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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 14
BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI)
Continuing from previous lectures, we are still at personality part of individuals. One can ask question
is Personality Stable? Behavior is a function of the situation and the person in the situation
People's personalities can be described in a variety of ways.1). Personality is the pattern of relatively
enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2). Personality is an important factor in
accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or
unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.
Behavioral and social-cognitive theories: Reciprocal determinism: the person, the person's behavior,
and the environment all influence one another. Organizational Culture, Values, beliefs, attitudes and
assumptions put into Action through behavior. To understand it better, we need discuss other models on
this subject.
The Big Five Model of Personality: An impressive body of research supports that five basic
dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. The five basic dimensions are:
Extraversion: Comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and
sociable. Interesting in getting ahead, Leading through influencing, Individuals are outgoing; Likes to
meet new people and willing to confront others. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
Agreeableness: Individual's propensity to defer to others. High agreeableness people--cooperative,
warm, and trusting. Traits related to getting along with others. Characteristics include warm, easygoing,
compassionate, friendly, and sociable. Individuals typically are sociable and have lots of friends. Low
agreeableness people--cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
Conscientiousness: A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person is responsible, organized,
dependable, and persistent. Includes traits related to achievement. Traits include high credibility,
conformity, and organization. Individuals typically work hard and put in extra time and effort to meet
goals. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.
Emotional stability: A person's ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability
tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. The fine line between stable and unstable. Stable is being
calm, good under pressure, relaxed, and secure. Unstable is nervous, poor under pressure, insecure.
Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
Openness to experience: The range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people
are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Trait related to being willing to change and try new
things. Individuals typically are willing to take calculated risks. Those at the other end of the openness
category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
What the MBTI? MBTI is an inventory of preferences for behavior and not a diagnostic psychological
test for identifying dysfunction or abilities. It tells you about your preferences for orienting yourself in
the world, and for gathering information and making decisions.
Katharine Briggs & Isabel Myers, mother-daughter team developed Jung's types into the Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). There are four categories, each with two sub-categories are as follows;
The 4 dimensions: Personality type dependent on 4 dimensions: It is a 100-question personality test
that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Individuals are classified as:
1. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).
2. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).
3. Thinking or feeling (T or F).
4. Perceiving or judging (P or J).
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:
INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas
and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and
often stubborn.
ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural
head for business or mechanics.
The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and
attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging
problems but may neglect routine assignments.
But also keep in your mind that each pair is of preferences for behavior. They are not measures of
ability.
History:
1920's ­ Carl Jung posits that there are underlying personality types
1940's ­ Katharine Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers build on Jung's work and create the MBTI
test
1970's ­ Serious work to link MBTI types to careers, love matches, etc.
Today ­ MBTI widely used in educational, corporate settings
Jung's Core Idea in Psychological Types: When your mind is active, one of two mental activities is
occurring:
Perceiving - taking in information
Judging - organizing that information & reaching conclusions
The MBTI Sub-Categories:
Extraversion -------------------- Introversion
Sensing ---------------------------- iNtuition
Thinking ---------------------------- Feeling
Judging --------------------------- Perceiving
Sub-Categories Defined
Focus Attention:
­ Extraversion - direct & receive energy from outer world
­ Introversion - direct & receive energy from inner world
Take in Data:
­ Sensing - data from the five senses
­ iNtuition - data from perception of meaning; gut-feeling
Make Decisions:
­ Thinking - logical, objective, analytical approach
­ Feeling - value-centered, subjective (likes & dislikes)
Orientation to Outer World:
­ Judging - live ordered, structured, planned lives
­ Perceiving - flexible, spontaneous orientation
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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MBTI Applications in Organizations:
Management/career development
Interpersonal communications skills
Decision making/problem solving styles
Management/leadership styles
Organizational change
Teambuilding
Handling Diversity
Conflict management
Energy
Extraversion
Introversion
The Extraverted person directs and receives
The Introverted person directs and receives
energy from the outside world.
energy from the inner world.
prefers action over reflection
prefers reflection over action
prefers oral communication
prefers written communication
shares thoughts freely
guards thoughts until they are (almost) perfect
acts and responds quickly
reflects and thinks deeply
enjoys working in groups
enjoys working alone or with only one or two
others
Energy Source:
Introvert
Extravert
Talkative
Meditative
Open
Reserved
External
Internal
With a group
Alone
Talks first
Thinks first
Information Gathering:
Sensing
iNtuition
The  Sensing  person  prefers  to  gather
The  iNtuitive  person  prefers  to  gather
information in a precise and exact manner.
information in an inspired or novel manner.
Likes specific examples
Likes general concepts
Prefers following an agenda
Departs from the agenda if necessary
Emphasizes the practical
Emphasizes the theoretical
Seeks predictability
Desires change
Sees difficulties as problems
Sees difficulties as opportunities
that need specific solutions
for further exploration
Focuses on immediate applications of a
Focuses on future possibilities
situation
of a situation
Wants to know what is
Wants to know what could be
Information Gathering
Intuitors
Sensors
Facts
Possibilities
Present
Future
Tangible
Abstract
Practical
Imaginative
5 Senses
"6th Sense"
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
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Decision Making:
Thinking
Feeling
A Thinking person seeks general truths and
A  Feeling  person  seeks  individual  and
objectivity when making decisions.
interpersonal harmony when making decisions.
questions first
accepts first
knows when reason is needed
knows when support is needed
wants things to be logical
Wants things to be pleasant
remains detached when making decisions
remains personally involved when making
decisions
controls the expression of feelings
expresses feeling with enthusiasm
overlooks people in favor of tasks
overlooks tasks in favor of people
Decision Making
Feelers
Thinkers
Objective
Subjective
Impersonal
Interpersonal
Justice
Mercy
Why
Who
Head
Heart
Lifestyle:
Judging
Perceiving..
The Judging person likes to come to closure
The Perceiving person prefers to remain open
and act on a decision.
and adapt to new information.
Likes things to be settled and ordered
Likes things to be flexible and open
Finishes tasks before the deadline
Finishes tasks at the deadline
Focuses on goals, results, and achievements
Focuses on processes, options, and openings
Establishes deadlines
Dislikes deadlines
Prefers no surprises
Enjoys surprises
Quickly commits to plans or decisions
Reserves the right to change plans or decisions
Life Style:
Judgers
Spontaneous /Perceiver
Decisive
Curious
Definite
Optional
Deadline
Guideline
Closure
Open-ended
Now
Later
The MBTI Sub-Categories:
Extraversion -------------------- Introversion
E
I
Sensing ---------------------------- iNtuition
S
N
Thinking ---------------------------- Feeling
T
F
Judging --------------------------- Perceiving
J
P
There are no "good" or "bad" type's only different types. Each preference type has a contribution to
make to effective teamwork. Each needs the opportunity to make a contribution based upon strengths.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature