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Digital Logic Design

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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Lesson No. 02
NUMBER SYSTEMS
Binary to Decimal conversion
Most real world quantities are represented in Decimal Number System. Digital Systems
on the other hand are based on the Binary Number System. Therefore, when converting from
the Digital Domain to the real-world, Binary numbers have to be represented in terms of their
Decimal equivalents.
The method used to convert from Binary to Decimal is the Sum-of-Weights method.
The Sum-of-Weights method has been used to represent the Caveman numbers Ć↑, ĆΩ↑∑
and the Binary numbers 10011 and 1011.101 in the first lecture.
1. Sum-of-Weights Method
Sum-of-weights as the name indicates sums the weights of the Binary Digits (bits) of a
Binary Number which is to be represented in Decimal. The Sum-of-Weights method can be
used to convert a Binary number of any magnitude to its equivalent Decimal representation.
In the Sum-of-Weights method an extended expression is written in terms of the Binary
Base Number 2 and the weights of the Binary number to be converted. The weights
correspond to each of the binary bits which are multiplied by the corresponding binary value.
Binary bits having the value 0 do not contribute any value towards the final sum expression.
The Binary number 101102 is therefore written in the form of an expression having
weights 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 corresponding to the bits 0, 1, 1, 0 and 1 respectively. Weights 20
and 23 do not contribute in the final sum as the binary bits corresponding to these weights
have the value 0.
= 1 x 24 + 0 x 23 + 1 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 0 x 20
101102
= 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0
= 22
2. Sum-of-non-zero terms
In the Sum-of-Weights method, the Binary bits 0 do not contribute towards the final
sum representing the decimal equivalent. Secondly, the weight of each binary bit increases by
a factor of 2 starting with a weight of 1 for the least significant bit. For example, the Binary
number 101102 has weights 20=1, 21=2, 22=4, 23=8 and 24=16 corresponding to the bits 0, 1,
1, 0 and 1 respectively.
The Sum-of-non-zero terms method is a quicker method to determine decimal
equivalents of binary numbers without resorting to writing an expression. In the Sum-of-non-
zero terms method the weights of non-zero binary bits are summed, as the weights of zero
binary bits do not contribute towards the final sum representing the decimal equivalent.
The weights of binary bits starting from the right most least significant bit is 1, The next
significant bit on the left has the weight 2, followed by 4, 8, 16, 32 etc. corresponding to higher
significant bits. In binary number system the weights of successive bits increase by an order of
2 towards the left side and decrease by an order of 2 towards the right side. Thus a binary
number can be quickly converted into its decimal equivalent by adding weights of non-zero
terms which increase by a factor of 2. Binary numbers having an integer and a fraction part
can similarly be converted into their decimal equivalents by applying the same method.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
A quicker method is to add the weights of non-zero terms. Thus for the numbers
o  100112 = 16 + 2 + 1 = 19
o  1011.1012 = 8 + 2 + 1 + Ĺ + 1/8 = 11 + 5/8 = 11.625
Decimal to Binary conversion
Conversion from Decimal to Binary number system is also essential to represent real-world
quantities in terms of Binary values. The Sum-of-weights and repeated division by 2 methods
are used to convert a Decimal number to equivalent Binary.
1. Sum-of-Weights
The Sum-of-weights method used to convert Binary numbers into their Decimal
equivalent is based on adding binary weights of the binary number bits. Converting back from
the decimal number to the original Binary number requires finding the highest weight included
in the sum representing the decimal equivalent. A Binary 1 is marked to represent the bit
which contributed its weight in the Sum representing the decimal equivalent. The weight is
subtracted from the sum decimal equivalent. The next highest weight included in the sum term
is found. A binary 1 is marked to represent the bit which contributed its weight in the sum term
and the weight is subtracted from the sum term. This process is repeated until the sum term
becomes equal to zero. The binary 1s and 0s represent the binary bits that contributed their
weight and bits that did not contribute any weight respectively.
