is in the forebrain that
thereare two cerebral hemispheresand the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The thalamusrelays
informationbetween CNS and the Cerebral Cortex. The hypothalamus regulates hunger, thirst,
temperature. Below the fore brain is the mid brain. The mid brain coordinates communication between
forebrainand hindbrain. The hindbrain has structures like the Pons, Medulla, ReticularActivating System
and it is connected to spinal cord. ThePons control sleep, dreamand the wake state of an individual,
Medullacontrol breathing and heartbeat.The reticular activating system screens the incoming information.
PeripheralNervous System
Theperipheralnervous system includesall connections that stemfrom the central nervoussystem
and innervate the body's muscles, sensorysystems, and organs.
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The peripheral nervous system itselfhas two subdivisions
1. The voluntary (intentional) somaticnervous system governsmuscular control.
2. The involuntary, autonomic nervoussystem regulates the functions of various bodyorgans,
such as the heart and stomach.The somatic nervous system controls intentional or voluntary
actions.
The autonomic nervous system is responsible for psycho-physiologicalreactions are responses thatoccur
withlittle or no conscious control.The autonomic nervous systemcan be subdivided into twobranches, the
sympatheticand parasympathetic nervoussystems. Psycho-physiologicalover-arousal andunder-arousal
bothmay contribute to abnormal behavior.For example, over-activity of the autonomic nervous system (a
poundingheart and sweaty hands)has been linked withexcessive anxiety. In contrast, chronic autonomic
under-arousalmay explain some of the indifference to social rulesand the failure to learnfrom punishment
found in antisocial personality disorder.
The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic andpara-sympathetic components.
The sympathetic component is active during time of intense arousal i.e.emergency whereas the
parasympathetic component is associated with rest or normal level functioning. Whenever an emergency
situation arises, the sympathetic component is activated and all arebodily indicators such as heartbeat,pulse
rate,body temperature, breathing rate is increased from the normal level to meat the emergency situation
such as (fight or flight). Aftersome time when the fight andflight situation is over, the body must return to
itsnormal level of functioning so thatall our internal organs should not be tired and wired out.
Psychosocialinfluences on brain structures and functions
Psychosocialinfluences on brain can be studied by the case of a manwho had been successful as an
accountant,husband and father. He had a brain surgery for a braintumor after his surgery, he returned to
workbut he failed in his job,separated from his familyand got involved in lengthy and un-controllable
compulsiverituals. Most of his time was consumed washing,dressing and rearranging hisroom. So he was
suffering from OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) for this case, the lesion in the brain while operating
his brain, tumor might be responsiblefor his OCD.
A boy's mother was killed in an accident shortly after hisbirth. His legal fathermarried another woman
when the boy was three yearsold. The boy's stepmother began a course of physical andpsychological
abusethat will make you shiver. For years, the boy was locked in a closet. He was deprived of food and
water.His brother and sisterwould sneak food to him. He was even beaten by a broomstick. This extreme
abuseretarded the child's intellectual, emotionaland social growth.
A number of similar cases havebeen reported. Children after getting out of these constraints conditionsare
admitted in the psychiatric hospital resume theirnormal growth.
DavidSpiegel a psychiatrist at Stanford University in 1986, study 86 women with advance breastcancer.
Thisbreast cancer was expected to kill them within twoyear's time. The prognosiswas very poor. These
womenwere provided grouppsychotherapy to relieve their anxiety, depression and pain. Allpatient had
routinemedical care for theircancer, in addition 50 patient of the 86 met with their therapist for
psychotherapyonce a week in small groups.Dr. Spiegel's therapy didmagic, the group receiving therapy
livedtwice as long on average as the control group. These findings do not say thatpsychosocial
interventionscure advanced cancer, but they certainly point to one thingthat psychological factors affect
physicalprocesses involved in life threatening diseases. There is a good evidencethat reducing stressand
giving patient's better cooping procedures and a sense of control seems to boost immune system
functioning.
