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Digital Logic Design

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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Lesson No. 41
READ AND WRITE CYCLES
The read cycle is shown. Figure 41.1a. The RAS and CAS signals are activated one
after the other to latch the multiplexed row and column addresses respectively applied at the
multiplexed address input lines. The R / W signal is activated to read data which is made
available on the DOUT data line.
RAS
CAS
R/W
Figure 41.1a DRAM Read Cycle
The write cycle is similar to the read cycle. Figure 41.1b. The row and column
addresses are applied at the multiplexed address inputs along with the strobe signals that
latch the row and column addresses in the row and column address latches respectively. The
write signal is activated allowing data placed at the DIN data line to be stored in the selected
memory cell.
RAS
CAS
R/W
Figure 41.1b DRAM Write Cycle
FAST Page Mode
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In a FAST Mode Page Access all the columns in the same row are either read or
written. A single row is considered to be a `Page' of memory storing data values in successive
memory locations. The FAST Mode Page Access allows faster memory read and access times
when reading successive data values stored in consecutive locations on the same row. The
row address is first latched by the RAS signal going low. The RAS signal remains low
throughout the Page Access. The CAS signal is toggled between high and low which selects
successive columns in the selected row. Data is read or written to successive column
locations. During the read cycle when CAS goes high the DOUT line is disabled. Therefore,
data on the DOUT line has to be latched by the external system before CAS goes high. Figure
41.2.
RAS
CAS
R/W
Figure 41.2
FAST Page Mode Read Cycle
Burst Refresh and Distributed Refresh
DRAM chips are refreshed using either the Burst Refresh Mode or the Distributed
Refresh Mode. In the Burst Refresh Mode, all rows in the DRAM chip are refreshed
consecutively in each refresh cycle. For a DRAM having a refresh cycle of 8 msec, a burst
refresh of all rows occurs once every 8 msec. During the refresh cycle the memory can not be
accessed for normal read and write operations, therefore the read/write operations are
suspended until the refresh cycle is completed.
In Distributed Mode, the refresh cycle is interspersed between normal read and write
cycles. For the 1024 x 1024 DRAM memory and a refresh cycle of 8 msec, each of the 1024
rows has to be refreshed in 7.8 microsec when Distributed refresh is used.
RAS only Refresh and CAS before RAS Refresh
The refresh cycles are of two types, RAS only refresh and CAS before RAS refresh.
In the RAS only refresh the RAS signal goes low latching the row address to be refreshed,
the CAS signal remains inactive high throughout the refresh cycle. An external counter is
used to provide the row addresses for the refresh operation. In the CAS before RAS refresh
mode, the CAS goes low before RAS goes low. This sequence activates an internal refresh
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
counter that generates the row address to be refreshed. This address is switched by the data
selector into the row decoder.
Types of DRAMs
There are several different types of DRAMS available.
·  Fast Page Mode DRAM: Compared to random access read/write, FAST Page Mode is
faster where successive columns on the same row are read/written in successively by
asserting the CAS strobe signal. The CAS signal when de-asserted, disables the DOUT
data line, therefore the next column address can not occur unless the data at the current
address is latched by the external system reading data from the DRAM. The access speed
of the DRAM during read operation is therefore limited by the external system latching the
data available on the DOUT line.
·  Extended Data Output (EDO) DRAM: The memory in its operation is similar to the FPM
DRAM, however the CAS signal doesn't disable the DOUT when it goes to its non-asserted
state. Thus the valid data on the DOUT line can be remain until the CAS signal is asserted
again to access the next column. Thus the next column address can be accessed before
the external system accepts the current data.
·
Synchronous DRAM: The DRAM operations are tied to a clock signal that also times the
microprocessor operations. This allows the DRAM to closely synchronize with the
microprocessor.
ROM Read-Only Memory
A ROM contains permanent data that can not be changed. Thus ROM memory does
not allow write operation. A ROM stores data that are used repeatedly in system applications,
such as tables, conversions, programmed instructions for system initialization and operation.
ROMs retain data when the power is turned off. ROMs are of different types.
·  Mask ROM: Data is permanently stored during the manufacturing process.
·  PROM: Programmable ROM allows storage of data by the user using a PROM
programmer. The PROM once programmed stores the data permanently.
·  EPROM: Erasable PROM allows erasing of stored data and reprogramming.
·  UV EPROM: Is a programmable ROM. Data is erased by exposing the PROM to Ultraviolet
light.
·  EEPROM: Electrically Erasable PROM is erased electrically. EEPROM allows in-circuit
programming and doesn't need to be removed from the circuit for erasure or programming.
Mask ROM
The structure of a storage cell in a Mask ROM is shown. Figure 41.3. The storage cell
in a Mask ROM is implemented using a MOS transistor. The Gate of the transistor is
connected to the row line and the output of the transistor is connected to the column line.
When a row is selected all the MOS transistors with their Gates connected to the row are
turned on and connect their high output to their respective column line. Transistors with their
GATE connections to the row removed are not turned on and the corresponding column lines
have a logic low output. During the manufacturing process the cells that store logic one have
the transistors configured with their Gates intact and cells having logic 0 have the transistors
configured with their Gate connections removed.
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Column
Column
Row
Row
+VDD
+VDD
Figure 41.3
ROM cell storing a logic 1 and logic 0
Address
Decoder
Row 0
0
Row 1
1
Address
Input
Lines
Row 2
2
Row 14
14
Row 15
15
Terminating
Resistors
Data
Output
0
1
2
6
7
Lines
Figure 41.4
General Architecture of a ROM
A 16 x 8 ROM is shown. Figure 41.4. A 4-bit address is decoded by a 4 x 16 decoder
which selects the appropriate row line. The MOSFETs connected to the selected row output
logic 1 on the respective column lines. The MOSFETs that are not connected output logic 0.
The terminating resistor connected to the end of each column line ensures that the output line
stays low when a MOSFET outputs logic 0.
The Internal Structure of Mask ROM chip is different from the simplified structure
shown in figure 41.4. A 256 x 4 ROM device is organized in the form of a 32 x 32 row-column
structure. The 8-bit address is split into a 5-bit row address which selects one out of the 32
rows and the remaining 3 bits are used to select 1 out of 8 column lines by four 8 x 1
Multiplexers. Figure 41.5.
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Figure 41.5
Internal structure of a 264 x 4 ROM
ROM Applications
The 264 x 4 ROM can be used as conversion table to convert 4-bit binary values to 4-
bit equivalent Gray Code values. The 4-bit code which is to be converted is applied as an
address at the 4-bit address input of the ROM. At each of the 256 locations corresponding to
the 256 addresses 256 Gray Code values are stored. The 4-bit Gray Code contents stored at
the first 16 locations of the ROM are shown. Table 41.1. ROM can also be used as a simple
table. Each location in the ROM stores a value which can be accessed by specifying the
location address. Look-Up tables used in computers can be implemented using ROMs.
Address
Data
0000
0000
0001
0001
0010
0011
0011
0010
0100
0110
0101
0111
0110
0101
0111
0100
1000
1100
1001
1101
1010
1111
1011
1110
1100
1010
1101
1011
1110
1001
1111
1000
Table 41.1
ROM programmed to convert 4-bit Binary to 4-bit Gray Code
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ROM Read Cycle & Access Time
The Access Time of a ROM is the time it takes for the data to appear at the Data
Output of the ROM chip after an address is applied at the address input lines. The access time
can also be measured with respect to the activation of the chip enable signal and the
appearance of the data at the output lines when address is already on the address lines.
Figure 41.6.
CS
Figure 41.6
Read Access Time of a ROM chip
PROM (Programmable ROMs)
The Mask ROM are programmed at the manufacturing time and can not e programmed
by the user. Mask ROM allows read-only operation. A PROM can be programmed once by the
user using a PROM Programmer. Once the PROM is programmed its contents can not be
erased and programmed again. PROM uses a fusible link to connect the output of the MOS
transistors to the column line. The row lines are permanently connected the gates of the
transistors. When the fuse is intact, logic high is seen on the column line when the
corresponding cell is selected. When the fuse is blown the column line outputs a logic low.
Figure 41.7.
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Figure 41.7
PROM array with fusible links
EPROM Erasable PROM
An EPROM is an Erasable PROM. The contents of the memory can be erased and the
memory can be reprogrammed. The EPROM uses NMOSFET array with an isolated-gate
structure. The isolated gate structure can store a charge for indefinite periods of time. The
data bits are represented by the presence or absence of gate charges. Erasure of data bit is
the removal of gate charge.
Two basic types of EPROMs are the Ultra Violet EPROM (UV EPROM) and the
Electrically Erasable EPROM (EEPROM). In the UV EPROM, the programming process
causes the electrons to be removed from the isolated gate. The UV EPROM has a quartz
window on the package through which the memory array is exposed to high-intensity UV
which causes the positive charge stored on the gate to neutralize after an exposure time of
few minutes. A typical UV EPROM memory chip is shown. Figure 41.8
CE / PGM
OE
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Figure 41.8
A 2 KB EPROM
The 2 KByte EPROM has 2K locations each storing a byte data value. Addressing 2K
locations requires 210 or 10 address lines A0 to A10. Each memory location stores a byte value,
therefore 8 data lines are required. To read data from the EPROM, the chip has to be selected
by setting the chip enable/program CE / PGM signal to active-low and the output enable OE is
set to logic low.
Programming EPROM
Programming the EPROM chip is done by applying a high dc voltage at the VPP pin and
setting the output enable OE to logic high. The data to be programmed is applied at the eight
data lines and the address at which the data is to be programmed is applied at the address
lines. A high level pulse is applied at the enable/program CE / PGM signal to program the data
at the required address. The entire EPROM is programmed by applying data values at the
data lines the corresponding address at the address input lines and high level pulses at the
CE / PGM pin.
EEPROM Electrically Erasable PROM
An electrically erasable PROM is programmed and erased by applying electric pulses.
Since this PROM does not need to be exposed to Ultra Violet light for erasing data therefore
the EEPROM can be rapidly programmed and erased in-circuit.
FLASH Memory
An ideal memory should have high density, have read/write capability, should be non-
volatile, have fast access time and should be cost effective. The ROM, PROM, EPROM,
EEPROM, SRAM and DRAM all exhibit some of these characteristics, however none of these
memories have all the mentioned characteristics except for the FLASH Memory.
FLASH memories have high density, that is, they store more information per unit area
as more storage cells are implemented per unit area. These memories have read/write
capability and are non-volatile and can store data for indefinite time period. The high density
FLASH memory cell is implemented using a single floating-gate MOS transistor. A data bit is
stored as a charge (logic 0) or the absence of a charge (logic 1) on the floating gate. The
amount of charge present o the floating gate determines if the transistor will turn and conduct
current from the drain to the source when a control voltage is applied at the Control rate during
the read operation. Figure 41.9
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Figure 41.9
MOS transistor with charge (logic 0) and no charge (logic 1)
FLASH Memory Operations
FLASH Memory operations are classified into
·  Programming Operation
·  Read Operation
·  Erase Operation
Programming Operation
Initially, all cells are at the logic 1 state, that is with no charge. The programming
Operations adds charge to the floating gate of those cells that are to store a logic 0. No charge
is added to those gates that are to store a logic 1. The charges are stored by applying a
positive voltage at the Control Gate with respect to the Source which attracts electrons to the
floating gate. Once the gate is charged it, retains the charge for years. Figure 41.10
Read Operation
During the read operation a positive voltage is applied to the MOS transistor control
gate. If a negative charge is stored on the gate then the positive read voltage is not sufficient
to overcome the negative charge therefore the transistor is not turned on. On the other hand if
there is no or small amount of negative charge stored, the positive read voltage is sufficient to
overcome the negative charge turning on the transistor. When the transistor is turned on there
is a current from the drain to the source of the cell transistor. The presence of this current is
sensed to indicate a 1. The absence of this current indicates a 0. Figure 41.10.
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Figure 41.10 FLASH Memory Cell programmed with logic 0 and logic 1
Figure 41.11 Read operation to read a logic 0 and a logic 1
Erase Operation
During the erase operation charge is removed from the memory cell. A sufficiently
large positive voltage is applied at the source with respect to the control gate. The voltage
applied across the control gate and source is opposite to the voltage applied during
programming. If charges are present on the gate, the positive voltage supply at the source
attracts the electrons depleting the gate. A FLASH memory is erased prior to programming.
Figure 41.12
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Figure 41.12 The Erase Operation of the FLASH Memory Cell
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Table of Contents:
  1. AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
  2. Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s & 2’s complement
  3. Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
  4. Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
  5. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
  6. AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
  7. DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
  8. Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorgan’s Theorems
  9. Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
  10. KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
  11. Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
  12. COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
  13. ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
  15. BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
  16. 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
  17. BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
  18. 2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
  19. Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
  20. OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
  21. OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
  22. Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
  23. APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
  24. Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
  25. Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
  26. THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
  27. Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
  28. Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
  29. Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
  30. DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
  31. NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
  32. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
  33. Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
  34. SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
  35. APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
  36. Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
  37. Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
  38. Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
  39. Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
  40. Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
  41. Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
  42. First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
  43. LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
  44. THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
  45. SUCCESSIVE –APPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER