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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
Lesson 30
BUSINESS RISK FACED BY FIRM, OPERATING LEVERAGE, BREAK EVEN POINT&
RETURN ON EQUITY
Learning Objectives:
After going through this lecture, you would be able to have an understanding of the following topics
·  Business Risk faced by FIRM
·  Operating Leverage (OL)
·  Breakeven Point & ROE
In this lecture, we are going to continue our discussion on weighted average cost of capital and we
will begin our discussion on the concept of operating leverage. Both of these concepts are of the area
which we have stated in the previous lecture called capital structure.
In capital structure we decide what the distribution of debt and equity should be in the firm and it
is decided by the board of directors of the firm or company. The job of deciding what amount of debt
and equity one has is difficult.
So, the first thing is to calculate the cost of capital. so, the company has the option that it may
either go into money market or into the capital market to raise money either through debt or through
equity . Now, you might think the equity the company might raise has no cost. We all know that when a
company takes a loan it has to pay interest or mark up on it but often people think when it raise fund
through equity in stock exchange then there is no cost attached to it because they are not paying any
fixed rate of interest with regular intervals .but that is mistake because there is cost attached to it in form
of required rate of return which your stock holder expects to receive that and if company does not pay
that then the stock holder will sell their shares and the price of the share will go down .Therefore it is
important to calculate the cost of equity.
Now, let's combine all the cost associated with the debt, preferred stock and equity and
calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) of company that raise capital in all three
possible ways.
Example:
Suppose company ABC has equal amounts of debts, common stocks and preferred equity 1/3
each .in previous lecture, we calculated what the cost of debt was that was 11.2% then we calculated the
cost of preferred equity that was 16.7% and we also calculated the cost of common equity which was
22.7% it was the most difficult part of the WACC calculation now, it is easy because we are to apply
the %of three different forms of capital.
WACC= rDxD+rExE+rPEp
=11.2 %( 1/3) +16.5 %( 1/3) +22.7 %( 1/3)
=16.9%
Now, this is over all cost for a company .what does it mean? It means that it is the average cost
that company has to bear in order to use the capital of investors. The cost of debt or bond, preferred
equity and common stock this is the average of all three securities cost.
It means that the company should invest in a project where the rate of return is higher than
16.9% because it should be higher than the cost that it has to pay to the investors. Let's see the graph of
weighted average cost of capital compared to the security market line we discussed in capital asset
pricing model (CAPM).
It is important to understand this graph because it combines the market factors in the form of
SML as well as the company's internal cost in the form of WACC. It shows that what combinations of
the risk & return for a particular company to invest in or not.
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
SML ­ WACC Graph
Required
FEASIBLE REGION (where
SML Line
ROR rCE (%)
IRR of investment or
(EXTERNAL
project is more than SML
MARKET
and WACC)
criterion)
IRR < SML
1
WACC
Firm's own
WACC
3
IRR < WACC
2
(INTERNAL
rRF = T-
IRR <WACC < SML
criterion)
Bill rate
Beta Risk
The graph is a combine presentation of CAPM and WACC.it shows the expected return against
the market risk or beta. In graph, the upward sloping line is SML and it is the requirement for bond and
stocks in efficient markets where there are rational investors that are maintaining fully diversified
portfolio and where knowledge spread very quickly through the markets. The risk and return
combinations of all securities should lie on SML. The horizontal line is WACC which is fixed at 16.9%
we have just calculated it .This represents required rate of return. In other words, if the company invests
in any new project it should give a rate of return which is higher than 16.9% you see that the only
feasible reason where that company made investment is the area which I have shown filled up with dots
and this is higher then the SML and WACC. I have also made three crosses which represents that why
will not company invest in these areas? The first cross on right side X1 is showing rate of return which
is higher than WACC but lower than SML the company will not invest because it is not giving as much
rate of return as efficient market is offering .The second cross x2 is lower than WACC and SML and
cross three x3 is lower than WACC but it is on the SML again the company will not invest in these two
projects or regions.
It will invest only in dots regions on these two regions the cost is higher and the return is lower.