The process of determining Binary equivalent of a Decimal number 392 and 411 is
illustrated in a tabular form. Table 2.1.
Sum Term
Highest
Binary
Sum Term
Weight
Number
= Sum Term ­ Highest Weight
411
256
100000000
155
155
128
110000000
27
27
16
110010000
11
11
8
110011000
3
3
2
110011010
1
1
1
110011011
0
Table 2.1a
Converting Decimal to Binary using Sum-of-Weights Method
Sum Term
Highest
Binary
Sum Term
Weight
Number
= Sum Term ­ Highest Weight
392
256
100000000
136
136
128
110000000
8
8
8
110001000
0
Table 2.1b
Converting Decimal to Binary using Sum-of-Weights Method
The Sum of weights method requires mental arithmetic and is a quick way of
converting small decimal numbers into binary. With practice large Decimal numbers can be
converted into Binary equivalents.
2. Repeated Division-by-2
Repeated Division-by-2 method allows decimal numbers of any magnitude to be
converted into binary. In this method the Decimal number to be converted into its Binary
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
equivalent is repeatedly divided by 2. The divisor is selected as 2 because the decimal number
is being converted into Binary a Base-2 Number system. Repeated division method can be
used to convert decimal number into any Number system by repeated division by the Base-
Number. For example, the decimal number can be converted into the Caveman Number
system by repeatedly dividing by 5, the Base number of the Caveman Number System. The
Repeated Division method will be used in latter lectures to convert decimal into Hexadecimal
and Octal Number Systems.
In the Repeated-Division method the Decimal number to be converted is divided by the
Base Number, in this particular case 2. A quotient value and a remainder value is generated,
both values are noted done. The remainder value in all subsequent divisions would be either a
0 or a 1. The quotient value obtained as a result of division by 2 is divided again by 2. The new
quotient and remainder values are again noted down. In each step of the repeated division
method the remainder values are noted down and the quotient values are repeatedly divided
by the base number. The process of repeated division stops when the quotient value becomes
zero. The remainders that have been noted in consecutive steps are written out to indicate the
Binary equivalent of the Original Decimal Number.
Number
Quotient after division
Remainder after division
392
196
0
196
98
0
98
49
0
49
24
1
24
12
0
12
6
0
6
3
0
3
1
1
1
0
1
Table 2.2
Converting Decimal to Binary using Repeated Division by 2 Method
The process of determining the Binary equivalent of a Decimal number 392 is
illustrated in a tabular form. Table 2.2. Reading the numbers in the Remainder column from
bottom to top 110001000 gives the binary equivalent of the decimal number 392
Converting Decimal fractions to Binary
Two methods are used to Convert Decimal fractions to Binary. The Sum-of-Weights
method, which has been described and used to convert Decimal Integers into Binary
Equivalents is applied to convert Decimal fractions into Binary fractions. This method requires
mental arithmetic and is suitable for small numbers. The conversion of Decimal fraction 0.625
into Binary equivalent is illustrated in a tabular form. Table 2.3
Sum Term
Highest
Binary
Sum Term
Weight
Number
= Sum Term ­ Highest Weight
0.625
0.500
0.100
0.125
0.125
0.125
0.101
0
Table 2.3
Converting Decimal to Binary using Sum-of-Weights Method
Repeated Multiplication-by-2 Method
An alternate to the Sum-of-Weights method used to convert Decimal fractions to
equivalent Binary fractions is the repeated multiplication by 2 method. In this method the
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
number to be converted is repeatedly multiplied by the Base Number to which the number is
being converted to, in this case 2. A new number having an Integer part and a Fraction part is
generated after each multiplication. The Integer part is noted down and the fraction part is
again multiplied with the Base number 2. The process is repeated until the fraction term
becomes equal to zero.