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William Greenough and his colleagues in 1990 studied that the nervous system of the ratsraised in enriched
highlystimulated environment developed differently from those ratsthat were couch potatoes.The active
ratshad many more connectionsbetween nerve cells in the Cerebellum and grew manymore dendrites.
Through this experiment, the scientists learnthat our nervous system is constantly changing as a result of
learning and experience even in oldage and some of thesechanges arepermanent.
The biomedical model takes in to account the concept of disease, the tiesbetween brain and
psychopathology, the link between biologicaland environmentalstress.
Psychoanalytic Model
This model studies psychopathology withreference to unconscious, childhoodexperiences andintra-
psychicconflict.
Psychoanalysiswas pioneered by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). He learned the art of Hypnosis in France. He
experimented with somewhat differentprocedures of Hypnosis. He used Hypnosis in an innovative way.
He encouraged his patients to talk freely about theirproblems, conflicts and fears.He discovered the
unconsciousmind and its influence in psychopathology by using the techniques of Free Association, Dream
Analysisand Freudian Slips.
Structure of the mind: According to Freud the mindconsists of Id ­ which operates on pleasure principle, it
is childish and immature. Libido provides energy to Id, Ego andSuperego. Ego operates on Reality
Principle and it is the master control.It works on logic and reason .The Superego it operates on the moral
principleand it is the conscience of the Psyche.The Ego mediates andresolves conflict between Id and
Superego.
DefenseMechanism or CopingStyles
TheEgo battles with Id andSuperego to resolve conflicts, at times the resulting anxiety is so overwhelming
that the Ego has to adoptunconscious protective processescalled Ego DefenseMechanisms or Coping
Styles.They have followingcharacteristics in common
a.  Operate at unconscious level.
b. Distort reality.
c.   Protect the Ego.
d. All normal and abnormal individuals both use these in their daily life.
Someimportant ego defensemechanisms arefollowing
1-Denial 2- Displacement, 3- Projection, 4- Reactionformation, 5- Repression, 6-Rationalization, 7-
Sublimation.
Psychosexual Theory of Development
Freud proposed a theory of development. This is known as the psychosexual theory of development. The
mainemphasis in this theory is on the physical and psychological development.
Psychosexualtheory of development
1. Oral stage -birth to18 months
2. Anal stage-18 months to 3 years
3. Phallic stage -3 to 6 years
4. Latency stage
5. Genital stage-6 to 12 years
Thestages of development represent patterns of gratifying our basic the needs, those needs whichare not
gratifiedappear as fixations or psychopathologies at later adulthood
Oralstage fixations include fingernailbiting, chewingpencils.
Freud is the first personality theorist to discuss the developmental perspective in the study of abnormal
behavior.
Psychoanalytic- Therapy It focuses on unconscious processes, conflicts and pastexperiences.
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LESSON 13
CAUSES OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Throughouthistory, the search forexplanations of the causes of abnormal behavior dates to ancienttimes,
the ancient records attribute abnormal behavior to the disfavor of the gods or the mischief of demons.
Modelsfor Studying Psychopathology
·
Biomedical Model
·
PsychoanalyticalModel
·
Humanistic model
·
Behavioral model
·
CognitiveModel
TheseModels try to explain the cause of individual AbnormalBehavior. Each model representsits own
individualinterpretation of psychopathology andrecommends its individual treatment procedures. So allthe
modelstry to answer the question that
·  Why it is that someone is acting so strange?
·  What is the cause of abnormal behavior?
Biological model and Psychoanalytic Model
Thebiological model seems to answer this question with reference to the concepts of genetics and
neuroscience.The psychoanalytic model focuses on unconscious, childhood andpsychosexual
development.
Thesemodels have been fullycovered in lecture no 11 and12
HumanisticModel
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
He presented a need theory, in form of a hierarchy. In order to understand his theory,imagine a triangle
whichhas a broad base and a narrow top. The basic survival needs are at the base of the triangle where as
the need of self esteem, loveand self actualization canonly be satisfied when needs at the lower level have
beensatisfied.
Hierarchy of Needs
1. Self Actualization.
2. Self Esteem
3. Love andbelongingness
4. Safety
5. Physiological
Empathyand Unconditional Positive Regardare the central concepts of Roger's approach.
Empathyrefers to understand the client's problemfrom client'sperspective.
Example
Parentsand teachers try hard to understand the problems of theirchildren and students by using their
children's and student's frame of reference.
Unconditionalpositive regard is to give respect and dignity to everyindividual because he is a human
being not because of some reasonthat he is rich, educated, handsomeetc
Example
Thesweeper, who cleans yourhome daily, should getunconditional positive regardfrom you simply
because he is a human being and notbecause that he works at yourhome.
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BehavioralModel
This model emphasizes the overt (observable)behavior of the person and the environmental influences on
it.
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
It is a type of learning, where a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus,acquires the status
of conditioned stimulus andleads to the desiredresponse.
·  Unconditionedstimulus (UCS) is a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to a response.
Unconditionedmeans "unlearned" or "naturallyoccurring."
·  Unconditionedresponse (UCR) is a response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
Example:
A dangerous situation produces fear in a person without any prior learning or conditioning .The dangerous
situation is the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)and the fear reaction is the unconditioned response (UCR)
Theyoccurs naturally. A neutral stimulusdoes not produce a responsebut when neutral stimulus is
repeatedly paired with dangerous situation it becomes conditioned stimulus(CS) capable of producing the
fearresponse.
Conditionedstimulus (CS): stimulus thatbecomes able to produce a learnedresponse by being paired with
the original unconditionedstimulus.
­
Conditionedmeans "learned."
­
A neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned
stimulus.--
­
Conditioned
response
(CR)
-
learned
response
to
a
conditioned
stimulus.
UCR
UCS
Startle
LoudNoise
(Fear)
UCR
CS
UCS
Startle
WHITE RAT
LoudNoise
(Fear)
CR
CS
Startle
WHITE RAT
(Fear)
Watsonworked on an 11 month old,little Albert to acquire the phobia of white furyobjects. Albert was
not afraid of white rat and he use to play with white rat. Theloud noise was UCSwhich lead to UCR of
being startle (fear), now loudnoise was paired withwhite rat, on repeatedtrials the pairing of UCS(loud
noise)with CS( white rat) lead to new type of learning called conditioning . Now CS (white rat) led to CR
(startle or fear)
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Example
Whensome mothers in our culture, create phobia of darkness in children, by saying that `a jinn willcome
outfrom the darkness and eat them.'
Operant Conditioning
It was pioneered by B.F. Skinner. Operant Conditioning is concerned with the consequences of behavior
i.e. the probability whether a response willincrease or decrease with reinforcement.
A result card with goodgrades is rewarded, so the probability of this response of working hard for a result
cardwith good grades willincrease.
·  Operant conditioning is the learning of behavior through the effects of pleasant andunpleasant
consequences to responses.
·  Thorndike's Law of Effect - lawstating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable
consequence, it will tend to be repeated,and if followed by an unpleasantconsequence, it willtend
not to be repeated.
·  Behaviorist wants to study onlyobservable, measurablebehavior.
·  Reinforcement- any event or stimulus that when following a response, increases the probability
that the response will occuragain.
·  Positivereinforcement - the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a
pleasurablestimulus.
·  Negative reinforcement - the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escapefrom, or
avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.
·  Punishment - any event or object that, when following a response, makes thatresponse less likely
to happen again.
Observational Learning or Modeling
Stanford university professor, Albert Bandura, pioneered the analysis of observational learning or modeling
which is process of learning behavior by observing others. It is learning throughimitation.
Example
Aggressivebehavior can be learned by observing others. Adult models punchedand abused "a bobodoll"
whilechildren watched and were later permitted to play with the samedoll and children imitated aggressive
behaviors as observed.
Social learning theory by Bandura purposes,that behavior is the product of both external stimulusevents
andinternal cognitiveprocess.
Cultural,Social and InterpersonalFactors
In various cultures around the world, people suffer from fear or phobiareactions. The cultural factors
influence the form and contents of psychopathology. Many disorders differ within a single culture and
within the same country. Fear andphobias are universal occurring across all cultures. Forexample: Children
living in war zones areas of the world are constantly under the fear of potentially life threatening events.
Social Effect
A large number of research studieshave shown that greater the number of frequency of socialrelationships,
the longer the individual is likely to live. A study was done on healthy volunteers. The authors measured the
participation of subjects in social relationships andits relation with otherfactors such as poor sleepquality
andincreased likely hood to catch cold. The surprisingresults were that greater the number of social types
lesser the chance of catching the cold. This shows social interpersonal factors influence psychological and
neurobiological(immune system). Schizophreniaand major depression occur in all cultures but they look
differentfrom one culture to another because, the individual symptoms are strongly influenced by social
and interpersonal context. Depression in the western culture is exhibited with a feeling of guilt and
inadequacy,whereas in developing countriesdepression is reflected in physicalsymptoms such as fatigue,
illness,aches and pains in differentparts of the body.
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SocialStigma
Psychologicaldisorders continue to carry stigma in our society. We in a developingsociety stillperceive
schizophrenia,depression, cancer as disorders about which you have to be hush up or to be secretive about
it.What will people think about it? How `I' and`my family' will livewith this stigma?
InterpersonalPsychotherapy (IPT)
This therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and interpersonal experiences. In IPT, the patient and
the therapist identify life stressesthat lead to psychological disorder and interpersonal problems in the
individual.The important interpersonal issuesrelate with marital conflict, acquiring a new job, that is job
change or change in relationships. This is a brief therapy, like cognitive behavioral therapy and ten to fifteen
sessionsare effective for problemssuch as depression.
Gender roles have strong effect on psychopathology. The likely hood of insectphobia or smallanimal
phobia is more prevalent to be among females as compare to 90% of the people with this phobia. Bulimia
Nervosa an eating disorder occurs almostentirely in young females. Almostall cultures emphasize on girls
to lean and thin. So girlsare under the pressure to eatless and appear lean.EmotionsCharlesDarwin some
134years ago in 1872, suggestedthat fear emotion is programmed in all animal andhumans i.e. if youare
caught in a road accident, or you areswimming in a river to saveyour life, well youare going throughfight
or flight response where you mobilize all your energy to escape the danger (flight) or to withstands it (fight).
Walter Cannon (1929) gave the concept of physiology of fear. In fear, your cardiovascularsystem is
activated,blood vessels constrict, excess of blood is redirected to musclesand always available to vital
organs.You have seen people in emergency to become whitewith fear, trembling with fear, hairs standings
on their ends, breathing becomesfaster, heartbeat increases,increased amount of glucose is releasedinto
the blood stream, pupils of eyes dilate, the mouth becomes dry, sweatbreaks out on the forehead.These are
all indicators or physiological responses of an individual going through an emotional state.The anxiety
disordersand mood disorders arecalled emotionaldisorders.
RichardLazarus (1968, 1991) whoproposed that change in an individual's environment, is perceived as
potential change in the person. The type of appraisal or perception you makedetermines the emotion
youare experiencing.
Forexample: If you see somebodyholding a gun in a dark alley, you willperceive this situation as dangerous
andexperience fear. But if youperceive that the person who is standing is insane and is holding a toy gun,
youwill not be afraid andscared, so cognition andemotion interact and form the basis of emotion of fear.
Cognitivemodel
Cognitive model is concerned with humancognition that how humanbeings perceive recognize, attend,
reasonand judge. This model includes:
1. Rational emotive behavior therapy. (AlbertEllis) 1962.
2. Cognitive theory of depression(Aaron Beck - 1967).
1. Rational emotive behavior therapy. (Albert Ellis)1962.
According to Albert Ellis, maladaptivebehavior results when people operate on misguided andinaccurate
assumptions.Ellis catalogued 11 irrationalbelieves responsible formaladaptive behavior. TheABC of
rational emotive behavior therapy is where:
A ­ Activating event,
B ­ Belief System and C ­
Emotional behavioral consequences.
Activating event A can cause unwanted emotionaland behavioral
consequences when filter through beliefsthat are irrational.
2. Cognitive Theory of Depression.
ForBeck, depressed people possess a negative cognitivetriad.
Becksays depressed individual see themselves as defeated, deprived anddiseased and their world as full of
road blocks and their futurewithout hope.
In today's world psychologistsstudy abnormal behavior notwith reference to one single model rather they
adopt the integrative approach which respond to all aspects of abnormal behavior.
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LESSON 14
CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
ETIOLOGICALFACTORS OF ABNORMALITY
We have talked about the different models of Psychology; each model representsits own unique
interpretation of the etiology and treatment of abnormal behavior. After studying each model we extracted
(located)some important factorsunderlying abnormality. From the study of biomedical model we have
located the biological factors of abnormality similarly, after going through the Psychoanalytic model,
Humanistic Model, Behavioral model and Cognitive model we extracted the psychologicalfactors,
emotionaland social factors. Allthese factors, they combine together in Bio-Psycho-Social approach or
multidimensional integrative approach. The biologicalfactors focus on genetics, the interaction of genes
andenvironment. This model also focuses on neuron, brain and spinal cord.
1-Biological Factors
a- Genes and its interaction withenvironment
·  b-Thestudy of neuro-anatomy and neurophysiology is the study neuroscience. The Neuron
Billions of tiny nervecells--neurons--form the basic building blocks of the brain. Each neuron
hasfour major anatomic components: the soma, or cell body, the dendrites, the axon, and the axon
terminal.
·  Thedendritesbranchout from the soma; they serve the primary function of receiving messages from
othercells. The axonis the trunk of the neuron. Messages are transmitted down the axon toward
othercells with which a given neuron communicates.
·  Scientistshave found that disruptions in the functioning of various neurotransmittersare present
amongsome people with mentaldisorders.
·  An oversupply of certain neurotransmitters is found in some mental disorders, an undersupply in
othercases, and disturbances in reuptake in other psychologicalproblems. Abnormalities in the
dopamine system in the brain may be involved in schizophrenia.
·  Otherevidence links the availability of various neurotransmitters withdepression, hyperactivity,
posttraumaticstress disorder, and manyother psychologicalproblems.
c- Major BrainStructures
·  Neuro-anatomists divide the brain into threesubdivisions: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the
forebrain.
·  Basicbodily functions areregulated by the structures of the hindbrain, which include the medulla,
pons,and cerebellum.
·  Themedullacontrols various bodily functionsinvolved in sustaining life,including heart rate,
bloodpressure, and respiration.
·  Theponsservesvarious functions in regulating stages of sleep.
·  Thecerebellumserves as a control center in helping to coordinate physical movements.
·  Themidbrainalso is involved in the control of somemotor activities, especiallythose related to
fightingand sex.
·  Theforebrainevolved more recently than the hindbrain and midbrain and, therefore, is the site of
mostsensory, emotional, and cognitiveprocesses. These higher mentalprocesses of the forebrain
arelinked with the midbrain andhindbrain by the limbic system.
·  Thelimbic system is made up of a variety of different brain structuresthat are central to the
regulation of emotion and basic learning processes.
·  d- Spinal cord is along bundle of neuronsthat carries messages to andfrom the body to the brain
that is responsible for a very fast,life saving reflexes.
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2-PSYCHOLOGICALFACTORS
·  HumanNature and Temperament
·  The writings of British psychiatrist John Bowlby greatly influenced psychologists'views about the
humanneed to form closerelationships. The heart of Bowlby's theory was the observation that
childrenform attachments early in life--special and selectivebonds with theircaregivers.
·  Bowlbybased his approach, known as attachmenttheory, on findings based on the study of animal
behavior.
·  Research on the effects of insecureor anxiousattachments--uncertain parent child relationships are a
product of inconsistent and unresponsive parenting during the first year of life--is of particular
relevance to the development of abnormal behavior.
·  The development of attachments, or moregenerally of affiliationwithother members of the same
species, is one of the two broad categories of social behaviors studied by psychologists.
·  One of the most important areas of research on individual differences in personality is the study of
temperament, characteristicstyles of relating to the world.
·  Individualdifferences in temperament may play a role in a number of psychologicaldisorders,
especially personality disorders and childbehavior problems.
·  Emotions,internal feeling states, are essential to human experience and to ourunderstanding of
mentaldisorders.
Learning and Cognition
Emotions,motivations, and temperamentalstyles can be modified, at least to some degree, by learning.
·  Cognitivetheories like Albert Ellis's REBT and Beck's Depressiontheory suggests that distorted
perceptions of reality cause people to becomedepressed.
·  A successful treatment based on this theoryencourages depressed people to be more scientific and
realistic in evaluating conclusions aboutthemselves.
The Sense of Self
Maslow'stheory of needs in whichself actualization is given importance.Self-esteem, valuingone's
abilities, is another important and muchdiscussed aspect of oursense of self. Evidence indicatesthat
highself-esteem is more of a product of success; similarly low self-esteemmay result from
psychologicalproblems.
LifeSpan Developments:
Lifespan developmental psychopathologists want to understand how differentperiods of development
influence, how stress and otherfactors have an impact on mental disorders. Eric Erickson (1982)
suggestedthat we go through eight major crisesduring our life andeach crisis is influenced by
biological maturation, social factors and the developmental stages we are passingthrough. Erickson
believe,"we grow and changeeven beyond 65." Duringolder adulthood, we lookback and viewour
lives as rewarding or as disappointing. Erickson's developmental theory is more comprehensiveand
advanced as compared to SigmundFreud's.
Theory
Developmental Stages
Period of Growth
Freud'sPsychosexual theory
Five
1st year to 12 years
Erick Erickson's developmental
Eight
1st year to 65 years and beyond
theory
Equifinality:
Equifinality is a construct which we frequentlyuse in developmental psychopathology to indicate that we
mustconsider a number of paths to a given disorder e.g. if we like to studyschizophrenia, we can study it its
delusionalsymptoms, or its difficulty in focusing attention or the state of delirium of the schizophrenics.
Researchersare exploring the differentpathways to a single disorder.
·  Development, or how people grow and change, is of basic importance to normal and abnormal
psychology.
·  A key developmental concept is thatpsychological growth can be characterized by various
developmentalstages--periods of time marked by age and/orsocial tasks during whichchildren
or adults face common socialand emotionalchallenges.
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·
Twoprominent theories thatdivided development into stagesare Freud's theory of psychosexual
development and Erickson's theory of psychosocialdevelopment.
Relationships and Psychopathology
·  Muchevidence links abnormal behaviorwith distressed or conflictedrelationships, still it often is
impossible to determine if troubled relationships actually cause abnormal behavior.
·  Example when an individual enjoys a large number of social relationships
·  Thefindings of this large body of research indicate that marital status(separation, divorce, second
marriage)and psychological problemsclearly are correlated.
Gender and Gender Roles
·  Genderand genderroles, expectationsregarding the appropriate behavior of males or females,
candramatically affect social relationships and social interaction.
·  Gender roles may influence the development, expression, or consequences of psychopathology.--
Prejudice and Poverty
·  An increased risk for psychologicaldisorders is associated with prejudice and poverty, the
conditions of poverty effect a large number of people in many ways.
SocietalValues
·  Broad social values also may influence the nature and development of abnormal behavior.
·  The broad practices, beliefs, andvalues of our society play a role in defining abnormal behaviorand
in shaping the scientific enterprise thatattempts to uncover the roots of psychopathology.
SYSTEMTHEORY
·  Systemstheory is an approach to integrating evidence on different contributions to abnormal
behavior.
·  Youcan think of systems theory as similar to the bio-psychosocial model or the multidimensional
integrative approach but systems theoryalso embraces several keyconcepts that deservesome
elaboration.
Holism
·  A central principle of systemstheory is holism, the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its
parts. A human being is more than the sum of a nervous system, an organ system, a circulatory
system,and so on.
·  We can appreciate the principle of holism if we contrast it with its scientific counterpoint,
reductionism.
·  Reductionism attempts to understand problems by focusing on smaller and smaller units, viewing
the smallest possible unit as the true or ultimate cause.
·  One approach is not right, while the others are wrong. Thelenses are just different,and each has
valuefor differentpurposes.
·  Causality Thecause of any one case of abnormal behavior occasionally can be located in one area
of biological, psychological, or socialfunctioning.
·  Morecommonly, however, understanding the causes of psychological problems involves a
multitude of causal influences, not in one single area of biological or psychological or social.
·  Thecause of any one case of abnormal behavior occasionally can be located in one area of
biological, psychological, or socialfunctioning.
Developmental Psychopathology
·  Developmental psychopathology is a new approach to abnormal psychologythat emphasizes the
importance of developmental norms which include age-graded averages--to determine what constitutes
abnormal behavior.
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Table of Contents:
  1. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY:PSYCHOSIS, Team approach in psychology
  2. WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:Dysfunction, Distress, Danger
  3. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Supernatural Model, Biological Model
  4. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Free association, Dream analysis
  5. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Humanistic Model, Classical Conditioning
  6. RESEARCH METHODS:To Read Research, To Evaluate Research, To increase marketability
  7. RESEARCH DESIGNS:Types of Variables, Confounding variables or extraneous
  8. EXPERIMENTAL REASEARCH DESIGNS:Control Groups, Placebo Control Groups
  9. GENETICS:Adoption Studies, Twin Studies, Sequential Design, Follow back studies
  10. RESEARCH ETHICS:Approval for the research project, Risk, Consent
  11. CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:Biological Dimensions
  12. THE STRUCTURE OF BRAIN:Peripheral Nervous System, Psychoanalytic Model
  13. CAUSES OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Biomedical Model, Humanistic model
  14. CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF ABNORMALITY
  15. CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT:Reliability, Test retest, Split Half
  16. DIAGNOSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS:The categorical approach, Prototypical approach
  17. EVALUATING SYSTEMS:Basic Issues in Assessment, Interviews
  18. ASSESSMENT of PERSONALITY:Advantages of MMPI-2, Intelligence Tests
  19. ASSESSMENT of PERSONALITY (2):Neuropsychological Tests, Biofeedback
  20. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Global Therapies, Individual therapy, Brief Historical Perspective
  21. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Problem based therapies, Gestalt therapy, Behavioral therapies
  22. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Ego Analysis, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Aversion Therapy
  23. PSYCHOTHERAPY:Humanistic Psychotherapy, Client-Centered Therapy, Gestalt therapy
  24. ANXIETY DISORDERS:THEORIES ABOUT ANXIETY DISORDERS
  25. ANXIETY DISORDERS:Social Phobias, Agoraphobia, Treating Phobias
  26. MOOD DISORDERS:Emotional Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Bipolar Disorders
  27. MOOD DISORDERS:DIAGNOSIS, Further Descriptions and Subtypes, Social Factors
  28. SUICIDE:PRECIPITATING FACTORS IN SUICIDE, VIEWS ON SUICIDE
  29. STRESS:Stress as a Life Event, Coping, Optimism, Health Behavior
  30. STRESS:Psychophysiological Responses to Stress, Health Behavior
  31. ACUTE AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS
  32. DISSOCIATIVE AND SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  33. DISSOCIATIVE and SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
  34. PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Causes of Personality Disorders, Motive
  35. PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Paranoid Personality, Schizoid Personality, The Diagnosis
  36. ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS:Poly Drug Use
  37. ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS:Integrated Systems
  38. SCHIZOPHRENIA:Prodromal Phase, Residual Phase, Negative symptoms
  39. SCHIZOPHRENIA:Related Psychotic Disorders, Causes of Schizophrenia
  40. DEMENTIA DELIRIUM AND AMNESTIC DISORDERS:DELIRIUM, Causes of Delirium
  41. DEMENTIA DELIRIUM AND AMNESTIC DISORDERS:Amnesia
  42. MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  43. MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  44. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD:Kinds of Internalizing Disorders
  45. LIFE CYCLE TRANSITIONS AND ADULT DEVELOPMENT:Aging