Debt
vs
Equity
from Firm's Point of View
Remember, that it is mentioned that generally speaking companies want to keep the balance
both in form of debt and equity. We have also mentioned that debt has a risk attached with it because
when we have to service the regular loan mark up or interest which will eat away your income and the
result will be net loss. you know that in income statement we deduct certain financial charges .it may be
due to many reasons because the company has to serve the debt .the other reason is that if the company
do not pay interest it may close down so, then why do companies take debt ?
Issuing Debt (or Leverage)
Advantages of Issuing Debt::
Limited fixed Interest payment - no share in profits
Limited Life
Interest Payment is an Expense i.e. Tax Deductible
Can Improve (or Amplify) the Return on Equity (ROE)
Disadvantages:
Debt adds to Company-specific Risk
If company doesn't pay Interest, it can be closed down
Issuing Equity (generally Common Equity or Ownership)
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
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Advantages of Issuing Equity:
Not required to pay fixed regular Dividends
Capital Structure is a Firm's Mix of Debt & Equity
Risks Faced by Firm:
Total Stand-Alone Risk of a Stock (from Risk and CAPM Theory):
Stock's Total Stand Alone Risk = Diversifiable + Market
Company-specific Risk: Unique, Diversifiable
Market Risk: Systematic, Not Diversifiable
Total Stand-Alone Risk of a FIRM (New)
Firm's Total Stand Alone Risk = Business + Financial
Business Risk:
It is defined as the Risk of All Assets & Operations (without debt). Includes both
Company-Specific (and Diversifiable) & Market Risks.
Financial Risk:
Additional Risk faced by Common Stockholders if Firm takes Debt. It is a pure debt-
related Risk.
Financial Risk (Investor's Point of View):
Suppose firm ABC had a Capital Structure of 100% Common Equity.  Then the
Management and Board of Directors of firm ABC then decide to reduce half of the equity and
take a loan (or Debt) instead. This affects the distribution of risk & return to the common
equity holders (or Owners). In other words, the Management of firm ABC has added a new kind
of investor. The debt holder faces almost no risk because he is "guaranteed" the Interest
payment at all costs whether or not the firm is making profit or whether or not the equity owners
are paid dividend. Debt holders eat away at the owners' (or equity holders') money at almost
no risk. So, naturally, the risk faced by equity holders increases because same Business Risk is
now shouldered by fewer Equity Shares. Risk per Share Increases. Generally Speaking,
Increasing Debt Shifts More Risk Upon the Shareholders. Therefore required ROR demanded
by the Common Equity Holder also increases (based on CAPM Theory).
Firm's Total Stand Alone Risk (Uncertainty in ROA & ROE):
Firm's Total Stand Alone Risk measured by the Uncertainty or Fluctuations in Possible outcomes
for Firm's Future overall ROR.
If Business has Debt & Equity (i.e. levered firm):
Firm's Overall ROR = ROA = Return on Assets = Return to Investors / Assets = (Net
Income + Interest) / Total Assets
Note: Total Assets = Total Liabilities = Debt + Equity
If Business is 100% Equity (or un-levered firm)
No Debt and No Interest.
Firm's Overall ROR = Net Income / Total Assets. For 100% Equity Firm, Total Assets =
Equity. So Overall ROR = Net Income / Equity = ROE!
Note: Net Income is also called Earnings.
Note: ROE does not equal rE (Required Rate of Return). ROE is Expected book return on Equity.
Used in Stock Valuation Formula to calculate "g" & "PVGO"
Fluctuations in ROE = "Basic Business Risk"
You should review Financial Accounting Ratios for better understanding of the above mentioned
concepts.
Basic Business Risk (Not Considering Debt):
Causes of High "Basic Business Risk" or Uncertainty or Volatility or "Instability" or "Shocks"
Large changes in Customers' Demand (seasonality)
Unstable Selling Price (unstable markets and retailers)
Uncertainty in Input Costs (raw material, labor, utilities)
Inability of Management to Change Operational Tactics and Strategy to Meet Changing
Environment
Ineffective Price Stabilization
Poor Product R&D and Planning
High Operating Leverage (OL)
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Many other causes
Operating Leverage (OL):
Formula = Fixed Costs / Total Costs
Concept: High OL Increases Risk: Customer Demand Falls but Fixed Costs remain high. So,
Small Decline in Sales Can Cause Large Decline in ROE.
Fixed Costs Across Different Industries:
Plant, Machinery, Equipment i.e. Power Plant, Cement, Steel, Textile Spinning
New Product Development, R&D Costs i.e. Pharma, Auto, IT
Highly Specialized & Skilled Workers i.e. IT
OL used in Capital Budgeting & Capital Structuring Decisions
Operating Leverage Application to Capital Budgeting
Example:
Comparing 2 Types of Technologies for Cement Manufacturing:
(1) Wet Process and (2) Dry Process. Different Total & Fixed Costs, Different OL.
Applications to Capital Budgeting
Different OL's, Different Breakeven Points, Different Risks,
Different Required ROR's
So, Different Discount Rates for 2 Technologies.
Affects Computation of NPV Investment Criterion
Breakeven Point: Quantity of Sales at which EBIT = 0 therefore ROE = 0.
EBIT = Op Revenue - Op Costs = Op Revenue - Variable Costs - Fixed
Costs = PQ - VQ - F. Where P= Product Price (Rs), Q= Quantity or #
Units Sold, V= Variable Cost (Rs), F= Fixed Cost (Rs). So IF EBIT = 0
then PQ-VQ-F = 0 so Breakeven Q = F / (P - V)
Visualizing Operating Leverage (OL)
Impact on Breakeven Point & Capital Budgeting
Revenues &
Sales REVENUE Line
Costs (Rupees)
Total COST Line
Technology A:
Technology A: Larger
Higher OL
OPERATING LOSS
(Cost > Revenue).
Total COST Line
More Risky
Technology B
Fixed Costs A
Breakeven A: Higher.
More Risky
Fixed Costs B
Sales Quantity
(# of Units)
*
*
QB
QA
Operating Leverage Application to Capital Structure
Applications to Capital Structure
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
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Example of 2 Types of Cement Manufacturing Technologies:  Different OL's has 2
Impacts:
Different Risks so Different Betas (CAPM Approach to Cost of Equity Capital),
Different WACC's for 2 Technologies. Affects Choice of Capital Mix (or Capital
Structure)
Different Fixed Costs, Different EBIT & NI, Different ROE's so Different
Dividend Growth Rates "g," (Gordon-Dividends Approach to Cost of Equity
Capital). So Different WACC's Affects Choice of Capital Mix.
Visualizing Operating Leverage (OL)
Impact on ROE & Capital Structure
Technology B: Lower OL:
Pro
Low Risk & Low ROE
bab
ility
Technology A: High OL,
(p)
High Risk & High ROE.
Risk B
Higher WACC
Risk A
Expected ROE
Expected ROE
= <ROE>B
= <ROE>A
Return on Equity (ROE) %
Now, let's talk in more detail about the operating leverage .in financial management the term leverage
refers to the little change in the amount of sales or quantity of sale that will affect the over all earning of
the company .
Operating leverage (OL)
=FIXED COSTS /TOTAL COSTS
A company supposes has operating leverage of suppose 50% or 0.5 it is considered to a high leverage.
Generally, it is more risky for a firm and the fixed cost does not change. So, the companies that has high
leverage are considered to be more risky .Now, the companies have to hire the skilled people and
technicians specially ,in the capital intensive industries .now, let's talk about the operating
leverage .let's take the example of cement industry there are two ways of technology if you want to set
a cement plant one is the old technology and the other is drying process new technology .these two
types have different costs .we have learnt that NPV formula is best for investment decisions in which
discount rate r is used which is the required rate of return .when OL associated with a firm is higher
then the risk also becomes higher .we need to understand the impact of operating leverage both
numerically ,and graphically .please go over the concepts of WACC and NPV.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Corporate Financing & Capital Structure,
  2. OBJECTIVES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FINANCIAL ASSETS AND FINANCIAL MARKETS:Real Assets, Bond
  3. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Basic Financial Statements, Profit & Loss account or Income Statement
  4. TIME VALUE OF MONEY:Discounting & Net Present Value (NPV), Interest Theory
  5. FINANCIAL FORECASTING AND FINANCIAL PLANNING:Planning Documents, Drawback of Percent of Sales Method
  6. PRESENT VALUE AND DISCOUNTING:Interest Rates for Discounting Calculations
  7. DISCOUNTING CASH FLOW ANALYSIS, ANNUITIES AND PERPETUITIES:Multiple Compounding
  8. CAPITAL BUDGETING AND CAPITAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES:Techniques of capital budgeting, Pay back period
  9. NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) AND INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR):RANKING TWO DIFFERENT INVESTMENTS
  10. PROJECT CASH FLOWS, PROJECT TIMING, COMPARING PROJECTS, AND MODIFIED INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (MIRR)
  11. SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING:SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING, SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
  12. CAPITAL RATIONING AND INTERPRETATION OF IRR AND NPV WITH LIMITED CAPITAL.:Types of Problems in Capital Rationing
  13. BONDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF BONDS:Textile Weaving Factory Case Study, Characteristics of bonds, Convertible Bonds
  14. BONDS’ VALUATION:Long Bond - Risk Theory, Bond Portfolio Theory, Interest Rate Tradeoff
  15. BONDS VALUATION AND YIELD ON BONDS:Present Value formula for the bond
  16. INTRODUCTION TO STOCKS AND STOCK VALUATION:Share Concept, Finite Investment
  17. COMMON STOCK PRICING AND DIVIDEND GROWTH MODELS:Preferred Stock, Perpetual Investment
  18. COMMON STOCKS – RATE OF RETURN AND EPS PRICING MODEL:Earnings per Share (EPS) Pricing Model
  19. INTRODUCTION TO RISK, RISK AND RETURN FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT:Diversifiable Risk, Diversification
  20. RISK FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT, PROBABILITY GRAPHS AND COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
  21. 2- STOCK PORTFOLIO THEORY, RISK AND EXPECTED RETURN:Diversification, Definition of Terms
  22. PORTFOLIO RISK ANALYSIS AND EFFICIENT PORTFOLIO MAPS
  23. EFFICIENT PORTFOLIOS, MARKET RISK AND CAPITAL MARKET LINE (CML):Market Risk & Portfolio Theory
  24. STOCK BETA, PORTFOLIO BETA AND INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY MARKET LINE:MARKET, Calculating Portfolio Beta
  25. STOCK BETAS &RISK, SML& RETURN AND STOCK PRICES IN EFFICIENT MARKS:Interpretation of Result
  26. SML GRAPH AND CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL:NPV Calculations & Capital Budgeting
  27. RISK AND PORTFOLIO THEORY, CAPM, CRITICISM OF CAPM AND APPLICATION OF RISK THEORY:Think Out of the Box
  28. INTRODUCTION TO DEBT, EFFICIENT MARKETS AND COST OF CAPITAL:Real Assets Markets, Debt vs. Equity
  29. WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL (WACC):Summary of Formulas
  30. BUSINESS RISK FACED BY FIRM, OPERATING LEVERAGE, BREAK EVEN POINT& RETURN ON EQUITY
  31. OPERATING LEVERAGE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, ROE, BREAK EVEN POINT AND BUSINESS RISK
  32. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Capital Structure Theory
  33. MODIFICATIONS IN MILLAR MODIGLIANI CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORY:Modified MM - With Bankruptcy Cost
  34. APPLICATION OF MILLER MODIGLIANI AND OTHER CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORIES:Problem of the theory
  35. NET INCOME AND TAX SHIELD APPROACHES TO WACC:Traditionalists -Real Markets Example
  36. MANAGEMENT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Practical Capital Structure Management
  37. DIVIDEND PAYOUT:Other Factors Affecting Dividend Policy, Residual Dividend Model
  38. APPLICATION OF RESIDUAL DIVIDEND MODEL:Dividend Payout Procedure, Dividend Schemes for Optimizing Share Price
  39. WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT:Impact of working capital on Firm Value, Monthly Cash Budget
  40. CASH MANAGEMENT AND WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING:Inventory Management, Accounts Receivables Management:
  41. SHORT TERM FINANCING, LONG TERM FINANCING AND LEASE FINANCING:
  42. LEASE FINANCING AND TYPES OF LEASE FINANCING:Sale & Lease-Back, Lease Analyses & Calculations
  43. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS:Leveraged Buy-Outs (LBO’s), Mergers - Good or Bad?
  44. INTERNATIONAL FINANCE (MULTINATIONAL FINANCE):Major Issues Faced by Multinationals
  45. FINAL REVIEW OF ENTIRE COURSE ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Financial Statements and Ratios