Repeated Multiplication-by-2 method allows decimal fractions of any magnitude to be easily
converted into binary. The conversion of Decimal fraction 0.625 into Binary equivalent using
the Repeated Multiplication-by-2 method is illustrated in a tabular form. Table 2.4. Reading the
Integer column from bottom to top and placing a decimal point in the left most position gives
0.101 the binary equivalent of decimal fraction 0.625
Number
Integer part after
Fraction part after
multiplication
multiplication
0.625
1
0.25
0.25
0
0.5
0.5
1
0.0
Table 2.4 Converting Decimal to Binary using repeated Multiplication-by-2 Method
Binary Arithmetic
Digital systems use the Binary number system to represent numbers. Therefore these
systems should be capable of performing standard arithmetic operations on binary numbers.
1. Binary Addition
Binary Addition is identical to Decimal Addition. By adding two binary bits a Sum bit
and a Carry bit are generated. The only difference between the two additions is the range of
numbers used. In Binary Addition, four possibilities exist when two single bits are added
together. The four possible input combinations of two single bit binary numbers and their
corresponding Sum and Carry Outputs are specified in table 2.5.
First Number
Second Number
Sum
Carry
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
Table 2.5
Addition of two Single Bit Binary Numbers
The first three additions give a result 0, 1 and 1 respectively which can be represented
by a single binary digit (bit). The fourth addition results in the number 2, which can be
represented in binary as 102. Thus two digits (bits) are required. This is similar to the addition
of 9 + 3 in decimal. The answer is 12 which can not be represented by a single digit, thus two
digits are required. The number 2 is the sum part and 1 is the carry part.
Any number of binary numbers having any number of digits can be added together.
Thus the number 1011, 110, 1000 and 11 can be added together. Most significant digits (bits)
of second and fourth numbers are assumed to be zero.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Carry
1
10
1
Decimal
Equivalent
1st Number
1
0
1
1
(11)
2nd Number
1
1
0
(06)
3rd Number
1
0
0
0
(08)
4th Number
1
1
(03)
Result
1
1
1
0
0
(28)
Table 2.6
Adding multiple binary numbers of different sizes
2. Binary Subtraction
Binary Subtraction is identical to Decimal Subtraction. The only difference between the
two is the range of numbers. Subtracting two single bit binary numbers results in a difference
bit and a borrow bit. The four possible input combinations of two single bit binary numbers and
their corresponding Difference and Borrow Outputs are specified in table 2.7. It is assumed
that the second number is subtracted from the first number.
First Number
Second Number
Difference
Borrow
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
Table 2.7
Subtraction of two Single Bit Binary Numbers
The second subtraction subtracts 1 from 0 for which a Borrow is required to make the
first digit equal to 2. The Difference is 1. This is similar to decimal subtraction when 17 is
subtracted from 21. The first digit 7 can not be subtracted from 1, therefore 10 is borrowed
from the next significant digit. Borrowing a 10 allows subtraction of 7 from 11 resulting in a
Difference of 4.
3. Binary Multiplication
Binary Multiplication is similar to the Decimal multiplication except for the range of
numbers. Four possible combinations of two single bit binary numbers and their products are
listed in table 2.8.
First Number
Second
Product
Number
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
Table 2.8
Multiplication of two Single Bit Binary Numbers
Multiplying two binary numbers such as 1101 x 101 is performed by a shift and add
operation. The binary multiplication shifts and adds partial product terms.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
1101
x 101
1101  1st product term
2nd product term
0000
3rd product term
1101
1000001
4. Binary Multiplication by shifting left
Binary Multiplication can be performed by shifting the binary number towards left. A left
shift by a single bit is equivalent to multiplication by 2. A left shift by two bits is equivalent to
multiplication by 4. Generally, the multiplication factor is determined by 2n where n is the
number of bit shifts.
00011
(3)
original binary number
00110
(6)
binary number shifted left by 1 bit
01100
(12)
binary number shifted left by 2 bits
11000
(24)
binary number shifted left by 3 bits
5. Binary Division
Division in binary follows the same procedure as in the division of decimal numbers. An
example illustrates the division of binary numbers. Figure 2.1.
10
101 | 1101
101
011
000
11
Figure 2.1
Binary Division
6. Binary Division by Shifting right
Binary Division can be performed by shifting the binary number towards right. A right
shift by a single bit is equivalent to division by 2. A right shift by two bits is equivalent to
division by 4. Generally, the division factor is determined by 2n where n is the number of bit
shifts.
10100
(20)
original binary number
01010
(10)
binary number shifted right by 1 bit
00101
(5)
binary number shifted right by 2 bits
Signed and Unsigned Binary Numbers
Digital systems not only handle positive numbers but both positive and negative
numbers. In the decimal number system positive numbers are identified by the + sign and
negative numbers are represented by the ­ sign.
In a digital system which uses the Binary number system, the positive and negative
signs can not be represented as + and -. As mentioned in the Overview all forms of numbers,
text, punctuation marks etc. are represented in the form of 1s and 0s. Thus the positive and
negative signs are also presented in terms of binary 0 and 1.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
To handle positive and negative binary numbers, the digital system sets aside the most
significant digit (bit) to represent the sign
 MSB set to 1 indicates a negative number
 MSB set to 0 indicates a positive number
Thus +13 and -13 are represented as 01101and 11101 respectively. The bits 1101
represent the number 13 and the MSBs 0 and 1 represent positive and negative signs
respectively. Thus binary numbers having the MSB signifying the Sign bit are treated as
Signed  Binary  Numbers.  This  representation  is  known  as  the  Signed-Magnitude
representation.
Digital systems also handle binary numbers which are assumed to be positive and
therefore do not have the most significant sign bit. Such numbers are known as Unsigned
numbers. Digital system thus have to handle two different types of binary numbers, signed and
unsigned. Thus 111012 represents -13 in signed binary and 29 in unsigned binary. How should
a Digital System treat a binary number? Should it consider it as a signed or unsigned number?
A digital system on its own can not decide how to handle a binary number. The digital system
has to be notified beforehand to deal with a certain binary representation as signed or
unsigned.
1's & 2's complement
Informing the digital system how to treat a binary number is not very efficient. A better
way is to represent negative signed numbers in their 2's complement form. Using 2's
Complement form to represent signed numbers, allows direct manipulation of positive as well
as negative numbers without having to worry about setting the most significant sign bit to
indicate positive and negative numbers.
A 2's complement of a number is obtained by first taking the 1's complement of a
number and then adding a 1 to change the 1's complement to 2's complement. 1's
complement of a number is obtained by simply inverting all its bits. Obtaining the 2's
complement of 13 is described in the example below.
01101
The number 13
10010
1's complement of 13 is obtained by inverting all the five bits.
+
1
10011
2's complement of 13 is obtained by adding a 1 to its 1's complement.
In a 2's complement number system all negative numbers are represented in their 2's
complement form and all positive numbers are represented in their actual form. Negative
numbers can be readily identified by their MSBs which are set to 1. Thus in a 2's complement
representation +13 is represented as 01101 and -13 is represented as 10011.
By having numbers represented in their 2's complement form addition and subtraction
operations can easily be performed without having to worry about the sign bits. Thus +13
added to -13 should result in a zero value. This can be verified by directly adding the +13 and -
13 in their 2's complement forms.
01101
10011
100000
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
The most significant carry bit is discarded; retaining only the first 5 bits proves that
adding +13 and -13 results in a zero value. Similarly it can be shown that adding the numbers
+7 and -13 results in -6.
10011
(-13)
00111
(+7)
11010
(-6)
The binary 2's complement number 11010 has its most significant bit set to 1 indicating
that the number is negative. The actual magnitude of the negative number is determined by
taking the 2's complement of 11010.
11010
Original number
00101
1's complement of Original number
+1
00110
2's complement of Original number is equal to 6.
Addition and Subtraction Operations with Signed Binary
An additional benefit of using 2's complement representation for signed numbers is that
both add and subtract operations can be performed by addition. In the above example 13 was
subtracted from 7 by adding 2's complement of -13 to 2's complement of +7. Four cases of
adding and subtracting numbers using the 2's complement representation are shown below.
Both numbers are positive
0101
+5
0010
+2
0111
+7
Both numbers are negative
1011
-5
1110
-2
11001
-7
the carry generated from the msb is discarded
One number is positive and its magnitude is larger than the negative number
0101
+5
1110
-2
10011
+3
the carry generated from the msb is discarded
One number is positive and its magnitude is smaller than the negative number
1011
-5
0010
+2
1101
-3
The four examples show that add and subtract operations can be carried out by an
adder circuit if numbers are represented in their 2's complement form. A separate circuit to
perform subtractions is not required.
Range of Signed and Unsigned Binary numbers
Three different types of Binary representations have been discussed. The Unsigned
Binary representation can only represent positive binary numbers. The Sign-Magnitude can
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
represent both positive and negative numbers. The 2's complement signed representation also
allows positive and negative numbers to be handled.
Each of the three binary number representations can represent certain range of binary
numbers determined by the total number of bits used.
The maximum range of values that can be represented in any number system depends
upon the number of digits assigned to represent the value. A 5-digit car odometer can only
count up to 99,999 and then it rolls back to 00000. Similarly an 8-digit calculator can only
handle integer numbers of the magnitude 99,999,999. A calculator that reserves the most
significant digit to write + or ­ can only handle a maximum range of integer numbers from -
9,999,999 to +9,999,999.
A 3-bit unsigned binary number can have values ranging between 000 and 111. Adding
100 and 111 unsigned numbers results in 1011, this result is considered to be out of range as
4 bits are required. Similarly a 4-bit sign magnitude number can handle a number range
between -7 and +7. -8 can not be represented as 5-bits are required 11000. A 4-bit 2's
complement based signed number range is between -8 to +7.
The table 2.9 shows the range of values that can be represented by the three Binary
representations using 4-bits.
Decimal
Sign-Magnitude
2's complement
Unsigned form
Number
form
form
-8
1000
-7
1111
1001
-6
1110
1010
-5
1101
1011
-4
1100
1100
-3
1011
1101
-2
1010
1110
-1
1001
1111
0
0000
0000
000
1
0001
0001
001
2
0010
0010
010
3
0011
0011
011
4
0100
0100
100
5
0101
0101
101
6
0110
0110
110
7
0111
0111
111
Table 2.9
Range of values represented by 4-bit Binary representations
Signed Magnitude representation can represent positive and negative numbers in the
range (2n-1-1) and -(2n-1-1) where n represents the number of bits.
2's complement signed representation can represent positive and negative numbers in the
range (2n-1-1) and -(2n-1) where n represents the number of bits.
The unsigned representation can represent positive numbers in the range 0 to 2n-1, where
n represents the number of bits.
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Table of Contents:
  1. AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
  2. Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1ís & 2ís complement
  3. Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
  4. Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
  5. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
  6. AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
  7. DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
  8. Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorganís Theorems
  9. Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
  10. KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
  11. Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
  12. COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
  13. ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
  15. BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
  16. 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
  17. BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
  18. 2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
  19. Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
  20. OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
  21. OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
  22. Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
  23. APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
  24. Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
  25. Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
  26. THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
  27. Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
  28. Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
  29. Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
  30. DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
  31. NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
  32. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
  33. Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
  34. SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
  35. APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
  36. Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
  37. Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
  38. Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
  39. Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
  40. Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
  41. Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
  42. First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
  43. LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
  44. THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
  45. SUCCESSIVE ĖAPPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER